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A profound characteristic of field cancerization is alterations in chromatin packing. This study aimed to quantify these alterations using electron microscopy image analysis of buccal mucosa cells of laryngeal, esophageal, and lung cancer patients. Analysis was done on normal-appearing mucosa, believed to be within the cancerization field, and not tumor itself. Large-scale electron microscopy (nanotomy) images were acquired of cancer patients and controls. Within the nuclei, the chromatin packing of euchromatin and heterochromatin was characterized. Furthermore, the chromatin organization was quantified through chromatin packing density scaling. A significant difference was found between the cancer and control groups in the chromatin packing density scaling parameter for length scales below the optical diffraction limit (200 nm) in both the euchromatin (p = 0.002) and the heterochromatin (p = 0.006). The chromatin packing scaling analysis also indicated that the chromatin organization of cancer patients deviated significantly from the control group. They might allow for novel strategies for cancer risk stratification and diagnosis with high sensitivity. This could aid clinicians in personalizing screening strategies for high-risk patients and follow-up strategies for treated cancer patients.
The authors present the application of a retarding field between the electron objective lens and sample in an integrated fluorescence and electron microscope. The retarding field enhances signal collection and signal strength in the electron microscope. This is beneficial for samples prepared for integrated fluorescence and electron microscopy as the amount of staining material added to enhance electron microscopy signal is typically lower compared to conventional samples in order to preserve fluorescence. We demonstrate signal enhancement through the applied retarding field for both 80-nm post-embedding immunolabeled sections and 100-nm in-resin preserved fluorescence sections. Moreover, we show that tuning the electron landing energy particularly improves imaging conditions for ultra-thin (50 nm) sections, where optimization of both retarding field and interaction volume contribute to the signal improvement. Finally, we show that our integrated retarding field setup allows landing energies down to a few electron volts with 0.3 eV dispersion, which opens new prospects for assessing electron beam induced damage by in situ quantification of the observed bleaching of the fluorescence following irradiation.
The ‘Endangered’ Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres has been monitored across its range for decades through disparate studies varying in geographical scope and length. Yet, no long-term, range-wide survey exists for the species. Coordinated monitoring across the range of the Cape Vulture would be logistically challenging but provide a holistic view of population dynamics in this long-lived species that forages across much of southern Africa. Here, we report breeding pair counts from seven colonies in the Cape Vulture’s north-eastern breeding region from 2010 to 2019. We used state-space models to assess population growth across time. Manutsa, Soutpansberg, and Nooitgedacht colonies increased significantly over the study period, with three other colonies having positive estimates of population growth, but 95% credible intervals overlapped zero. The smallest colony at Moletjie is declining toward extirpation; only one breeding pair remained in 2019. Our results suggest the north-eastern population has been stable or increasing since 2010 with our 2019 surveys counting 2,241 breeding pairs across all sites. Indeed, there is an 89% chance that the population across the colonies we monitored increased from 2010 to 2019. Coordinated, range-wide, full-cycle monitoring is needed to thoroughly assess conservation status and efficacy of conservation actions taken for this endangered species.
Following the continual decline of the Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres since the 1960s, captive breeding and rehabilitation programmes have been established to reinforce populations across southern Africa. This study examines the spatial ecology of captive-bred and rehabilitated vultures following release. Our analysis used 253,671 GPS fixes from 20 captive-bred and 13 rehabilitated birds to calculate home range sizes using kernel density estimation. We found that home range size did not differ significantly between captive-bred and rehabilitated birds. The location of home ranges differed: captive-bred birds showed greater site fidelity, remaining close to their release site, whereas rehabilitated birds dispersed more widely across the species' native range. By remaining close to their release site within a protected area, captive-bred birds had a significantly higher per cent of their GPS fixes within protected areas than did rehabilitated birds. Despite fidelity to their release site, captive-bred birds demonstrated innate capabilities for natural foraging behaviours and the same habitat selection strategy as rehabilitated individuals. These findings suggest that captive breeding and reinforcement of populations at declining colonies could provide localized benefits. Future long-term studies should seek to analyse survivorship and identify the breeding behaviour of these captive-bred birds once they reach sexual maturity.
