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This chapter examines ways of measuring the growth in the output of different kinds of print and, where possible, shifts in subject areas and genres. It notes that the confrontational use of print for political purposes was strongly dependent on precise context. As had been the case since the Reformation, the market potential of print did not develop in a linear way. To manage a printing business required considerable investment, as well as a good feel for reader interests and a willingness to take risks in times of crisis or repression. In those parts of Europe which had strong print markets, not just for books but also pamphlets, serials and more ephemeral outputs, we can therefore use the new history of print not only to underpin a better understanding of changing political cultures, but also to re-evaluate the complexity of political interactions outside the educated elite.
In Singapore, the core curriculum for end-of-life (EOL) care used in nurse training courses is limited. Only 45% of nurses indicated familiarity with inpatient palliative care. Nurses who lack skills in palliative care may develop anxiety and negative attitudes towards caring for dying patients. We explored whether a two-day, multimodal EOL care workshop could reduce nurses’ death anxiety and improve nurses’ skills, knowledge, and attitude towards palliative care.
Forty-five nurses participated in the workshop. At baseline before and at six weeks after, a 20-item knowledge-based questionnaire and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) were administered. Six weeks post-workshop, in-depth interviews were conducted. We employed descriptive statistics, student paired samples t-test and inductive thematic analysis.
There was a significant improvement in nurses’ knowledge score (p < 0.01) and reduction in their death anxiety score (p < 0.01). Fear of Death (p = 0.025) and Death Avoidance (p = 0.047) sub-scores decreased significantly. However, the remaining domains such as Neutral Acceptance, Approach Acceptance, and Escape Acceptance did not show any significant difference, although Escape Acceptance showed a trend towards a reduced score (p = 0.063). After the workshop, more nurses adopted the Neutral Acceptance stance (76.2%), and none of them fell into the Fear of Death subdomain. Most nurses interviewed reported a positive change in their knowledge, attitudes, and practice even after the workshop.
Significance of results
The multimodal palliative care workshop was useful in improving nurses’ EOL knowledge and reducing their anxiety towards death. The positive change in nurses’ attitudes and practices were noted to be sustained for at least six weeks after the intervention.
High impact biomedical research is increasingly conducted by large, transdisciplinary, multisite teams in an increasingly collaborative environment. Thriving in this environment requires robust teamwork skills, which are not acquired automatically in the course of traditional scientific education. Team science skills training does exist, but most is directed at clinical care teams, not research teams, and little is focused on the specific training needs of early-career investigators, whose early team leadership experiences may shape their career trajectories positively or negatively. Our research indicated a need for team science training designed specifically for early-career investigators.
To address this need, we designed and delivered a 2-day workshop focused on teaching team science skills to early-career investigators. We operationalized team science competencies, sought the advice of team science experts, and performed a needs assessment composed of a survey and a qualitative study. Through these multiple approaches, we identified and grouped training priorities into three broad training areas and developed four robust, hands-on workshop sessions.
Attendees comprised 30 pre- and post-doc fellows (TL1) and early-career faculty (KL2 and K12). We assessed impact with a pre- and post-workshop survey adapted from the Team Skills Scale. Results from the pre- and post-test Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis (n = 25) showed statistically significant improvement in team science skills and confidence. Open-ended responses indicated that the workshop focus was appropriate and well targeted to the trainees’ needs.
Although team science education is still very much in its infancy, these results suggest that training targeted to early-career investigators improves team skills and may foster improved collaboration.
Monitoring properly the circularity performance of technical products is a point of increasing importance. Yet, evaluating the circularity potential of products during (re)design and development phases is a challenging task. In this study, several C-indicators are experienced by doctoral students and industrialists through two workshops on a real-world industrial product. The values obtained for each indicator are collected and analyzed: as all participant are working on the same technical product with the same dataset, the circularity scores calculated are compared to discuss the reliability and the uncertainty related to these indicators. These new empirical insights are put in parallel with the existing critical analyses of C-indicators from literature. As a result, future research directions on circularity indicators are advanced and discussed, including: the integration of uncertainty considerations into the assessment methodology of circularity indicators; the uptake by industry of such indicators during product design and development; the link between circularity and sustainability scores.
