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There is a lack of region-adapted tools to evaluate diet as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adolescents. The study aim was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a paper-based and region-adapted food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to assess CVD-related food and nutrient intakes of adolescents from Northwest México. The study design was cross-sectional. The FFQ was developed in a two-step process: prototype designing and a pilot test, with re-tested in a 3-month period, along with two administrations of 24 h-recall (24 hR). Pearson's and intra-class correlation coefficients (PCC and ICC) were assessed. Bland–Altman plots, limits of agreement and quintile classifications were carried out. Participants (n 221) were 53·8 % male, 18·5 ± 0·4 years old. Reproducibility had a median PCC = 0·66 for processed meats, ranging from 0·40 (saturated fat) to 0·74 (fish & shellfish), P = 0·001. ICC ranged from 0·53 (saturated fat) to 0·80 (sodium; and nuts, seeds and legumes), P = 0·001. Validity comparing FFQ1 v. 24 hR mean, PCCs ranged from 0·12 (P = 0·06) to 0·95 (P = 0·001), and ICC from 0·20 (P = 0·048) to 0·88 (P = 0·001); comparing FFQ2 v. 24 hR mean, PCCs ranged from 0·07 (P = 0·25) to 0·46 (P = 0·001), and ICC from 0·15 (P = 0·106) to 0·58 (P = 0·001). The FFQ overestimated the intake of all food groups and nutrients (P < 0·05), while Cohen's κ showed coefficients lower than 0·20. The proposed FFQ represents a moderately validated tool to estimate CVD-related food and nutrient intakes as a risk factor, which can be used in combination with multiple administrations of 24 hRs, as a critical mean in future interventions intended to reduce cardiometabolic risk in adolescents.
Astronauts will encounter isolated, confined and extreme (ICE) conditions during future missions, and will have to be able to adapt. Until recently, however, few places on Earth could serve as acceptable space analogues (i.e., submarine and polar regions). The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related lockdowns around the globe provided a good opportunity to obtain more comprehensive datasets on the impact of prolonged isolation on human functioning in a very large sample.
Seven hundred forty-eight individuals (Belgium 442, Spain 183, Germany 50, Italy 50, US 23; Mean age ± SD: 41 ± 14 years, with an age range of 18–83 years; 66% women) filled out an online survey assessing the impact of the COVID-lockdown on psychological, exercise and general health variables a first time near the beginning of the initial lockdown (hereafter ‘T1’; 24 ± 13 days after the start of the first lockdown; i.e., 3 weeks after the start of the first lockdown) and a second time a couple of weeks thereafter (hereafter ‘T2’; 17 ± 5 days after the first online survey; i.e., 6 weeks after the start of the first lockdown).
From T1 to T2 an improvement of subjective sleep quality was observed (P = 0.003), that was related to an increase in subjective sleep efficiency and a decrease in sleep latency and disturbance (P ≤ 0.013). Weekly sitting time decreased, and the weekly amount of moderate and vigorous physical activity increased from T1 to T2 (P ≤ 0.049). No differences from T1 to T2 were observed in terms of mood, loneliness and state anxiety. A lower amount of sitting time was significantly correlated with improved subjective sleep quality (r = 0.096, P = 0.035) and with an increased amount of moderate (r = −0.126, P = 0.005) and vigorous (r = −0.110, P = 0.015) physical activity.
Compared to 3 weeks into the first COVID-imposed lockdown, 6-weeks after the start of the first COVID-imposed lockdown, physical activity and subjective sleep scores were positively impacted. The present, large sample size study further confirms exercise as a worthwhile countermeasure to psycho-physiological deconditioning during confinement.
The PapSEEK test is an emerging minimally invasive technique in which samples are collected from the endocervical or intrauterine cavity with the Papanicolaou (Pap) brush or the Tao brush to detect somatic mutations or aneuploidies indicating the presence of endometrial or ovarian cancer.
We systematically searched for articles published up to October 2020 in the following electronic databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. We included experimental studies, observational primary studies, and cost-effectiveness studies evaluating the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the PapSEEK test for the early detection of ovarian or endometrial cancer. Relevant outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, the coefficient of variation, re-test rates, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, the incremental cost-utility ratio, and the cost of each alternative.
A single relevant retrospective study was identified. In this study, samples from women with endometrial cancer (n = 656) and ovarian cancer (n = 254) were collected with the Pap brush and Tao brush and compared with samples from healthy women (n = 1,002). The diagnostic validity for somatic mutation or aneuploidies obtained with a Pap brush had a sensitivity of 81% for endometrial cancer and 33% for ovarian cancer, and a specificity of 99% for both conditions. When samples were collected from the intrauterine cavity with a Tao brush, the sensitivity increased to 93% for endometrial cancer and to 45% for ovarian cancer. The sensitivity of the PapSEEK test increased only for ovarian cancer when plasma samples to detect circulating tumor DNA were collected in addition to Pap smear samples. This strategy provided a diagnostic validity of 43%, which was higher in late-stage ovarian cancer (56% versus 35%), and a specificity of 100%.
