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Youth in the juvenile justice system evince high rates of mental health symptoms, including anxiety and depression. How these symptom profiles change after first contact with the justice system and – importantly – how they are related to re-offending remains unclear. Here, we use latent growth curve modeling to characterize univariate and multivariate growth of anxiety, depression, and re-offending in 1216 male adolescents over 5 years following their first arrest. Overall, the group showed significant linear and quadratic growth in internalizing symptoms and offending behaviors over time such that levels decreased initially after first arrest followed by a small but significant upturn occurring a few years later. Crucially, multivariate growth models revealed strong positive relationships between the rates of growth in internalizing symptoms and offending behaviors such that improvements in mental health related to greater decreases in offending, and vice versa. These results highlight the reciprocal nature of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence, underscoring the importance of considering mental health alongside offending in the juvenile justice system.
This chapter presents an overview of the nature, assessment, and treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD), including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), hoarding disorder (HD), hair-pulling disorder (HPD), and skin-picking disorder (SPD). Specifically, we review the DSM-V diagnostic criteria, epidemiology and impact, clinical features and course, and etiological insights for each of these disorders in turn. Next, we discuss key points to consider when making a differential diagnosis with disorders outside the OCRD category. From there, we turn to a discussion of the assessment and treatment of these disorders using pharmacological, cognitive-behavioral, and neuromodulation interventions. Future directions in the research on OCRDs then follows.
Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is a progressive disease caused by mutations in the TTR gene leading to multisystem organ dysfunction. Pathogenic TTR aggregation, misfolding, and fibrillization lead to deposition of amyloid in multiple body organs and frequently involve the peripheral nerve system and the heart. Common neurologic manifestations include: sensorimotor polyneuropathy (PN), autonomic neuropathy, small-fiber PN, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Many patients have significant progression due to diagnostic delays as hATTR PN is not considered within the differential diagnosis. Recently, two effective novel disease-modifying therapies, inotersen and patisiran, were approved by Health Canada for the treatment of hATTR PN. Early diagnosis is crucial for the timely introduction of these disease-modifying treatments that reduce impairments, improve quality of life, and extend survival. In this guideline, we aim to improve awareness and outcomes of hATTR PN by making recommendations directed to the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in Canada.
Smoking rates in people with depression and anxiety are twice as high as in the general population, even though people with depression and anxiety are motivated to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals are aware that stopping smoking is one of the greatest changes that people can make to improve their health. However, smoking cessation can be a difficult topic to raise. Evidence suggests that smoking may cause some mental health problems, and that the tobacco withdrawal cycle partly contributes to worse mental health. By stopping smoking, a person's mental health may improve, and the size of this improvement might be equal to taking antidepressants. In this article we outline ways in which healthcare professionals can compassionately and respectfully raise the topic of smoking to encourage smoking cessation. We draw on evidence-based methods such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and outline approaches that healthcare professionals can use to integrate these methods into routine care to help their patients stop smoking.
To assess the utility of an automated, statistically-based outbreak detection system to identify clusters of hospital-acquired microorganisms.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
The study included 43 hospitals using a common infection prevention surveillance system.
A space–time permutation scan statistic was applied to hospital microbiology, admission, discharge, and transfer data to identify clustering of microorganisms within hospital locations and services. Infection preventionists were asked to rate the importance of each cluster. A convenience sample of 10 hospitals also provided information about clusters previously identified through their usual surveillance methods.
We identified 230 clusters in 43 hospitals involving Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Half of the clusters progressed after initial detection, suggesting that early detection could trigger interventions to curtail further spread. Infection preventionists reported that they would have wanted to be alerted about 81% of these clusters. Factors associated with clusters judged to be moderately or highly concerning included high statistical significance, large size, and clusters involving Clostridioides difficile or multidrug-resistant organisms. Based on comparison data provided by the convenience sample of hospitals, only 9 (18%) of 51 clusters detected by usual surveillance met statistical significance, and of the 70 clusters not previously detected, 58 (83%) involved organisms not routinely targeted by the hospitals’ surveillance programs. All infection prevention programs felt that an automated outbreak detection tool would improve their ability to detect outbreaks and streamline their work.
Automated, statistically-based outbreak detection can increase the consistency, scope, and comprehensiveness of detecting hospital-associated transmission.
The mental and physical health of individuals with a psychotic illness are typically poor. Access to psychosocial interventions is important but currently limited. Telephone-delivered interventions may assist. In the current systematic review, we aim to summarise and critically analyse evidence for telephone-delivered psychosocial interventions targeting key health priorities in adults with a psychotic disorder, including (i) relapse, (ii) adherence to psychiatric medication and/or (iii) modifiable cardiovascular disease risk behaviours.
