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Time constraints have been suggested as a potential driver of antibiotic overuse for acute respiratory tract infections. In this cross-sectional analysis of national data from visits to offices and emergency departments, we identified no statistically significant association between antibiotic prescribing and the duration of visits for acute respiratory tract infections.
Global health disasters are on the rise and can occur at any time with little advance warning, necessitating preparation. The authors created a comprehensive evidence-based Emergency Preparedness Training Program focused on long-term retention and sustained learner engagement.
A prospective observational study was conducted of a simulation-based mass casualty event training program designed using an outcomes-based logic model. A total of 25 frontline healthcare workers from multiple hospital sites in the New York metropolitan area participated in an 8-hour immersive workshop. Data was collected from assessments, and surveys provided to participants 3 weeks prior to the workshop, immediately following the workshop, and 3 months after completion of the workshop.
The mean percentage of total knowledge scores improved across pre-workshop, post-workshop and retention (3 months post-workshop) assessments (53.2% vs. 64.8% vs. 67.6%, P < 0.05). Average comfort scores in the core MCI competencies increased across pre-workshop, post-workshop and retention self-assessments (P < 0.01). Of the participants assessed at 3 months retention (n = 14, 56%), 50.0% (n = 7) assisted in updating their hospital’s emergency operations plan and 50.0% (n = 7) pursued further self-directed learning in disaster preparedness medicine.
The use of the logic model provided a transparent framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of a competency-based EPT program at a single academic center.
The Promontory caves (Utah) and Franktown Cave (Colorado) contain high-fidelity records of short-term occupations by groups with material culture connections to the Subarctic/Northern Plains. This research uses Promontory and Franktown bison dung, hair, hide, and bone collagen to establish local baseline carbon isotopic variability and identify leather from a distant source. The ankle wrap of one Promontory Cave 1 moccasin had a δ13C value that indicates a substantial C4 component to the animal's diet, unlike the C3 diets inferred from 171 other Promontory and northern Utah bison samples. We draw on a unique combination of multitissue isotopic analysis, carbon isoscapes, ancient DNA (species and sex identification), tissue turnover rates, archaeological contexts, and bison ecology to show that the high δ13C value was not likely a result of local plant consumption, bison mobility, or trade. Instead, the bison hide was likely acquired via long-distance travel to/from an area of abundant C4 grasses far to the south or east. Expansive landscape knowledge gained through long-distance associations would have allowed Promontory caves inhabitants to make well-informed decisions about directions and routes of movement for a territorial shift, which seems to have occurred in the late thirteenth century.
A deeper understanding of creativity and design is essential for the development of tools to improve designers’ creative processes and drive future innovation. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of physical activity versus movement in a virtual environment on the creative output of industrial design students. This study contributes a novel assessment of whether the use of virtual reality can produce the same creative output within designers as physical activity has been shown to produce in prior studies. Eighteen industrial design students at the Georgia Institute of Technology completed nine design tasks across three conditions in a within-subjects experimental design. In each condition, participants independently experienced one of three interventions. Solutions were scored for novelty and feasibility, and self-reported mood data was correlated with performance. No significant differences were found in novelty or feasibility of solutions across the conditions. However, there are statistically significant correlations between mood, interventions, and peak performance to be discussed. The results show that participants who experienced movement in virtual reality prior to problem solving performed at an equal or higher level than physical walking for all design tasks and all designer moods. This serves as motivation for continuing to study how VR can provide an impact on a designer's creative output. Hypothesized creative performance with each mode is discussed using trends from four categories of mood, based on the combined mood characteristics of pleasantness (positive/negative) and activation (active/passive).
Differences in daytime sleepiness, lifestyle disruptions, and emotional distress were compared across nine groups taking sleep-promoting substances. Groups included individuals taking zopiclone (n = 274), amitriptyline (n = 107), lorazepam (n = 258), oxazepam (n= 141), diphenhydramine HCl (n = 99), triazolam(n = 137), long acting benzodiazepines (n = 120), temazepam (n = 176), and miscellaneous other medications (n = 286). Data were gathered by self-report, using standardized instruments in a mail-back questionnaire procedure. Respondents included the first 1,598 participants enrolled in a Canadian multicentre project, including six sites attached to academic psychiatric units. Results indicated that quality of life effects differed across groups in both daytime sleepiness and lifestyle disruptions (illness intrusiveness), but not in depressive symptoms. Daytime sleepiness was significantly higher among people taking diphenhydramine HCl as compared to temazepam, zopiclone, lorazepam, and oxazepam. Illness intrusiveness was significantly higher among patients taking amitriptyline as compared to those taking triazolam, oxazepam, long-acting benzodiazepines, and zopiclone. It may be useful to inform patients of differences in psychosocial outcomes when prescribing hypnotic medications.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common health problem characterized by low mood, sadness and irritability. Sleep disturbances are a central feature of depression and adolescence is a period of rapid change in sleep physiology.