Prospectively designed studies are required to assess the safety and effectiveness of the PapSEEK test in screening settings, as well as studies comparing the technology with conventional screening methods. No cost-effectiveness studies have been conducted for the PapSEEK test.
About 70 percent of metastatic breast, lung, and prostate cancers affect the bones. When this phase of the disease affects the spine, the mobility and quality of life of patients are severely impaired. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become a feasible option in the palliative treatment of vertebral metastases due to its minimal invasiveness and short procedure time. This health technology assessment report aimed to identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of RFA for vertebral metastases.
A systematic search was conducted to identify literature published from December 2016 to July 2019 in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Systematic reviews, randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, and case series studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of RFA in patients with vertebral metastases were included.
Sixteen studies were included: two systematic reviews, 13 case series studies, and one comparative study. None of the systematic reviews identified any randomized controlled trials. Of the 14 included primary studies, 10 evaluated RFA in combination with vertebroplasty, three evaluated RFA in combination with kyphoplasty, and one study evaluated a combination of RFA and radiation therapy. In all cases, the evaluated patients had different types of cancer (e.g., breast, lung, or liver). The follow-up periods varied between the studies from one day to 12 months. The most commonly used RFA devices were the STAR™ Tumour Ablation System (Merit Medical Systems) and the OsteoCool™ Radiofrequency Ablation System (Medtronic).
RFA reduces pain, improves functional capacity, and provides greater local control of disease, potentially giving patients a higher quality of life, even in the context of metastatic disease. Although there is evidence on the safety and efficacy of this technology for the palliative treatment of vertebral metastases, more studies with higher methodological quality are needed. There were no studies available on the cost effectiveness of RFA for this indication.
During the excavations carried out since 2017 in the House of the Mithraeum (Casa del Mitreo) in Mérida a collection of paintings was recovered from Room 11, which had been abandoned in the late 3rd c. CE after a fire. The remains included fragments of molded stucco cornices, with braided esparto grass ropes on the reverse that were used to attach them to the ceiling. This article presents the descriptive and technical study of the finds and their compositional analysis using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Data resulting from these analyses allow us to understand the fragments’ composition and technical execution, and even the possible circulation of workshops and raw materials.
El Niño cave, located on the south-eastern border of the Spanish Meseta, hosts a discontinuous sequence including Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic levels, along with Upper Palaeolithic and Levantine style paintings. It is a key site for understanding human occupations of inland Iberia during the Palaeolithic and early prehistory. This paper summarises the main results of a multidisciplinary project aimed at defining the prehistoric human occupations at the site.
The current COVID-19 pandemic has generated a series of changes in the daily routines of people, including children and teenagers, in an unprecedented way, which constitutes a global challenge in public health. Social isolation has been a prophylactic measure to prevent the spread of the virus; however, it has generated negative impacts on the physical and emotional health of parents, caregivers, children and teenagers around the world. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of confinement caused by the COVID-19 pandemic at the level of nutritional status, dietary and behavioural patterns of elementary school children and teenagers in a small town of Colombia. Anthropometric parameters such as BMI Z-score, waist circumference and waist/height ratio were evaluated in 266 school children and teenagers. A questionnaire with socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics and the KIDMED were applied to learn about nutritional aspects. A total of 102 students (38⋅3 %) were classified as having altered nutritional status, being 39 (14⋅7 %) classified as overweight and 36 (13⋅5 %) with obesity. The prevalence of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet was 12 %, 95 % CI (0⋅08, 0⋅16). Overweight was more prevalent in women (26/39, 66⋅7 %; P = 0⋅0439), and obesity was discreetly more frequent in men (19/36, 52⋅7 %; P = 0⋅7193). We observed a worrying nutritional, dietary and behavioural situation in the children and teenagers studied during the confinement associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This unveils the need to establish strategies and/or public policies in our town that help to promote an adequate biopsychosocial development of the paediatric patient and their family group.
Cognition heavily relies on social determinants and genetic background. Latin America comprises approximately 8% of the global population and faces unique challenges, many derived from specific demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as violence and inequality. While such factors have been described to influence mental health outcomes, no large-scale studies with Latin American population have been carried out. Therefore, we aim to describe the cognitive performance of a representative sample of Latin American individuals with schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical factors. Additionally, we aim to investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) relates to cognitive performance in patients and controls.
We included 1175 participants from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico): 864 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 unaffected subjects. All participants were part of projects that included cognitive evaluation with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and clinical assessments.