Innovation and creativity are a mandatory for companies who wish to stay competitive. In order to promote an inventive dynamic, it implies to set up tools, habits, and an adapted environment to foster creativity. Creativity is the wealth of companies that should be valorized. To promote creativity, companies implement creativity workshops that gather people with various roles and expertise exchange and create knowledge to solve collectively open-ended engineering problems. However, group dynamics or facilitation can make the wrong decision and make the creative problem-solving unfruitful. The aim of our research project is to create a digital system to manage and valorize knowledge during creativity workshops. To design this system, we need to formalize the knowledge domain of creative workshops. The ontologies are used for decades to structure and manage information and knowledge in different domains. However, methodologies to design these ontologies are either hardly reproducible or not oriented to extract knowledge from organization. This article describes a methodology based on an organizational modeling to build ontologies. We will illustrate our approach by designing an ontology that models knowledge of creativity workshops.
Biological invasions are one of the grand challenges facing society, as exotic species introductions continue to rise and can result in dramatic changes to native ecosystems and economies. The scale of the “biological invasions crisis” spans from hyperlocal to international, involving a myriad of actors focused on mitigating and preventing biological invasions. However, the level of engagement among stakeholders and opportunities to collaboratively solve invasives issues in transdisciplinary ways is poorly understood. The Biological Invasions: Confronting a Crisis workshop engaged a broad group of actors working on various aspects of biological invasions in Virginia, USA—researchers, Extension personnel, educators, local, state, and federal agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and land managers—to discuss their respective roles and how they interact with other groups. Through a series of activities, it became clear that despite shared goals, most groups are not engaging with one another, and that enhanced communication and collaboration among groups is key to designing effective solutions. There is strong support for a multistakeholder coalition to affect change in policy, public education/engagement, and solution design. Confronting the biological invasions crisis will increasingly require engagement among stakeholders.
The city of Jerash in northern Jordan was badly damaged by an earthquake in AD 749. As a result of this, many parts of the city, including the Northwest Quarter, were abandoned and further construction ceased. Archaeological excavations in those parts of the city therefore reveal snapshots in time from the moment at which disaster hit. Of particular interest is the so-called ‘House of the Tesserae’, where archaeologists discovered a trough for the storage of pieces to be used in the construction of mosaics. The find, reported here for the first time, provides a unique insight into the practice of mosaic-laying during the Early Islamic Period.
Excavation of the Han Dynasty chambered tomb at Laoguanshan in Chengdu, south-west China, has provided the earliest known evidence of pattern loom technology. Four model looms, along with accompanying artefacts and figurines relating to the weaving process, give insight into the technique of jin silk production. The discovery is hugely significant as it provides the first direct evidence of pattern-weave textile production in ancient China. Jin silk, made using this method, was both valuable and widely distributed, and the design of the machine influenced the invention of later looms and the spread of technology throughout Eurasia and Europe, representing great technological accomplishment for the second century BC.
Triage is the systematic prioritization of casualties when there is an imbalance between the needs of these casualties and resource availability. The triage sieve is a recognized process for prioritizing casualties for treatment during mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). While the application of a triage sieve generally is well-accepted, the measurement of its accuracy has been somewhat limited. Obtaining reliable measures for triage sieve accuracy rates is viewed as a necessity for future development in this area.
The goal of this study was to investigate how theoretical knowledge acquisition and the practical application of an aide-memoir impacted triage sieve accuracy rates.
Two hundred and ninety-two paramedics were allocated randomly to one of four separate sub-groups, a non-intervention control group, and three intervention groups, which involved them receiving either an educational review session and/or an aide-memoir. Participants were asked to triage sieve 20 casualties using a previously trialed questionnaire.
