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This chapter gives a general overview of the research topic, the motivation for the study, and its general theoretical and methodological embedding. It articulates the research questions of the study and provides an overview of the following chapters.
This chapter discusses the data and method applied in the present study. It gives a concise overview of the ICE corpus project and the ten national sub-corpora that enter the analysis as well as describing how the Twitter (TwICE) corpus was sampled. Following this, the catalog of 236 linguistic features extracted from the corpus data is introduced. The chapter concludes with a description of the individual steps and parameter settings of the statistical procedure and a bird’s eye view of the resulting space of variation.
This chapter presents the next three dimensions. These differ from those presented in Chapter 5 in that they are dominated by a single register, i.e. they show particularly high values for one specific kind of corpus text.
Whilst representations of old age and older people in traditional media have been well documented, examinations of such representations within social media discourse are still scarce. This is an unfortunate omission because of the importance of social media for communication in contemporary society. In this study, we combine content analysis and discourse analysis to explore patterns of representation on Twitter around the terms ageing, old age, older people and elderly with a sample of 1,200 tweets. Our analysis shows that ‘personal concerns/views’ and ‘health and social care’ are the predominant overall topics, although some topics are clearly linked with specific keywords. The language often used in the tweets seems to reinforce negative discourses of age and ageing that locate older adults as a disempowered, vulnerable and homogeneous group; old age is deemed a problem and ageing is considered something that needs to be resisted, slowed or disguised. These topics and discursive patterns are indeed similar to those found in empirical studies of social perceptions and traditional media portrayal of old age, which indicates that social media and Twitter in particular appears to serve as an online platform that reproduces and reinforces existing ageist discourses in traditional media that feed into social perceptions of ageing and older people.
This paper examines the ways that social movement organizations affiliated with the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement use Twitter through three content analysis studies. The main finding presented in the paper is that the modal tweet generated between December 1, 2015 and October 31, 2016 was an emotional response—an expression of sadness, outrage, or despair—to police brutality and the killings of African Americans. The second key finding is that BLM organizations generated more tweets that framed the movement as a struggle for individual rights than ones that utilized frames about gender, racial, and LGBTQ identities. Finally, the paper shows that BLM activists urge their followers to pursue disruptive repertoires of contention less frequently than they encourage other political behaviors. These findings suggest that the BLM movement is intelligible through both the resource mobilization and new social movement paradigms within social movement studies.
In August 2017, several hundred white nationalists marched on the small university town of Charlottesville, Virginia. The rally turned tragic when one of the protesters rammed his car into a crowd of counterprotesters, killing 32-year-old Heather Heyer. The Washington Post characterized the protesters as “a meticulously organized, well-coordinated and heavily armed company of white nationalists.”1
looks at why and how emoji encourage creative expression and documents the many playful ways in which they’re used. It asks why people translate works of literature into them and how swearing in emoji is more to do with language play than actual verbal abuse. It considers these questions within the context of the way that social media is itself encouraging a boom in creativity and user-made content and how emoji culture is very much part of this - and particularly its relation to meme culture. The chapter also looks at how emoji both reflect different aspects of modern culture in their design and are being incorporated within modern culture itself.
of this study was to examine the Twitter experiences and networks of six adults with cognitive-communication disability after a traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Using mixed methods, the study integrated: (a) quantitative analysis of Twitter networks using computational and manual coding of tweets; and (b) narrative analysis of in-depth interviews.
Diverse experiences were evident, with two experienced and four novice users of the platform. However, all reported feeling connected and included, and identified both positive and negative experiences in their use of Twitter. Developing a supportive network facilitated higher frequency of tweets and increased feelings of enjoyment and connectedness. All expressed a desire to continue using or learning to use Twitter but novices lacked support from rehabilitation professionals or experienced Twitter users, and relied instead on a “trial and error” approach.
Proactive integration of Twitter use during rehabilitation after TBI is warranted to support safe, enjoyable, and meaningful use.
This study analyzes language choice, bi- and multilingualism, and gender in a corpus of over 22 million Twitter messages by almost 36,000 authors from the Nordic countries and territories. Author location, gender, and tweet language are identified using a novel method. Three principal findings are discussed: First, gendered preference for particular languages in the Nordics can be explained in part by patterns of gendered migration. Second, a distinct geographical pattern of female/male preference for the national languages of the region and for English is evident for users who are likely native users of a Nordic language: Females are more likely to use English, while males are more likely to use a Nordic language. Third, while high rates of bi- and multilingualism are found across the whole sample, males are more likely to use more than one language in all the Nordic countries/territories. The latter two findings are interpreted in light of sociolinguistic considerations as evidence for incipient language shift towards English for Nordic users on the Twitter platform.
