To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
DNA methylation is a key component of the epigenetic machinery that is responsible for regulating gene expression and, therefore, cell function. Patterns of DNA methylation change during development and ageing, differ between cell types, are altered in multiple diseases and can be modulated by dietary factors. However, evidence about the effects of dietary factors on DNA methylation patterns in humans is fragmentary. This study was initiated to collate evidence for causal links between dietary factors and changes in DNA methylation patterns. We carried out a systematic review of dietary intervention studies in adult humans using Medline, EMBASE and Scopus. Out of 22 149 screened titles, sixty intervention studies were included, of which 65% were randomised (n 39). Most studies (53%) reported data from blood analyses, whereas 27% studied DNA methylation in colorectal mucosal biopsies. Folic acid was the most common intervention agent (33%). There was great heterogeneity in the methods used for assessing DNA methylation and in the genomic loci investigated. Meta-analysis of the effect of folic acid on global DNA methylation revealed strong evidence that supplementation caused hypermethylation in colorectal mucosa (P=0·009). Meta-regression analysis showed that the dose of supplementary folic acid was the only identified factor (P<0·001) showing a positive relationship. In summary, there is limited evidence from intervention studies of effects of dietary factors, other than folic acid, on DNA methylation patterns in humans. In addition, the application of multiple different assays and investigations of different genomic loci makes it difficult to compare, or to combine, data across studies.
To investigate the protein-sparing effect of α-lipoic acid (LA), experimental fish (initial body weight: 18·99 (sd 1·82) g) were fed on a 0, 600 or 1200 mg/kg α-LA diet for 56 d, and hepatocytes were treated with 20 μm compound C, the inhibitor of AMP kinase α (AMPKα), treated for 30 min before α-LA treatment for 24 h. LA significantly decreased lipid content of the whole body and other tissues (P<0·05), and it also promoted protein deposition in vivo (P<0·05). Further, dietary LA significantly decreased the TAG content of serum and increased the NEFA content of serum (P<0·05); however, there were no significant differences among all groups in the hepatopancreas and muscle (P>0·05). Consistent with results from the experiment in vitro, LA activated phosphorylation of AMPKα and notably increased the protein content of adipose TAG lipase in intraperitoneal fat, hepatopancreas and muscle in vivo (P<0·05). Meanwhile, LA significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation in the same three areas, and LA also obviously down-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in amino acid catabolism in muscle (P<0·05). Besides, it was observed that LA significantly activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in muscle of experimental fish (P<0·05). LA could promote lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation via increasing energy supply from lipid catabolism, and then, it could economise on the protein from energy production to increase protein deposition in grass carp. Besides, LA might directly promote protein synthesis through activating the mTOR pathway.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a whole-food protein (cottage cheese, CC) consumed before sleep on next-morning resting energy expenditure (REE), RER and appetite compared with an isoenergetic/isonitrogenous casein protein (CP) supplement and placebo (PL) in active women. In a beverage-blinded, randomised, cross-over design, ten active women (age, 23·1 (sd 1·9) years; body fat, 22·0 (sd 4·6) %) consumed pre-sleep CC (30 g of protein, 10 g of carbohydrate and 0 g of fat) or energy- and protein-matched liquid CP or PL (0 kJ). Participants arrived at 18.00 hours for an overnight stay in the laboratory. At 30–60 min before normal bed time (2 h post standard meal), participants consumed CC, CP or PL before measurement of REE. Upon waking (05.00–08.00 hours), REE was repeated and subjective appetite was recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using repeated-measures ANOVA (SPSS). Significance was accepted at P≤0·05. There were no significant differences in acute REE (CC, 7217 (sd 1368); CP, 7188 (SD 895); PL, 7075 (sd 1108) kJ/d, P=0·95), acute RER (0·79 (sd 0·05), P=0·56), morning REE (CC, 5840 (sd 1225); CP, 5694 (sd 732); PL, 5991 (sd 903) kJ/d, P=0·79) or morning RER (0·77 (sd 0·03), P=0·52). Subjective measures of appetite were not different between groups. In active women, pre-sleep consumption of CC does not alter REE or RER more than a CP or PL beverage. These data suggest that the metabolic response from whole-food protein do not differ from the metabolic response of liquid protein.
This study examined the effects of post-resistance exercise protein ingestion timing on the rate of gastric emptying (GE) and blood glucose (BG) and plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) responses. In all, eleven healthy participants randomly ingested 400 ml of a nutrient-rich drink containing 12 g carbohydrates and 20 g protein at rest (Con), at 5 min (post-exercise (PE)-5) or at 30 min (PE-30) after a single bout of strenuous resistance exercises. The first and second sets comprised ten repetitions at 50 % of each participant’s one-repetition maximum (1RM). The third, fourth and fifth sets comprised ten repetitions at 75 % of 1RM, and the sixth set involved repeated repetitions until exhaustion. Following ingestion of the nutrient-rich drink, we assessed the GE rate using 13C-sodium acetate breath test and evaluated two parameters according to the Tmax-calc (time when the recovery per hour is maximised), which is a standard analytical method, and T1/2 (time when the total cumulative dose of [13CO2] reaches one-half). Tmax-calc and T1/2 were slower for the PE-5 condition than for either the PE-30 or Con condition (Tmax-calc; Con: 53 (sd 7) min, PE-5: 83 (sd 16) min, PE-30: 62 (sd 9) min, T1/2; Con: 91 (sd 7) min, PE-5: 113 (sd 21) min, PE-30: 91 (sd 11) min, P<0·05). BG and BCAA responses were also slower for the PE-5 condition than for either the PE-30 or Con condition. Ingesting nutrients immediately after strenuous resistance exercise acutely delayed GE, which affected BG and plasma BCAA levels in blood circulation.