The study showed the non-intervention control group had a correct accuracy rate of 47%, a similar proportion of casualties found to be under-triaged (37%), but a significantly lower number of casualties were over-triaged (16%). The provision of either an educational review or aide-memoir significantly increased the correct triage sieve accuracy rate to 77% and 90%, respectively. Participants who received both the educational review and aide-memoir had an overall accuracy rate of 89%. Over-triaged rates were found not to differ significantly across any of the study groups.
This study supports the use of an aide-memoir for maximizing MCI triage accuracy rates. A “just-in-time” educational refresher provided comparable benefits, however its practical application to the MCI setting has significant operational limitations. In addition, this study provides some guidance on triage sieve accuracy rate measures that can be applied to define acceptable performance of a triage sieve during a MCI.
CuttanceG, DansieK, RaynerT. Paramedic Application of a Triage Sieve: A Paper-Based Exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):3–13.
Background: Problem anger is frequently experienced by the general population and is known to cause significant problems for the individual and those around them. Whilst psychological treatments for problem anger are becoming increasingly established, this is still an under-researched area of mental health. We present an evaluation of a series of one-day anger management workshops for the public, targeting problem anger with a cognitive-behavioural approach. Aims: The main aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief group-based anger intervention in terms of subjectively reported anger provocation levels and of depression and anxiety. Method: Workshop participants completed a number of questionnaire measures at baseline before the intervention and at 1 month follow-up. The key questionnaires measured self-reported anger provocation levels (Novaco Anger Scale-Provocation Inventory), depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9) and symptoms of generalized anxiety (GAD-7). Change scores were analysed using repeated measures analyses. Results: We found a significant reduction in anger provocation among workshop participants at 1 month follow-up (p = .03). Reductions in depression and anxiety were not statistically significant. Conclusions: We conclude that this brief psychoeducational anger intervention was effective in a small community sample and suggest future work should assess the effectiveness on similar brief interventions using a larger client group and examine outcomes on a broader range of anger measures.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that traditionally has been linked to bone health. Recently, its involvement has been extended to other (extra-skeletal) disease areas, such as cancer, CVD, energy metabolism and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide problem, and several recommendation-setting bodies have published guidelines for adequate vitamin D intake and status. However, recommendations from, for example, the Health Council of the Netherlands do not provide advice on how to treat vitamin D deficiency, a condition that is often encountered in the clinic. In addition, these recommendations provide guidelines for the maintenance of ‘minimum levels’, and do not advise on ‘optimum levels’ of vitamin D intake/status to further improve health. The NutriProfiel project, a collaboration between the Gelderse Vallei Hospital (Ede, the Netherlands) and the Division of Human Nutrition of Wageningen University (Wageningen, the Netherlands), was initiated to formulate a protocol for the treatment of vitamin deficiency and for the maintenance of optimal vitamin D status. To discuss the controversies around treatment of deficiency and optimal vitamin D status and intakes, a workshop meeting was organised with clinicians, scientists and dietitians. In addition, a literature review was conducted to collect recent information on optimal intake of vitamins, their optimal circulating concentrations, and effective dosing regimens to treat deficiency. This information has been translated into the NutriProfiel advice, which is outlined in this article.
To improve engagement of Health Visitors and Community Practitioners delivering the Healthy Child Programme with fathers. To evaluate a one-day, father-focused workshop with a supporting handbook for Practitioners. To identify institutional and organisational barriers to engagement with fathers.
The UK government policy encourages health professionals to engage with fathers. This derives from robust evidence that fathers’ early involvement with their children impacts positively on emotional, behavioural and educational development. Yet, there is little evidence that the importance of engaging fathers is reflected in Health Visitor training or that primary-care services are wholly embracing father-inclusive practice. The Fatherhood Institute (FI), a UK charity, has developed a workshop for Practitioners delivering the Healthy Child Programme.
