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This is a story about gay/queer globalization unfolded through the narratives of Korean gay men in Seoul. In this paper, I make use of talanoa dialogues to apprehend the way race and racial hierarchies can provide insights into the conditions in which the gay subject in Seoul is intelligible in intercultural interactions. I present these narratives in the format of a thematic talanoa using Pacific Research Methodologies (PRM). In doing so, I advance a unique way to negotiate communication with participants in a cross-cultural setting, rendering myself visible as a racialized (Sāmoan) researcher. Empirically, I argue that the narratives of Korean gay men party to this study demonstrate how the Korea/local–West/global binary is an important referential, in that there exists a structural connection through immigration policies that facilitates a transnational convergence of local and global racial hierarchies. This connection, I also argue, helps to structure and position Whiteness at the apex of racial hierarchies around foreigner subjectivities in South Korea.
This article foregrounds the role of migration and transnational cultural exchange in the (trans)formation of cultures of ageing. It argues that sustained emigration and return to the Azores archipelago have contributed to the transnational production of hybrid cultures of ageing. The paper suggests that understanding transnational cultures of ageing in the context of return requires a broader field of enquiry that considers return migrants’ discursive framings in tension with transnational and local contexts. Returnees’ accounts of ageing, produced in relation to transnational exchange and local interactions, emphasise three intersecting themes – health and the ageing body, ageing and care, and mindset and work ethic in later life – which reveal a cultural shift towards forms of active ageing. The discussion shows that new, hybrid lexicons of ageing are articulated through practices and languages of othering and negotiating that are conducive to unsettling social relations and economic contexts in the homeland.
Transnationalism, globalization and superdiversity are constructs used for thinking about flows of people, information, capital, texts and ideas, how they are connected and the effects of these flows on social relations. While there are many differences in these constructs, this entry highlights commonalities of focus, intellectual roots and methods used to analyze flows and connectivity. I start by noting that much of the work carried out in this area was done by sociologists, anthropologists and those working in cultural studies, most of whom had little interest in how communicative activity figured in generating and sustaining flows, what such communicative activity looked like or how the communicative repertoires of mobile people opened or closed future life world potentials. I then go on to point out that, within sociolinguistics, the use of these concepts and the study of the phenomena they refer to have been characterized by a constant drive to understand connections between communicative events that are part of these flows, how and why different communicative events are valued, and how and why such differences can create inequality. In doing so, I point out that much of this scholarship has led to the creation of new concepts and invitations to reconceptualize how we think about language in social life.
The Epilogue casts a glance at the lives of Neville and Sidney after their return from exile as well as at Ludlow’s failed attempt to regain a foothold in England after the Glorious Revolution. It also offers an outlook on the intellectual legacy of the three exiles’ works by addressing the Whig canon and its wider influence across Europe. It suggests that the historiography of early modern English republicanism might benefit both from a fuller exploration of religious and transnational networks and from a more comprehensive study of the translation and distribution of English republican works on the Continent.
This article traces the impact of Kenya's Mau Mau uprising in Jamaica during the 1950s. Jamaican responses to Mau Mau varied dramatically by class: for members of the middle and upper classes, Mau Mau represented the worst of potential visions for a route to black liberation. But for marginalized Jamaicans in poorer areas, and especially Rastafari, Mau Mau was inspirational and represented an alternative method for procuring genuine freedom and independence. For these people, Mau Mau epitomized a different strand of pan-Africanism that had most in common with the ideas of Marcus Garvey. It was most closely aligned with, and was the forerunner of, Walter Rodney, Stokely Carmichael, and Black Power in the Caribbean. Theirs was a more radical, violent, and black-focused vision that ran alongside and sometimes over more traditional views. Placing Mau Mau in the Jamaican context reveals these additional levels of intellectual thought that are invisible without its presence. It also forces us to rethink the ways we periodize pan-Africanism and consider how pan-African linkages operated in the absence of direct contact between different regions.
Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, Latin America became something of a dumping ground for U.S. priests suspected of sexual abuse, with north-to-south clerical transfers sending predatory priests to countries where pedophilia did not exist in any kind of ontological sense. This article, in response, engages the case of Father David Roney of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. After a career of accusations and payouts, with Roney entering and exiting Church-mandated therapy programs, Bishop Raymond Lucker retired this notoriously predatory priest to rural Guatemala in 1994. By placing Roney beyond the reach of psychiatrists, psychologists, and spiritual directors, the Roman Catholic Church leveraged a psychological and juridical difference between two geographical settings in order to render the pedophilia of this priest effectively non-existent, thereby insulating itself from further reputational damage and additional litigation. Given that the Roman Catholic Church has long been an empirical point of reference for studies of subject formation—from pastoralism and mysticism to ritual and the confession—this article adds that the Church also provides ample evidence of an opposite process: of unmaking people.
In “Post-ߢAmerican’ Hemingway Studies: Multicultural Approaches and Redefinitions of Expatriation,” Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera explores the way that transnationalism has expanded notions of expatriation as they apply to Hemingway’s relationship with the foreign locales that became his adopted home – in particular, Europe, Cuba, and Africa. Beginning with the provocative argument that definitions of “American” are inevitably provisional, Herlihy-Mera examines how Hemingway scholarship in recent years has dislodged notions of him as a “foreigner” in other countries. These redefinitions cut across a range of topics, from Hemingway’s relationships with writers of other nations to his integration into local culture through the adaptation of rituals and sacraments to the psychology of speaking in a second or third language. Herlihy-Mera also explores the rise of critical concepts such as movement and immersion, both of which have redefined perceptions of the relationship between the self and other. Finally, he explores the possibilities that neurolinguistics offers.
Why a transnational history of Carmen? Because Carmen is intrinsically born of – and about –migration and linguistic fluidity, and because Bizet’s opera has been transcended by the myth or symbol of Carmen, taken to mean many things in multiple contexts. This chapter lays the foundations for the rest of the book by highlighting the main sources – Mérimée’s novella, the opera libretto, its first stagings and scores – as well as challenging the precepts of a transnational history of opera, and attempts to weave the individual chapters together, draw out overlapping themes, challenge expected narratives, point up contradictions. In short, whether in relation to genre, singers or binary oppositions of geography, identity, morality and progress, the chapter outlines the main debates addressed and synthesises the kaleidoscopic nature of the findings of all contributors. From Spanish gypsies to French Hispanomania in music and dance, from Parisian reception to transnationalism in opera studies, from Parisian opéra-comique to international hybrid spectacle, this chapter signals the issues that are omnipresent in the performance and reception of Carmen at home and abroad.
The South Korean radio docudrama and adapted novel Take Me Home (1978) were based on the real-life case of Chol Soo Lee, who in 1974 was wrongly convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment in the United States. Lee was later acquitted following a series of investigative reports and amid an emerging social movement calling for his release that spanned South Korea and the United States. Influenced by both the American civil rights movement and the Korean progressive minjung ideology, Take Me Home is among several popular radio programs and novels that helped spark this transpacific movement by critiquing US hegemony and Korean state nationalism and by reimagining the figure of the tongp'o in the context of a nascent pan-Korean consciousness. This article traces how the tongp'o is foregrounded, constructed, and ultimately saved in Take Me Home and argues that the radio novel's sonic imagination played a crucial role in broadcasting solidarity across the Pacific.
European solidarity has become a focal point of discussion in the recent decades. This chapter takes a closer look at European solidarity and develops a conceptual framework that distinguishes between different levels of aggregation and institutionalisation, namely informal citizens’ networks, organised civil societies and welfare states. The EU furnishes an instructive case because solidarity is organised and institutionalised in a more fragmented manner, when compared to the nation state. The chapter engages in a discussion of the implications of this peculiar situation, by presenting data about transnational solidarity by citizens’ groups and civil society organisations. The empirical findings show that civic initiatives and organisations across Europe are actively engaged in supporting troubled groups, and that the organisational field reacts to upcoming crises and grievances. At the same time, however, European civic solidarity exhibits moments of fragmentation, fragility and volatility, given the limitations of its institutional context.