This study investigated conceptual transfer and lexical development for spatial adjectives using participant judgments, reaction times, and eye-tracking measures. The study focused on the Japanese adjective semai and its partially equivalent English translation narrow. The study presented participants with images depicting two rooms with slight differences in height and width and asked them to identify which room was narrower. The only variation was the language in which the instructions were given: native language (L1) instructions for two L1 control groups, second language (L2) instructions for the experimental group (L1 Japanese speakers of L2 English). The results showed fundamental differences in processing between the control groups in respect to the judgments and reaction times, but not for the eye-tracking measures. Furthermore, the experimental group’s behavior indicated a conceptual understanding of narrow that was in line with developments in proficiency, but also limited to the judgment and reaction time measures. Based on these findings, we conclude that (a) conceptual transfer affects processing on receptive language tasks, and (b) L2 conceptual representations come to resemble those of native speakers as learners develop their lexical knowledge. However, we also suggest that (c) although conceptualizations likely affect cognitive functions, our eye-tracking data were too crude to capture this.
In schizophrenia the life expectancy is significantly lower compared to the general population. To monitor their functioning over the course of the illness, a protocol for routine outcome monitoring (ROM) has been developed in the Netherlands.
This study investigated the effectiveness of Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) in clinical practice. More specifically, we investigated whether ROM outcomes resulted in treatment in accordance with guidelines for schizophrenia.
Out of the ROM database of 2010 (n=1040), a random sample of 100 patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder was taken. Data from blood tests, a physical examination, interviews, and standardized questionnaires were used. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunctions was calculated. Offered treatment was investigated with the treatment plans of patients.
The sample consisted of 63 males and 37 females. The average age was 44 and the average duration of illness was 17.7 years. High prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors, psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunctions were found. Cardiovascular risk factors remained untreated in 61% of cases, psychosocial problems remained untreated in 85% of cases and sexual dysfunctions were not treated at all in our sample.
High rates of non-treatment were found for cardiovascular risk factors, psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunctions, despite high prevalences as identified with ROM. Thus, ROM outcomes do not result in treatment in accordance with guidelines for the majority of patients. Steps are necessary to bridge the gap between ROM and treatment to ensure this group of severely mentally ill patients receives the best possible treatment.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of risk factors that may be present already in childhood. MetS has been associated with inflammatory biomarkers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in aduls. In 2014, Ahrens et al, published reference standards for a paediatric MetS score based on reference values from European children. The aim of this study is to assess longitudinally the relationship between a MetS score and hsCRP in a sample of European children.
Materials and Methods
Out of the baseline sample of the IDEFICS Study, 2913 children aged 2–9 years were included in this study. Inclusion criteria was having available data of waist circumference (WC), diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP, SBP), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), glucose and insulin, to calculate the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA); and hs-CRP as a marker of inflammation, at baseline (T0) and two years later (T1). hs-CRP was categorized into two categories as some children had lower concentration than the detection limit of 0.02mg/dL. Student t-test and logistic regression were used to assess these associations. Logistic regression was adjusted by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic level and country.
Differences of mean values of the components of the MetS and the two categories of hs-CRP were observed between both time points. Mean values of SBP, DBP, WC, TG and HOMA were significantly higher in children with a higher category of hsCRP (p < 0.005). In addition, MetS score was significantly higher in those with a higher category of hs-CRP (p < 0.001) at both measurement points, T0 and T1. Finally, logistic regression between components of MetS and categories of hs-CRP, at both time points, showed significant associations (p < 0.001) for WC (OR = 1.06 at T0 and OR = 1.04 at T1) and HDL (OR = 0.98 at T0 and OR = 0.98 at T1) and the MetS score (OR = 1.07) score at T1.