Beetroot juice (BJ) consumption has been associated with improved cardiovascular health owing to an increase in NO bioconversion. This study evaluates the effect of BJ consumption on macrovascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) and muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) parameters in pregnant women within a randomised, crossover, double-blind design in which twelve pregnant women consumed a single dose (140 ml) of BJ or placebo (PLA). Urinary nitrate was assessed before (T0) and 150 min after BJ/PLA consumption. FMD was used to evaluate macrovascular endothelial function, and near-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate muscle StO2 parameters during the occlusion and reperfusion phases, which were taken at baseline (PRE) and 120 and 140 min after BJ/PLA consumption, respectively. A significant increase in urinary nitrate was observed at 150 min after BJ consumption when compared with T0 (BJ: 0·20 (sd 0·13) v. T0: 0·02 (sd 0·00), P=0·000) and PLA intervention (PLA: 0·02 (sd 0·00), P=0·001). FMD improved after BJ consumption when compared with PRE (BJ: 11·00 (sd 1·67) v. PRE: 5·53 (sd 1·17), P=0·000) and PLA (5·34 (sd 1·31), P=0·000). No significant difference between PLA and PRE in FMD (P=1·000) was observed. In StO2 parameters, a difference was not observed after BJ consumption compared with PRE and PLA intervention. The data demonstrate that a single dose of 140 ml of BJ consumption improves macrovascular endothelial function, but not StO2 parameters.
Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota may influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet, particularly fibre intake, may modify gut microbiota composition, which may affect cancer risk. We investigated the relationship between dietary fibre intake and gut microbiota in adults. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assessed gut microbiota in faecal samples from 151 adults in two independent study populations: National Cancer Institute (NCI), n 75, and New York University (NYU), n 76. We calculated energy-adjusted fibre intake based on FFQ. For each study population with adjustment for age, sex, race, BMI and smoking, we evaluated the relationship between fibre intake and gut microbiota community composition and taxon abundance. Total fibre intake was significantly associated with overall microbial community composition in NYU (P=0·008) but not in NCI (P=0·81). In a meta-analysis of both study populations, higher fibre intake tended to be associated with genera of class Clostridia, including higher abundance of SMB53 (fold change (FC)=1·04, P=0·04), Lachnospira (FC=1·03, P=0·05) and Faecalibacterium (FC=1·03, P=0·06), and lower abundance of Actinomyces (FC=0·95, P=0·002), Odoribacter (FC=0·95, P=0·03) and Oscillospira (FC=0·96, P=0·06). A species-level meta-analysis showed that higher fibre intake was marginally associated with greater abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FC=1·03, P=0·07) and lower abundance of Eubacterium dolichum (FC=0·96, P=0·04) and Bacteroides uniformis (FC=0·97, P=0·05). Thus, dietary fibre intake may impact gut microbiota composition, particularly class Clostridia, and may favour putatively beneficial bacteria such as F. prausnitzii. These findings warrant further understanding of diet–microbiota relationships for future development of colorectal cancer prevention strategies.
The addition of vegetable to carbohydrate-based meals was shown to contribute to glycaemic management. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of homogenisation on vegetables added to rice meals in terms of acute glycaemic responses (GR). In a randomised crossover trial, sixteen healthy volunteers completed thirteen test sessions, which included two sessions for glucose control, two for rice and nine for different vegetable-rice mixed meals: cooked pak choi and cooked rice (CP+R); cooked cauliflower and cooked rice (CC+R); cooked eggplant and cooked rice (CE+R); and their homogenised counterparts, both raw or cooked. Postprandial GR tests, in vitro carbohydrate digestion and chemical analyses were carried out for each test meal. Compared with pure rice, CE+R, CP+R and CC+R meals achieved significantly lower glycaemic indexes (GI) of 67, 71 and 73, whereas their homogenised counterparts failed to show significant difference with rice. The hydrolysis indexes (HI) of CE+R, CP+R and CC+R were 69·6, 83·8 and 80·6 % of the HI of the rice control. CE had the greatest effect on lowering the GI, the incremental area under the blood glucose curve from 0 to 120 min, the peak glucose value, the maximum amplitude of glucose excursion in 0–120 min (MAGE0–120), the HI and rapid available starch. Both in vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated that incorporating non-homogenised cooked vegetables into a rice meal could slow the carbohydrate digestion and improve postprandial GR. Texture properties of vegetable may play an important role in underlying glycaemic control mechanisms.