Introduction: Different tools have been developed to complement medical training, and improve student learning. Although social media has been described as an innovative educational strategy, evidence for its use is scarce in emergency medicine (EM). The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate whether brief teaching points (tweets) sent to medical students (MS) via a Twitter feed, would yield better exam score at the end of an emergency medicine (EM) rotation. Methods: Participants included in this prospective cohort study were MS completing an EM rotation at our tertiary care academic center. The control group was recruited from December 2016 to November 2017 and the experimental group from November 2017 to November 2018. The MS in the experimental group were invited to follow a Twitter feed. A total of 32 EM-related tweets based on learning objectives were sent out throughout the 4 week rotation. At the end of the rotation, MS of both cohorts took an exam and completed a survey of assiduity and appreciation. Exam scores were compared using t-tests. Results: A total of 80 MS were recruited for the study, 38 in the experimental cohort. Average exam scores were similar in both cohorts (control = 63 ± 9% vs experimental = 64 ± 8% for a mean difference of -2% [95%CI -6 to 2], p = 0.37). Of the experimental group, only 7 (18%) of the participants reported viewing more than 50% of the tweets. There was no difference between mean exam scores of this sub-group and that of the control cohort (66 ± 10% for a mean difference of 4% [95%CI -4 to 11], p = 0.33). The majority (n = 20, 53%) of the MS in the experimental cohort did not read any tweets. When compared to the rest of the experimental cohort MS who reported viewing ≥50% of the tweets found the Twitter feed to be a useful educational tool. Indeed, on a 3 item Likert scale used to evaluate different aspects of appreciation, they found the Twitter feed to be beneficial to their rotation (86% vs 13%, p < 0.001) as well as helpful in patient management (71% vs 16%, p = 0.001). These same MS would have liked more tweets (100% vs 19%, p < 0.001) and would like to use Twitter in other rotations (100% vs 32%, p = 0.005). Conclusion: In this study, there was no difference in the exam scores between MS having access to regular EM-focused educational tweets in comparison to those who did not. Results also found a lower than expected assiduity of MS to the educational Twitter feed, although those who used it significantly found it useful.
In February 2016 the French spelling reform of 1990, which introduced changes to approximately 2,000 words, became the object of discussion online, after it was announced that the new spellings would be included in textbooks from September. Analysing a corpus of tweets, containing key terms from the online discussion, JeSuisCirconflexe; ognon and réforme orthographe, this study gives an insight into the reactions to this governmental linguistic intervention, the recurring themes in their discourse and how this can be interpreted as prescriptive or purist behaviour. Although previous studies have extensively analysed reactions to the 1996 spelling reform in Germany, little research has considered online lay-reactions to the French reform. Given observations that online interactions differ in many ways to equivalent offline interactions, this study can form a point of contrast to previous studies conducted in offline contexts, thereby enriching the existing literature in this field. It is also often claimed that France is a country in which linguistic purism is deeply entrenched; this article will seek further evidence for these claims.
What are the consequences of committing violent attacks for terrorist organizations? Terrorist attacks might broaden the base of supporters by increasing the perceived group efficacy. However, terrorist attacks might also lead its supporters to believe that the organization is excessively violent or involvement may become too dangerous. This article employs a unique dataset with 300,842 observations of 13,321 Twitter accounts linked to the Islamic State (IS), collected during a 127-day period, to empirically investigate the impact of terrorist attacks on the number of the organization’s supporters. By exploiting the exogenous timing of terrorist attacks as a natural experiment, we find that the number of followers of IS-related Twitter accounts significantly reduces in the aftermath of the attacks. Additionally, we provide some suggestive evidence to disentangle two mechanisms: disengagement – a change in supporters’ beliefs – and deterrence – demobilization due to fear. Because we do not find support for the latter, we conclude that the disengagement effect might explain our main result.
Drawing on evidence from the 2011 Egyptian uprising, this article demonstrates how the use of two social media platforms – Facebook and Twitter – contributed to a discrete mobilizational outcome: the staging of a successful first protest in a revolutionary cascade, referred to here as ‘first-mover mobilization’. Specifically, it argues that these two platforms facilitated the staging of a large, nationwide and seemingly leaderless protest on 25 January 2011, which signaled to hesitant but sympathetic Egyptians that a revolution might be in the making. It draws on qualitative and quantitative evidence, including interviews, social media data and surveys, to analyze three mechanisms that linked these platforms to the success of the January 25 protest: (1) protester recruitment, (2) protest planning and coordination, and (3) live updating about protest logistics. The article not only contributes to debates about the role of the Internet in the Arab Spring and other recent waves of mobilization, but also demonstrates how scholarship on the Internet in politics might move toward making more discrete, empirically grounded causal claims.