This brief biography of Blazquez de Pedro illustrates not only his central ideas but more importantly how he was representative of Caribbean transnational anarchism. As a Spanish soldier in the 1890s, he fought against anarchist-supported independence for Cuba. After the war, he discovered anarchism and became an important literary and educational figure in the movement. In 1914, he moved to Panama and helped the isthmus maintain regional linkages with Havana. He combined literary with labor anarchism in the 1910s and 1920s, becoming the most recognizable face of anarchism in Central America. His deportation to and death in Cuba was not the end of his transnational wanderings as comrades returned his remains to Panama in 1929.
The Introduction explores the origins and growth of the Caribbean anarchist network on the backs of US imperial expansion after 1898. Anarchist migration around the Caribbean, the creation and distribution of anarchist cultural productions, and the key production and distribution of the anarchist press (especially out of Havana) enabled anarchists to forge and maintain a network with its hub in Havana that radiated to New York, Tampa, Mexico, Los Angeles, Panama, the Canal Zone, and Puerto Rico.
Joanne Leal’s chapter investigates how far and how exactly cinema is able to offer a representational counterbalance to conservative notions of national belonging and exclusionary constructions of what social cohesion should mean. It considers these issues mainly within a Western European framework, asking what film can do to promote intercultural sensitivities within contemporary European contexts in which attitudes to the impact of globalization and particularly the transnational movement of people are often ambivalent and sometimes actively hostile. In particular it examines critical assessments of the positive intercultural impact of watching foreign cinema, the possible political effects of films which encourage empathetic responses to transnational tales contained in generically familiar forms and the critical potential of two kinds of film which uses less conventional cinematic means to represent a globalized social world.
The decades that followed 1940 in Ireland are conventionally framed in terms of literary underperformance and political exhaustion. This introduction sets out the volume as an important intervention into this common perception, energised by what can be considered a quantitative turn in Irish cultural criticism, with a concomitant spatial expansion of what can be termed ‘Irish literature’. This gives way to a discussion of how an ingrained theme in twentieth-century critical perspectives – that of distance between Irish culture and European and international influences – is belied by a contemporary literature which registered the impact of proximity and connection. The introduction goes on to discuss how these connections are measured by subsequent essays in the volume, some of which are thematised around literary traffic between Ireland and Europe, America, Britain, and beyond. The genres which contained these communications are also discussed in contributions, alongside the often interrelated questions of language, publishing, and reception, amongst others. In its conclusion, the essay describes the fragility of the Irish literary canon, offering the Irish writing of this period as uneven despite the international recognition that many of its authors were receiving.
The European popularity of the novel of sentiment, particularly in France, changed the geography of reception for early Irish novels, with increased cultural exchanges taking place between Ireland and France. Frances Sheridan’s The Memoirs of Miss Sidney Bidulph (1761) and Conclusion of the Memoirs of Miss Sidney Bidulph (1767) were both translated into French within their first years of publication, for example, both novels clearly having been informed by French works. The audience in Ireland for sentimental writing from France was extensive, and works by Marie-Jeanne Riccoboni were particularly in demand. A comparative reading of the novels of Sheridan and Riccoboni reveals links in themes and style, form and emphasis, while also offering evidence for parallels in the two women’s experience of translation as a force of transnationalism. This chapter considers the careers and publication histories of Sheridan and Riccoboni in order to explore the intersections between Irish and French iterations of sentimental fiction in the 1760s and 1770s. It explores the writings of both women; their engagements with the world of translation; and the reception of their work. This chapter posits that transnational comparisons are essential to any understanding of ‘national’ traditions.