Ten peer-reviewed and four grey literature databases were searched for English-language studies examining psychosocial telephone-delivered interventions targeting relapse, medication adherence and/or health behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder. Study heterogeneity precluded meta-analyses.
Twenty trials [13 randomised controlled trials (RCTs)] were included, involving 2473 participants (relapse prevention = 867; medication adherence = 1273; and health behaviour = 333). Five of eight RCTs targeting relapse prevention and one of three targeting medication adherence reported at least 50% of outcomes in favour of the telephone-delivered intervention. The two health-behaviour RCTs found comparable levels of improvement across treatment conditions.
Although most interventions combined telephone and face-to-face delivery, there was evidence to support the benefit of entirely telephone-delivered interventions. Telephone interventions represent a potentially feasible and effective option for improving key health priorities among people with psychotic disorders. Further methodologically rigorous evaluations are warranted.
This manuscript describes, defines, and discusses the process of cold sintering, which can consolidate a broad set of inorganic powders between room temperature and 300 °C using a standard uniaxial press and die. This temperature range is well below that needed for appreciable bulk diffusion, indicating immediately the distinction from the well-known and thermally driven analogue, allowing for an unconventional method for densifying these inorganic powders. Sections of this report highlight the general background and history of cold sintering, the current set of known compositions that exhibit compatibility with this process, the basic experimental techniques, the current understanding of physical mechanisms necessary for densification, and finally opportunities and challenges to expand the method more generically to other systems. The newness of this approach and the potential for revolutionary impact on traditional methods of powder-based processing warrants this discussion despite a nascent understanding of the operative mechanisms.
Nitrate and nitrite are probable human carcinogens when ingested under conditions that increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds. There have been limited efforts to develop US databases of dietary nitrate and nitrite for standard FFQ. Here we describe the development of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database and its calibration.
We analysed data from a calibration study of 1942 members of the NIH–AARP (NIH–AARP, National Institutes of Health–AARP) Diet and Health Study who reported all foods and beverages consumed on the preceding day in two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) and completed an FFQ. Based on a literature review, we developed a database of nitrate and nitrite contents for foods reported on these 24HR and for food category line items on the FFQ. We calculated daily nitrate and nitrite intakes for both instruments, and used a measurement error model to compute correlation coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ-based intake estimates using 24HR-based values as reference data.
FFQ-based median nitrate intake was 68·9 and 74·1 mg/d, and nitrite intake was 1·3 and 1·0 mg/d, in men and women, respectively. These values were similar to 24HR-based intake estimates. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between FFQ- and 24HR-based values for men and women respectively were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·59 and 0·58 for nitrite; energy-adjusted attenuation factors were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·47 and 0·38 for nitrite.
The performance of the FFQ in assessing dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes is comparable to that for many other macro- and micronutrients.
Little is known about how hospital organizational and cultural factors associated with implementation of quality initiatives such as the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI) 100,000 Lives Campaign differ among levels of healthcare staff.
Evaluation of a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology (“trilogic evaluation model”).
Six hospitals that joined the campaign before June 2006.
Three strata of staff (executive leadership, midlevel, and frontline) at each hospital.
Surveys were completed in 2008 by 135 hospital personnel (midlevel, 43.7%; frontline, 38.5%; executive, 17.8%) who also participated in 20 focus groups. Overall, 93% of participants were aware of the IHI campaign in their hospital and perceived that 58% (standard deviation, 22.7%) of improvements in quality at their hospital were a direct result of the campaign. There were significant differences between staff levels on the organizational culture (OC) items, with executive-level staff having higher scores than midlevel and frontline staff. All 20 focus groups perceived that the campaign interventions were sustainable and that data feedback, buy-in, hardwiring (into daily activities), and leadership support were essential to sustainability.
The trilogic model demonstrated that the 3 levels of staff had markedly different perceptions regarding the IHI campaign and OC. A framework in which frontline, midlevel, and leadership staff are simultaneously assessed may be a useful tool for future evaluations of OC and quality initiatives such as the IHI campaign.
Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to ‘schizophrenia-like’ cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.
Pathophysiological stress from acute illness causes metabolic disturbance, including altered hepatic glucose metabolism, increased peripheral insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Acute hyperglycaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients in intensive care units and patients with acute respiratory disease. The present review will consider mechanisms underlying this association. In normal lungs the glucose concentration of airway secretions is approximately 10-fold lower than that of plasma. Low airway glucose concentrations are maintained against a concentration gradient by active glucose transport. Airway glucose concentrations become elevated if normal homeostasis is disrupted by a rise in blood glucose concentrations or inflammation of the airway epithelium. Elevated airway glucose concentrations are associated with and precede increased isolation of respiratory pathogens, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, from bronchial aspirates of patients intubated on intensive care. Markers of elevated airway glucose are associated with similar patterns of respiratory infection in patients admitted with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Glucose at airway concentrations stimulates the growth of respiratory pathogens, over and above the effect of other nutrients. Elevated airway glucose concentrations may also worsen respiratory disease by promoting local inflammation. Hyperglycaemia may thus promote pulmonary infection, at least in part, by an effect on airway glucose concentrations. Therapeutic options, including systemic control of blood glucose and local manipulation of airway glucose homeostasis, will be considered.