The association between MetS and inflammation is already present in children. Out of the components of the MetS, WC and HDL were the ones more associated with an inflammatory state at two times points. Also the MetS score, but only at the follow-up, was associated with the hs-CRP. Therefore, in order to prevent the inflammatory state in childhood, efforts to improve the metabolic profile, specially WC and HDL, need to be made.
The Foundation for the Promotion of the Translation of Dutch Literary Works (De Stichting tot Bevordering van de Vertaling van Nederlands Letterkundig Werk), hereafter called The Foundation, was a state-funded, quasi-governmental organization established to oversee the translation of over 700 Dutch literary works into a variety of languages until 1989. It constituted the first steps in professionalizing and institutionalizing a Dutch literary foreign policy. The Foundation was established in 1954 under the initiative of Hendrik Jan Reinink, Secretary-General of the Ministry of Education, Arts and Sciences, in cooperation with four agencies: Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde (The Dutch Literature Society), Vereniging van Letterkundigen (The Literature Association), Nederlandsche Uitgeversbond (the Dutch Publishing Association) and PEN Club Netherlands.
The Foundation's principal aims, as stated in the charter, were to promote Dutch literature abroad by establishing contacts with Dutch and foreign publishing companies and academics, raising awareness of Dutch literature abroad and creating a portfolio of sample translations. In a statement of their raison d’etre in Stichting Ter Bevordering Van De Vertaling Van Nederlands Letterkundig Werk, they attempt to account for the obscurity of Dutch literature outside the Netherlands. They acknowledge that the language barrier is a factor, but note that Dutch science has succeeded in crossing linguistic frontiers and that literatures of other small countries enjoy greater fame than Dutch letters. They contend that many works would interest readers outside the Netherlands because they shed light on a relatively littleknown side of European life. They conclude by stating:
There is no point in speculating about the reasons for this obscurity. It is better to examine whether and how this situation may be changed. This is precisely the aim which the Foundation is setting itself. It wants to do everything in its power to enable the foreign reader (and thus first and foremost the publisher) to acquaint himself with Dutch literature. (Stichting Ter Bevordering Van De Vertaling Van Nederlands Letterkundig Werk, n.d.)
One of The Foundation's first key projects was the development of a series of Dutch imaginative works translated into English, eventually called Bibliotheca Neerlandica, that would implicitly redress the imbalance in the international reception of Dutch literature and its fine-art counterpart in the Dutch Golden Age of painting.
The increasing environmental requirements in the air transport sector pose great challenges to the aviation industry and are key drivers for innovation. Besides various approaches for increasing the efficiency of conventional gas turbine engines, electric propulsion systems have moved into the focus of aviation research. The first electric concepts are already in service in general aviation. This study analyses the potentials of electric and turbo hybrid propulsion systems for commercial aviation. Its purpose is to compare various architectures of electrical powertrains with a conventional turboprop on a regional aircraft, similar to the ATR 72, on engine and flight mission levels. The considered architectures include a turbo-electric (power controlled and direct driven), hybrid-electric (serial and parallel) and a pure electric concept. Their system weights are determined using today’s technology assumptions. With the help of performance models and flight mission calculations the impact on fuel consumption, CO
emissions and aircraft performance is evaluated.
Our concern is the completeness problem for spi-logics, that is, sets of implications between strictly positive formulas built from propositional variables, conjunction and modal diamond operators. Originated in logic, algebra and computer science, spi-logics have two natural semantics: meet-semilattices with monotone operators providing Birkhoff-style calculi and first-order relational structures (aka Kripke frames) often used as the intended structures in applications. Here we lay foundations for a completeness theory that aims to answer the question whether the two semantics define the same consequence relations for a given spi-logic.