To evaluate the categorization of sleep change in three of sleep elements : REM changes; Slow weave sleep changes and fragmentation of sleep. We evaluated this as a tool to detect depression
To assess features of sleep macro architecture as markers for evaluating and detecting adolescent depression
Adolescents completed a two-week protocol that included a formal psychiatric interview, standardized scales, polysomnographic (PSG) assessment, actigraphy, salivary melatonin sampling, and holter monitoring.
Depressed adolescents (n = 22) differed from controls (n = 20) on features of sleep macroarchitecture measured by PSG. 59% of the depressed subjects had more than one PSG marker from each category as compared to control (N = 20). This indicates that subjects who were depressed on clinical assessments using the standardized scales and evaluations had changes in sleep suggestive of depression
The categorization of sleep change in three categories of sleep components (see above) can be a useful tool to detect depression. The results suggests that the individual markers of depression in children and adolescents may not be as effective as the categorization of sleep changes into three categories and using this general approach
Central to the conception of this article is the architectural theorist Bernard Tschumi's dictum, ‘There is no architecture without action, no architecture without events, no architecture without program … no architecture without violence.’ Shaped as well by Eyal Weizman's conception of ‘forensic architecture’, the focus of the investigation is on Israel's architecture of security and on the corresponding Palestinian architecture of resistance. Emphasising an encounter of cartographies that reveals the way Palestinians make life livable in response to the architectural violence they face, the analysis continues with reference to Yari Sharif's analysis of architectures of resistance and with a reading of a feature film, Hany Abu-Assad's Omar (2013) in which the Separation Wall between Israel and Palestine is one of the film's primary agent/protagonists. The article surveys popular culture texts, focused on crime and espionage to analyse a range of security practices and breaches that amplify the analysis with attention to security issues in individual households, multiple-person dwelling arrangements, architectural locations throughout cities, and buildings housing governmental security agencies. That trajectory of architectural sites lends a micropolitical analysis to the macropolitical level of governmental policy and modes of resistance to it.
Introduction: Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality. In the Emergency Department (ED), rapid identification and management of sepsis have been associated with improved outcomes. Following ED assessment, patients with infection may be directly admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or alternatively admitted to hospital wards or sent home, with risk of future deterioration necessitating ICU admission. Little is known regarding outcomes and costs of ICU sepsis patients who are initially admitted to a ward or discharged home (delayed ICU admission), as compared to those with direct ICU admission from the ED. Methods: We analyzed a prospectively collected registry (2011-2014) of patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of sepsis at two academic hospitals. We included all adult patients with an index ED visit within 72 hours of ICU admission. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: 1) Admitted directly to ICU; 2) Admitted to wards, with ICU admission within 72 hours; and 3) Sent home, with ICU admission within 72 hours. ICU length of stay (LOS) and total costs (both direct and indirect) were recorded. The primary outcome, in-hospital mortality, was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for confounding variables (including patient sex, comorbidities, and illness severity). Results: 657 ICU patients were included. Of these, 338 (51.4%) were admitted directly from ED to ICU, 246 (37.4%) were initially admitted to the wards, and 73 (11.1%) were initially sent home. In-hospital mortality was lowest amongst patients admitted directly to the ICU (29.5%), as compared to patients admitted to ICU from wards (42.7%), or home (61.6%). Delayed ICU admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.85 [1.24-2.76], P<0.01) and increased median ICU LOS (11 days vs. 4 days, P<0.001). Median total costs were lowest among patients directly admitted to the ICU ($19,924, [Interquartile range [IQR], 10,333-32,387]), as compared to those admitted from wards ($72,155 [IQR, $42,771-122,749]) and those initially sent home ($45,121 [IQR, $19,930-86,843]). Conclusion: Only half of ED sepsis patients ultimately requiring ICU admission within 72 hours of ED arrival are directly admitted to the ICU. Delayed ICU admission is associated with higher mortality, LOS, and costs.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections are a public health threat associated with increased patient mortality and healthcare costs. Antibiotic usage, particularly cephalosporins, has been associated with VRE colonization and VRE bloodstream infections (VRE BSI). We examined the relationship between antimicrobial usage and incident VRE colonization at the individual patient level. Prospective, weekly surveillance was undertaken for incident VRE colonization defined by negative admission but positive surveillance swab in a medical intensive care unit over a 17-month period. Antimicrobial exposure was quantified as days of therapy (DOT)/1000 patient-days. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse incident VRE colonization and antibiotic DOT, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Ninety-six percent (1398/1454) of admissions were swabbed within 24 h of intensive care unit (ICU) arrival and of the 380 patients in the ICU long enough for weekly surveillance, 83 (22%) developed incident VRE colonization. Incident colonization was associated in bivariate analysis with male gender, more previous hospital admissions, longer previous hospital stay, and use of cefepime/ceftazidime, fluconazole, azithromycin, and metronidazole (P < 0·05). After controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, metronidazole was the only antibiotic independently associated with incident VRE colonization (odds ratio 2·0, 95% confidence interval 1·2–3·3, P < 0·009). Our findings suggest that risk of incident VRE colonization differs between individual antibiotic agents and support the possibility that antimicrobial stewardship may impact VRE colonization and infection.
Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.