Few randomised controlled trials have been aimed specifically at substance use reduction among people with psychotic disorders.
To investigate whether a 10-session intervention consisting of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) was more efficacious than routine treatment in reducing substance use and improving symptomatology and general functioning.
A community sample of people with a psychotic disorder and who reported hazardous alcohol, cannabis and/or amphetamine use during the preceding month was recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to motivational interviewing/CBT (n=65) or treatment as usual (n=65), and were assessed on multiple outcomes at baseline, 15 weeks, 6 months and 12 months.
There was a short-term improvement in depression and a similar trend with regard to cannabis use among participants who received the motivational interviewing/CBT intervention, together with effects on general functioning at 12 months. There was no differential benefit of the intervention on substance use at 12 months, except for a potentially clinically important effect on amphetamine use.
The motivational interviewing/CBT intervention was associated with modest improvements.
Clare Gerada, Hurley Clinic, Kennington Lane, London, UK,
Kristy Johns, Alcohol and Other Drugs Service, Central Coast Health, NSW, Australia,
Amanda Baker, Centre for Mental Health Studies, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia,
David Castle, Mental Health Research Institute and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
This chapter describes how and why women may also be gaining ground on their male counterparts in the consumption of alcohol and illicit substances. Surveys of substance abuse and dependence in the general population fairly consistently show overall rates in females to be lower than those in males. Women with affective and anxiety disorders are more likely to present with alcohol or drug abuse/dependence than are women without such disorders. Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is another psychiatric condition strongly associated with substance abuse and dependence. The impact of substance abuse on reproductive fitness in women is evidenced by higher rates of amenorrhoea and anovulatory cycles. The high rate of treatment dropout for women with drug and alcohol problems is of great concern to clinicians and researchers as there is a powerful association between dropping out and negative outcome.
Motivational interviewing has been employed extensively and successfully among people with alcohol and other drug problems in order to enhance involvement in treatment and to reduce substance use. Despite clear commonalities in motivating people with mental health problems to recognise their problem and adhere to treatment, motivational interviewing has not been widely adopted by mental health professionals, largely due to the separation of mental health versus substance use services. The existing evidence for the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in improving engagement in treatment for mental health problems is reviewed. It is recommended that, based on the evidence available, motivational interviewing should be applied to people with mental health problems as well as those with substance-related problems to enhance treatment engagement, retention and response. Guidelines for its application are suggested.
Despite neuroleptic medication, many schizophrenic patients continue to experience residual positive psychotic symptoms. These residual symptoms cause distress and disability. We report a controlled trial of two cognitive-behavioural treatments to alleviate residual hallucinations and delusions. Forty-nine patients were recruited into the trial, of whom 27 entered the trial and completed post-treatment assessment, and 23 were reassessed at six-month follow-up. Patients were randomly allocated to either coping strategy enhancement (CSE) or problem solving (PS). Half the patients were allocated to a high-expectancy positive demand condition and half to a counterdemand condition to evaluate expectation of improvement. Patients receiving either cognitive-behavioural treatment showed significant reductions in pyschotic symptoms compared with those in the waiting period, who showed no improvement. There was some evidence, although equivocal, that patients receiving CSE improved more than those receiving PS. There was no evidence that improvements generalised to negative symptoms or social functioning, nor was there evidence that expectancy of treatment benefit contributed to the treatment effect.
Before sexual differentiation occurs at seven weeks, the urological ridges develop in the embryo. These contain the primitive gonads, the mesonephros (embryonic kidneys) and the paired Wolffian (mesonephric) ducts, along with the Müllerian (paramesonephric) ducts. The fundamental mechanism of fetal sexual development was elucidated by Alfred Jost and is determined by the development of the gonad: where testes form in response to the testis-determining gene, and the male testicular hormones cause development of the male phenotype. If ovaries develop or the gonads are absent, female secondary sex characteristics are produced. Recently, the cloning of the putative human testis-determining gene on the Y-chromosome was reported. Assuming this is the true controller of testicular development, an understanding of the initiation of sexual differentiation at the genetic level should emerge in the near future. Of great importance will be the isolation of the testis-determining gene product and identification of other genes that it regulates.