This chapter moves the reputation of Gerald Griffin’s The Collegians outside a predominantly Catholic context and argues that the transnational dimensions of the novel connect local with global forces. Griffin’s depiction of multicultural Catholic characters suggests a shifting version of Irish identity that can be constructed outside of morality and religion. The chapter highlights the cultural and political moments that shaped Griffin’s standing and suggests new ways of framing his achievements. It also shows Griffin was phased out of an emerging nationalist narrative of Irish literature, in part via the political reception of William Carleton in nationalist and Fenian newspapers of the 1840s. Meanwhile the movements in academic criticism in the 1960s that rescued Dion Boucicault from obscurity had the effect of reducing Griffin’s reputation to the creator of the Colleen Bawn.
The period since 1980, one of intense social change in Ireland, has witnessed manifold scholarly and intellectual breakthroughs, a weighty library of historiography, and a fluorescence of cultural criticism that has greatly enriched our understanding of Ireland and the Irish story. Yet despite its scholarly and intellectual achievements, there are besetting contradictions and conflicts in the field that we call ‘Irish studies’. Irish studies has a national focus, but an inextricably international institutional ecology. This essay charts the story of Irish studies alert to these contradictions. It examines how and where it developed as a scholarly field, how it responded to internal and external pressures, including the Troubles. It considers how Irish studies negotiated academic frames such as postcolonialism, feminism, and cultural theory and, relatedly, the lasting impact of revisionist-nationalist debates. It analyses how consensus and debate formed what Irish studies covered and, as importantly, what it did not. It concludes by considering the impact of the transnational turn on Irish studies in the twenty-first century.
What is the political sociology of democratization? Political scientists and sociologists alike have long theorized about democratic transitions, though their focus has changed significantly over time. Although early models of democracy and democratization were largely based upon the experiences of today’s advanced industrialized nations, more recent frameworks offer an updated paradigm to account for the circumstances late democratizers face. Factors that were once considered irrelevant to democratization are now deemed part and parcel of the literature, including issues of power, inequality, history, state capacity, and globalization. A political sociology of democratization, then, is the study of the inherently political process of regime change that employs a sociological analysis of the circumstances and actors that surround and shape transitions, such as those mentioned above.
This article analyses the Indian, Persian, and Algerian–Tunisian independence committees and their place in Germany’s ‘programme for revolution’, Berlin’s attempt to instigate insurrection across the British, French, and Russian empires during the First World War. The agency of Asian and North African activists in this programme remains largely unknown, and their wartime collaboration in Germany is an under-researched topic in the histories of anti-colonial activism. This article explores the collaboration between the three committees, highlighting their strategic relationships with German officials and with each other. Criticizing the Eurocentric framings still present in studies of wartime strategy, it contributes to a growing historiography on the war as a global conflict. It argues that the independence committees were central actors in Germany’s programme, that the transnationalism of the pre-1914 anti-colonial movements both imprinted Germany’s programme and was furthered by it, and that only a comparative perspective exploring the interactions of its anti-colonial activists fully grasps the global scope of this topic.
Black and Asian British writing can be formalised as diaspora literatures with links to ancestral homelands on the subcontinent, in Africa, and in the Caribbean; interrogations of and inscriptions on a matrix of British cultures are another thematic and aesthetic concern of black and Asian British writing. Beyond this familiar framework, though, a range of writers roam more widely, exploring different pathways: V. S. Naipaul’s interest in Africa or North America is a case in point, as are Caryl Phillips’s European travelogues, or Shiva Naipaul’s travel writing, and his essays collected in Unfinished Journey (1986). Bernardine Evaristo’s Lara explores her Brazilian, Nigerian, Irish, and German ancestry, whilst Andrew Salkey recounts his travels to Guyana in Georgetown Journal (1972) and celebrates placelessness in his Anancy Traveller (1992). This chapter thus focuses on writing which does not give primacy to the exploration of ancestral or postcolonial origins, but reaches out beyond this well-established binary framework of homes past and present.