Nonparametric identification of the Mixed Hazard model is shown. The setup allows for covariates that are random, time-varying, satisfy a rich path structure and are censored by events. For each set of model parameters, an observed process is constructed. The process corresponding to the true model parameters is a martingale, the ones corresponding to incorrect model parameters are not. The unique martingale structure yields a family of moment conditions that only the true parameters can satisfy. These moments identify the model and suggest a GMM estimation approach. The moments do not require use of the hazard function.
Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are end points of stellar evolution. They are mostly interpreted as binary systems with a massive donor. They are also the most probable progenitors for BH-BH, and even more, for BH-NS coalescence. Parameters of ULXs are not know and need to be better determined, in particular the link with the metallicity of the environment which has been invoked frequently but not proven strongly. We have tackled this problem by using a MUSE DEEP mosaic of the Cartwheel galaxy and applying a Monte Carlo code that jointly fits spectroscopy and photometry. We measure the metallicity of the emitting gas in the ring and at the positions of X-ray sources by constructing spatially resolved emission line ratio maps and BPT diagnostic maps. The Carthweel is the archetypal ring galaxy and the location and formation time of new stellar populations is easier to reconstruct than in more normal galaxies. It has the largest population of ULXs ever observed in a single galaxy (16 sources have been classified as ULXs in Chandra and XMM-Newton data). The Cartwheel galaxy is therefore the ideal laboratory to study the relation between Star Formation (SF Rates and SF History) and number of ULXs and also their final fate. We find that the age of the stellar population in the outer ring is consistent with being produced in the impact (≤300Myr) and that the metallicity is mostly sub-solar, even if solutions can be found with a solar metallicity that account for most observed properties. The findings for the Cartwheel will be a testbed for further modelisation of binary formation and evolution paths.
TIGvival is a spectroscopic monitoring program of long-period variables (LPV) using our robotic telescope TIGRE. Since 2013, we obtain low-noise, high-resolution spectra (R= 20 000) that cover the optical regime (3800 Å to 8800 Å). We are now continuously monitoring 7 LPVs with different periods and chemical properties. Our 350+ spectra evenly sample the target cycles, as far as ground-based observations allow. Analyzing the TIGvival spectra of Mira as a sample case, our measurements indicate that the strength of the TiO-absorption is phase-shifted with respect to the visual light curve.
Despite the weight of his work and his prominence in Arabic public debate, the Egyptian public intellectual ʿAbd al-Wahhab Elmessiri (1938–2008) has not been the subject of much serious study. In this article, I show that Elmessiri's oeuvre offers a rich and creative perspective on both Judaism and Zionism. Studying Elmessiri from the perspective of identity/alterity studies, I argue that his representation of Judaism qualifies as what Gerd Baumann and André Gingrich call “encompassment by hierarchical subsumption.” The article offers an analysis of the discursive logic behind this image of Judaism and its connection to Elmessiri's anti-Zionist agenda, rejection of anti-Semitism, and critique of Western modernity.
In this article it is argued that in Rom 11.25–32 Paul starts from the situation of Israel that he has described in Rom 11.1–10: Israel is torn into two parts – a Christian minority and a non-Christian majority which has rejected the Gospel because it has been hardened. In these verses Paul develops an expectation according to which it is God himself who will take away the hardening of the non-Christian majority of Israel by leading them to faith in Christ. It is God himself whom Paul identifies as the ‘deliverer who comes from Zion’ (v. 26), although he does not expect a theophany but uses the quotations from Isa 59.20–1 and 27.9 as metaphorical circumscriptions for God's intervention in favour of the non-Christian part of his people. Although Paul is fully convinced that God will intervene in favour of the non-Christian Jews, he has no idea how this could happen. This discrepancy between Paul's assurance of the ‘that’ and his cluelessness regarding the ‘how’ is the reason why he presents his solution of the Israel problem in an apocalyptic mode as a revelation of a ‘mystery’ (v. 25).