To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This commentary on Sharp and De Clerq’s chapter (this volume) describes potential benefits of integrating and synthesizing research conducted primarily predominantly with adults from a personality pathology perspective with the increasingly robust body of research conducted with children and adolescents from a developmental psychopathology perspective. Both perspectives view psychopathology as emerging from an interplay of biologically-based vulnerabilities and risk and protective factors at multiple levels of social ecological systems (e.g., individual, family, community, and culture). Both attempt to understand developmental pathways and trajectories that may evolve into more durable and distinctive patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that may be categorized as a personality disorder or other mental disorder. Both perspectives hope to identify effective interventions that may prevent more severe and chronic disorders among at-risk individuals. The authors argue that the integration of personality pathology and developmental psychopathology perspectives may contribute to the development of more sophisticated transdiagnostic approaches that inform clinical case formulation and treatment planning for children and adolescents.
Despite considerable efforts to understand the processes that underlie the development of externalizing behavior problems, it is still unclear why externalizing problems remain chronically high for some children, emerge early and cease by late childhood for others, and arise in adolescence in some cases. The purpose of this study was to examine how a wide range of child and family risk factors are linked to trajectories of externalizing behavior and how these relationships vary from infancy to middle adolescence. We used data from the community-based Norwegian Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study sample (n = 921). A Cholesky factorization model was specified to separate stable and emerging risk doses across four developmental periods (infancy, early and middle childhood, and middle adolescence). Children in the High Stable class were characterized by substantially elevated risk levels in multiple domains throughout the study period. Children in the High Childhood Limited class had very high levels of temperamental emotionality, internalizing symptoms, and maternal mental distress, suggesting a substantial intrinsic emotional basis for their externalizing problems. Intrinsic factors seemed less salient for the Adolescent Onset class. These findings emphasize the need for a dynamic perspective on risk factors and support the importance of prevention and intervention efforts across multiple domains from early childhood and throughout adolescence.
Drawing on the results of a qualitative longitudinal analysis of the experiences of homeless people using an employment related programme in the UK, this article explores the experiences of homeless women. Research focused on women’s trajectories through homelessness remains unusual and this comparatively large study provided an opportunity to look at a group of homeless women over time. The results from 136 in-depth interviews with forty-seven homeless women are reported. The interviews explored their lives prior to becoming homeless, their routes into homelessness and their trajectories through and out of homelessness. The article does not compare experiences across gender, focusing solely on women, because the existing evidence base focuses largely on the experiences of lone homeless men. The goals of the article are twofold, first to add to the existing evidence on women’s experiences of homelessness and second to add to emergent debates on whether gender is associated with differentiated trajectories through homelessness.
In the midst of a ‘care crisis’, attention has turned again to families who are viewed both as untapped care resources and as disappearing ones. Within this apparent policy/demographic impasse, we test empirically theorised trajectories of family care, creating evidence of diverse patterns of care across the lifecourse. The study sample, drawn from a Statistics Canada national survey of family care, comprised all Canadians aged 65 and older who had ever provided care (N = 3,299). Latent Profile Analysis yielded five distinct care trajectories: compressed generational, broad generational, intensive parent care, career care and serial care. They differed in age of first care experience, number of care episodes, total years of care and amount of overlap among episodes. Trajectories generally corresponded to previously hypothesised patterns but with additional characteristics that added to our understanding of diversity in lifecourse patterns of care. The five trajectories identified provide the basis for further understanding how time and events unfold in various ways across lifecourses of care. A gap remains in understanding how relationships with family and social network members evolve in the context of care. A challenge is presented to policy makers to temper a ‘families by stealth’ policy approach with one that supports family carers who are integral to health and social care systems.
Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes (“preserved,” “deteriorated,” and “compromised”) seen in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group.
Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in “deteriorated” cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in “compromised” than “preserved” subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in “deteriorated” compared with healthy controls and “preserved” subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes.
These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.