Current guidelines provide a universal recommendation on vitamin D intake to prevent insufficiency. However, the relative influence of food, UVB and other factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency has been poorly investigated in preschool children. We assessed serum 25(OH)D quantities and their association with vitamin D intake using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for children aged 3–6 years (BDHQ3y), outdoor playing time and background UVB radiation level among 574 36-month-old Japanese children living at latitude 35°N. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration was 23·5 (sd 6·1) ng/ml, and 170 (29·6 %) children had vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) despite high consumption of fish. Multiple logistic regression adjusting for social factors showed that when background UVB radiation level was <15 kJ/m2 (monthly average), there was a 1·89 (95 % CI 1·31, 2·74) times higher risk of vitamin D insufficiency, to which vitamin D intake nor time spent outdoors were significantly associated. ANOVA showed that the contribution of the variability in vitamin D intake on the variability of serum 25(OH)D level was 1·8 % of that of UVB exposure. The correlation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D level was not stronger when limited to measurements in winter. We found that nearly 30 % of 3-year-old Japanese children had vitamin D insufficiency despite high consumption of fish and living at relatively low latitude. We failed to observe an association between vitamin D intake and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency. This may be due to the extremely limited access to vitamin D-fortified food and supplements for children in Japan.
Maternal dietary patterns and macronutrients intake have been shown to affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to identify maternal dietary patterns and examine their associations with GDM risk, and to evaluate the contributions of macronutrients intake to these associations. We included 2755 Chinese pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ 2 weeks before the diagnosis of GDM. GDM (n 248) was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. We derived five different dietary patterns from a principal component analysis. The results showed that high fish–meat–eggs scores, which were positively related to protein intake and inversely related to carbohydrate intake, were associated with a higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 4 v. quartile 1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·79; Ptrend=0·007) and higher plasma glucose levels. In contrast, high rice–wheat–fruits scores, which were positively related to carbohydrate intake and inversely related to protein intake, were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 3 v. quartile 1: 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83; Ptrend=0·010) and lower plasma glucose levels. In addition, dietary protein and carbohydrate intake significantly contributed to the associations between dietary patterns and GDM risk or glucose levels. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterised by high protein and low carbohydrate intake in pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM, which may provide important clues for dietary guidance during pregnancy to prevent GDM.
The Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) has been developed to guide food and beverage reformulation. The WHO published guidelines to develop and validate nutrient profiling systems. The objective was to conduct validation tests of the NNPS following principles of the WHO guidelines. French (Individual and National Survey on food Consumption 2006–2007) and the USA (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2011–2012) nationally representative dietary surveys were used. NNPS outcomes (PASS, FAIL, out-of-scope) of foods were compared with the validated UK Ofcom nutrient profiling system outcomes. Contributions of NNPS outcomes to energy intakes were compared between diets nutritional quality classes defined by two methods: based on a food-based quality indicator (Programme National Nutrition Santé Guideline Score in France, Healthy Eating Index 2010 in the USA) or on a combination of three nutrient-based indicators (mean adequacy ratio, mean excess ratio and energy density). In both countries, food items with a NNPS FAIL outcome had a lower nutritional quality according to the UK Ofcom, with an overall agreement between the two systems of 75·7 % in France and 68·8 % in the USA. In both countries, a high (respectively, low) contribution of NNPS PASS (respectively, NNPS FAIL) was positively associated with diet healthiness. Absolute associations were stronger between the contribution of NNPS FAIL products and measures of diet healthiness. Foods and beverages reaching NNPS standards appeared to have a higher nutritional quality and would be more likely to contribute to healthier diets, mainly linked to a reduction of nutrients to limit.
The aims of this study were to describe which and when food textures are offered to children between 4 and 36 months in France and to identify the associated factors. An online cross-sectional survey was designed, including questions about 188 food texture combinations representing three texture levels: purées (T1), soft small pieces (T2) and hard/large pieces and double textures (T3). Mothers indicated which combinations they already offered to their child. A food texture exposure score (TextExp) was calculated for all of the texture levels combined and for each texture level separately. Associations between TextExp and maternal and child characteristics and feeding practices were explored by multiple linear regressions, per age class. Answers from 2999 mothers living in France, mostly educated and primiparous, were analysed. Over the first year, children were mainly exposed to purées. Soft and small pieces were slowly introduced between 6 and 22 months, whereas hard/large pieces were mainly introduced from 13 months onwards. TextExp was positively associated with children’s number of teeth and ability to eat alone with their finger or a fork. For almost all age classes, TextExp was higher in children introduced to complementary feeding earlier, lower for children who were offered only commercial baby foods and higher for those who were offered only home-made/non-specific foods during the second year. Our study shows that until 12 months of age the majority of French children were exposed to pieces to a small extent. It provides new insights to further understand the development of texture acceptance during a key period for the development of eating habits.