Examining the composition of breakfast concerning weight status is essential for evaluating adolescent health and understanding this gap. This study aimed to identify breakfast patterns and investigate the relationship with weight status among Brazilian adolescents. We used a subsample of 7425 adolescents aged 10–19 years from the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. Breakfast eaters were those with intake of at least 50 kcal (209·2 kJ) between 05.00 and 10.00 hours. Breakfast dietary patterns were derived by principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation. We performed logistic regression analyses between breakfast patterns and weight status, considering the complexity of the survey sample design. Three breakfast patterns were identified explaining 44·8 % of data variability: (1) the Cereal, protein, fruit beverages and Northern/Northeastern pattern, characterised by high consumption of cookies, meats, dairy products, preparations with maize, eggs, fruit juices/fruit drinks/soya-based drinks, tubers/roots/potatoes and cereals, and negative adherence to cold cut meat and savoury snacks/crackers; (2) the Protein-based pattern, characterised by positive loadings for cold cut meat, milk and cheese, and negative for cookies, fruit juices/fruit drinks/soya-based drinks, tubers/roots/potatoes and cereals; and (3) the Mixed pattern, with positive loadings for cakes, coffee/tea, bread, fruit juices/fruit drinks/soya-based drinks, chocolate/desserts and savoury snacks/crackers. No association was found between skipping and weight status. Overweight adolescents had lower adherence to the Cereal, protein, fruit beverages and Northern/Northeastern pattern (OR = 0·67; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·96). This is the first study to address dietary patterns at the meal level with adolescent population-based data, which requires further investigation.