This article is part of an effort to understand the enthusiasm, attraction and admiration
of the organization “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS) among the young Muslim female
in Western Europe. The article specifically focuses on microblogging (Tumblr and Twitter)
contents of young Muslim girls from Western Europe. The study offers a review of
ISIS-adoring Tumblr fangirls in the West through the prism of cultural interpretation. The
young girls, whether themselves manipulated or manipulating others, become part of a
worldwide viral system produced in perfect unison and generating propaganda enticing more
and more young Muslim girls in the West to become viral ISIS recruits. After maintaining for
a while Tumblr and Twitter accounts, some of them even undergo the “giant leap” and migrate
to the “Islamic State” in Syria, continuing there to reinforce their blogging and twittering
efforts, reporting on their daily lives and attempting to tempt or to trap more young girls
to join the new “Islamic State”.
The use of negative political communication is a predominant characteristic of modern politics. However, literature doesn’t provide an answer to the following question: what explains fluctuations in the use of negative messages within political organisations during a given political campaign? The present paper examines this question in the context of the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. Data consists of all tweets distributed by the official Twitter account of both campaign organisations (@YesScotland and @UK_Together) between June 16, 2014 and September 17, 2014. Results are obtained by a non-parametric local regression and by time-series regression analyses. Our model demonstrates that having an advance in the polls had a statistically significant influence on the tweet sentiment of at least one organisation during the referendum campaign: Better Together’s messages were more negative when it was ahead in the polls. Meanwhile, Yes Scotland’s messages were more negative after each of the leaders’ debates.
This study compared the geospatial distribution of Ebola tweets from local health departments (LHDs) to online searches about Ebola across the United States during the 2014 Ebola outbreak.
Between September and November 2014, we collected all tweets sent by 287 LHDs known to be using Twitter. Coordinates for each Ebola tweet were imported into ArcGIS 10.2.2 to display the distribution of tweets. Online searches with the search term “Ebola” were obtained from Google Trends. A Pearson’s correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between online search activity and per capita number of LHD Ebola tweets by state.
Ebola tweets from LHDs were concentrated in cities across the northeast states, including Philadelphia and New York City. In contrast, states with the highest online search queries for Ebola were primarily in the south, particularly Oklahoma and Texas. A weak, negative, non-significant correlation (r=−0.03, P=0.83, 95% CI: −0.30, 0.25) was observed between online search activity and per capita number of LHD Ebola tweets by state.
We recommend that LHDs consider using social media to communicate possible disease outbreaks in a timely manner, and that they consider using online search data to tailor their messages to align with the public health interests of their constituents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 287–290)
Situating external engagement within the broader context of developments in Western higher education (HE) and technologies that are changing many aspects of academic life, this research note draws on the experiences of a large number of China scholars to assess the merits of Twitter for individual academics and the field as whole. Celebrating its tenth anniversary in March 2016, Twitter has shaken off its earlier image of celebrity stalking and inane ephemera and has become a tool used by many professionals working on China. Despite initial scepticism, many academics have recognized the utility of Twitter for various professional activities, including networking, increasing research visibility, gathering and disseminating information, and building a public profile. As external engagement activities become a routine expectation for academics in many Western universities, social media like Twitter have drawn attention as potentially useful tools. However, there are numerous obstacles to effective use, which this note addresses.
The integration of new knowledge into clinical practice continues to lag behind discovery. The use of Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) has disrupted communication between emergency physicians, making it easy for practicing clinicians to interact with colleagues from around the world to discuss the latest and highest impact research. FOAM has the potential to decrease the knowledge translation gap, but the concerns raised about its growing influence are 1) research that is translated too quickly may cause harm if its findings are incorrect; 2) there is little editorial oversight of online material; and 3) eminent online individuals may develop an outsized influence on clinical practice. We propose that new types of scholars are emerging to moderate the changing landscape of knowledge translation: 1) critical clinicians who critically appraise research in the same way that lay reviewers critique restaurants; 2) translational teachers adept with these new technologies who will work with researchers to disseminate their findings effectively; and 3) interactive investigators who engage with clinicians to ensure that their findings resonate and are applied at the bedside. The development of these scholars could build on the promise of evidence-based medicine by enhancing the appraisal and translation of research in practice.