Patients showed worse cognitive performance than controls across all domains. Age and diagnosis were independent predictors, indicating similar trajectories of cognitive aging for both patients and controls. The SES factors of education, parental education, and income were more related to cognition in patients than in controls. Cognition was also influenced by symptomatology.
Patients did not show evidence of accelerated cognitive aging; however, they were most impacted by a lower SES suggestive of deprived environment than controls. These findings highlight the vulnerability of cognitive capacity in individuals with psychosis in face of demographic and socioeconomic factors in low- and middle-income countries.
One of the few avenues for women to achieve freedom from slavery in the Kingdom of New Granada was to be manumitted by slaveholders. Only ten percent of the enslaved population in New Granada’s central region (state of Cundinamarca) gained their liberty through this legal action. Eufemia Álvarez was part of that small group, as her master Don Juan Álvarez voluntarily manumitted her in the mid eighteenth century. Consequently, her daughter Juana María Álvarez was born in freedom, even if both of them remained servants in Don Juan Álvarez’s household in Guaduas—a rural town that was part of the Royal Road from Honda to Santa Fe. In 1758, Juana María suffered re-enslavement when she was sold and taken to Quito, away from her family. Juana María resorted to the appellate court in Honda to re-claim her freedom and petition for her own protection as well as her daughter’s. Juana María’s biography emerges from legal documents, which record her struggle—and ultimately, her failure—to legitimate her freedom, despite having been voluntarily manumitted by the original slaveholder. Read against the grain, her life serves as a critique of a legal system that failed to protect freed women.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Subclinical psychotic symptoms are present in the general population. Furthermore, they are quite common in diagnostic categories beyond psychosis, such as BPD patients.
We want to assess the differences between 3 groups: BPD (n = 68), FEP (n = 83) and controls (n = 203) in an experimental paradigm measuring the presence of speech illusions in white noise. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was administered in the patient group, the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised, and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in the control and BPD group. The white noise task was also analysed within a signal detection theory (SDT) framework. Logistic regression analyses and the general linear models were used to analyse the adjusted differences between groups.
Differences were more prevalent in signals that were perceived as affectively salient in patients groups (9.6% in FEP vs 5.9% in BPD and 1% in controls; OR: 10.7; 95%CI: 2.2–51.6, p = 0.003 in FEP; OR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.1–35.0, p = 0.036 in BPD). Besides, we found a worse general performance and more false alarms in the task for FEP group using SDT framework.
Experimental paradigms indexing the tendency to detect affectively salient signals in noise may be used to identify liability to psychosis in people with vulnerability. Its predictable value in other diagnostic categories and general population requires further research.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
The application of clay minerals in therapeutics is becoming important due to their structural and surface physicochemical properties. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a very common pharmaceutical drug and is used worldwide. The interactions between the 5-ASA molecule and both the aluminol and siloxane surfaces of kaolinite are studied by means of atomistic calculations using force fields based on empirical interatomic potentials and quantum mechanics calculations based on density functional theory. A conformational analysis of 5-ASA has been performed and the anion of 5-ASA was also studied. The calculated adsorption energy values indicate that 5-ASA is likely to be adsorbed on the kaolinite surfaces with greater affinity to the aluminol surface. Hence, kaolinite may be considered as a promising pharmaceutical carrier of 5-ASA.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
In the present investigation, biocomposites were synthesized from a polymeric alginate matrix in which the carrot residue and a natural bentonite (ANat / Bio) or an iron-modified clinoptilolite-type zeolite (ZFe / Bio) were supported. Their properties were evaluated adsorbents in contact with aqueous solutions of methylene blue (MB). In the first hour of contact, 46% removal was obtained for the ZFe / Bio biocomposite and 60% for the ANat / Bio biocomposite; reaching 100% removal for the ZFe / Bio biocomposite and 98% for the ANat / Bio biocomposite after 24 hours. The biocomposites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).
Polyurethane/cellulose composites were synthesized from castor-oil-derived polyols and isophorone diisocyanate using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as the catalyst. Materials were obtained by adding 2% cellulose in the form of either microcrystals (20 μm) or nanocrystals obtained by acid hydrolysis. The aim was to assess the effects of filler particle size and the use of a catalyst on the physicochemical properties and biological response of these composites. The addition of the catalyst was found to be essential to prevent filler aggregations and to enhance the tensile strength and elongation at break. The cellulose particle size influenced the composite properties, as its nanocrystals heighten hydrogen bond interactions between the filler surface and polyurethane domains, improving resistance to hydrolytic degradation. All hybrids retained cell viability, and the addition of DBTDL did not impair their biocompatibility. The samples were prone to calcification, which suggests that they could find application in the development of bioactive materials.