A ‘before and after’ evaluation study, comprising a survey followed by telephone interviews, evaluated the impact of the FI workshop on Health Visitors’ and Community Practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in practice. A total of 134 Health Visitors and Community Practitioners from eight NHS Trusts in England attended the workshop from November 2011 to January 2014 at 12 sites. A specially constructed survey, incorporating a validated questionnaire, was administered before the workshop, immediately afterwards and three months later. Telephone interviews further explored participants’ responses.
Analysis of the questionnaire data showed that the workshop and handbook improved participants’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in practice. This was sustained over a three-month period. In telephone interviews, most participants said that the workshop had raised their awareness of engaging fathers and offered them helpful strategies. However, they also spoke of barriers to engagement with fathers. NHS Trusts need to review the training and education of Health Visitors and Community Practitioners and take a more strategic approach towards father-inclusive practice and extend services to meet the needs of fathers.
This article argues that the art world's current fascination for dance follows on from a previous high point of interaction in the late 1960s and 1970s, and before that, a moment in the late 1930s and early 1940s. It traces these first, second, and third waves of dance in the museum at three institutions: the Tate in London, and the Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. Three institutional histories are sketched, drawing out the differences between their approaches. The conclusion presents the four most pressing possibilities/problems of presenting dance in the museum: historical framing, spectatorship, altering the work's meaning, and financial support.
The present article comprises a multidisciplinary archaeometric approach for the study of Hellenistic and Early Roman kilns in Greece. A collection of previously published and new archaeomagnetic data are combined with new results from mineralogical analytical experiments. The sampled material came from four areas, covering different geological contexts: Katerini, Olympiada, and Polymylos in mainland Greece, and the island of Paros. Extensive rock-magnetic experiments, including identification of the dominant ferromagnetic minerals present, their domain state, and mineralogical alterations during laboratory treatments, have been carried out in order to examine the magnetic properties of the studied materials and prove their suitability for reliable archaeomagnetic determinations. Magnetic cleaning provided well-defined archaeomagnetic directions, and archaeointensity measurements were carried out using both the Thellier-Thellier and Triaxe protocols. Information from both magnetic and mineralogical properties referring to firing conditions is further discussed along with archaeological information. Finally, a new dating of the four sites together with other structures of similar age was carried out using the Pavón-Carrasco model.
In this article Owen Holland examines Ewan MacColl's early work in agit-prop theatre and his later activity as a songwriter, performer, and collector in the second British folk revival. He argues that his experience in the theatre provides a necessary route into understanding the problems of his later work – and what unites the ‘two halves’ is MacColl's consistent sense of the function of art (specifically his preferred media of drama and song) within a wider politico-cultural praxis. There is a contradiction in MacColl's praxis, however, in that while he wanted to create a popular culture of participation, his dogmatic textual strategies and exclusivist tendencies often became coercive enough to undermine his intentions. The discussion of MacColl's writing is situated within a critique of the problems that appear in his wider praxis, and Holland concludes by asserting that MacColl's agency as a writer was achieved through the development of a performance-oriented aesthetic. Owen Holland is a PhD candidate in the English Faculty at the University of Cambridge, affiliated to St Catharine's College. His research focuses on utopian fiction in the late nineteenth century, with a particular interest in William Morris.
This controlled trial of a teacher training intervention aimed to increase teacher competence in managing the problem behaviours associated with Asperger's syndrome, as manifested in a classroom setting. All teacher-participants currently managed a student with Asperger's syndrome in an inclusive classroom setting. Measures were taken on two occasions: pre-workshop and 6-week follow-up. Variables of interest were number of problem behaviours, success of teacher strategies used to manage problem behaviours and teacher self-efficacy in managing behaviours. Qualitative data assessing both the utility of the workshop and effectiveness of the individual management strategies was also gathered. At 6-week follow up, teachers reported increased confidence in their ability to manage the student with Asperger's syndrome, fewer problem behaviours displayed by the student and increased success in using strategies to manage the student in the classroom. The utility of both the workshop itself and individual management strategies were also endorsed by all teacher-participants. Suggestions for future research and limitation of the study are also discussed.