Emerging data suggest that recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) takes longer than previously thought. This paper examines trajectories for cognitive recovery up to 48 months post-mTBI, presenting these visually using a Sankey diagram and growth curve analysis.
This sample (n = 301) represents adults (≥16 years) from a population-based Brain Injury Outcomes in the New Zealand Community study over a 4-year follow-up on the CNS-Vital Signs neuropsychological test. Data were collected within 2 weeks of injury, and then at 1, 6, 12 and 48 months post-injury.
Significant improvement in cognitive functioning was seen up to 6 months post-injury. Using growth curve modelling, we found significant improvements in overall neurocognition from baseline to 6 months, on average participants improved one point per month (0.9; 95% CI 0.42–1.39) p < 0.001. No change in neurocognition was found within the time periods 6–12 months or 12–48 months. The Sankey highlighted that at each time point, a small proportion of participants remained unchanged or declined. Proportionally, few show any improvement after the first 6 months.
Most individuals remained stable or improved over time to 6 months post-injury. Summary statistics are informative regarding overall trends, but can mask differing trajectories for recovery. The Sankey diagram indicates that not all improve, as well as the potential impact of individuals moving in and out of the study. The Sankey diagram also indicated the level of functioning of those most likely to withdraw, allowing targeting of retention strategies.
Relationships research has used typologies and dimensional approaches to characterize relationships. Research has similarly sought to characterize on-off relationships using types, dimensions, and trajectories. Five types of on-off relationships are reviewed; some showing constructive patterns or closure, whereas others exhibit incongruencies, and even coercion and control. On-off relationships also exhibit varying trajectories. For example, despite inherently experiencing multiple breakups and renewals, only half of on-off partners reported fluctuations in their commitment to the relationship. In addition, the different types and trajectories suggest that fluctuations in relationship dynamics might not necessarily be distressing to these partners. Overall, these various characterizations of cyclical relationships show they follow a diversity of paths that entail different dynamics.
This chapter summarises the lessons learnt in the book, based on a reflection process amongst the editors and a joint workshop with the lead authors. The key messages are that 1) forests are a crucial base for sustainable development, and need to be fully considered in all related decision making, 2) the SDGs will impact forests and the people dependent on them in many ways, with the exact impact being highly dependant on the respective ecological and socio-economic context, 3) the SDGs include partially conflicting visions for forests and people, corresponding to distinct values and interests, involving the necessity to consider trade-offs and set priorities when implementing them, 4) there are fundamental values and principles that may guide sustainable development related to forests and people regardless of the context, including basic human rights but also forest-specific aspects and principles for how existing trade-offs can be managed, 5) that there is the necessity to continuously learn from, and adapt, the process of implementing the SDGs. The chapter concludes by addressing the urgency of creative and forward-looking human engagement at the forest–people interface, to make sure that sustainable development can benefit both forests and people.
This book has re-examined criminal responsibility. In the context of Australian criminal laws, it reassessed the general story told about the rise to prominence of criminal responsibility from around the turn of the twentieth century, paying close and careful attention to the intricacies of developments in criminal responsibility within this period. At the same time, the book reconsidered the role and, hence, significance of criminal responsibility in criminal law, arguing that criminal responsibility organises keys sets of relations – between self, others and the state – as relations of responsibility, and that this is what makes it significant. My analysis generated two main insights. First, it revealed the gradual and distinctive way in which Australian criminal laws came to be organised around criminal responsibility over the twentieth century, and what this makes possible and what it precludes. Second, it exposed the complexity and dynamism of the relations of responsibility that subtend criminal responsibility principles and practices – substituting the still-dominant account of criminal responsibility as singular, general and universal, for an account characterised by multiplicity, specificity and variation across the criminal law field.
Alcohol and cannabis remain the substances most widely used by adolescents. Better understanding of the dynamic relationship between trajectories of substance use in relation to neuropsychological functioning is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the different impacts of within- and between-person changes in alcohol and cannabis use on neuropsychological functioning over multiple time points.
Hierarchical linear modeling examined the effects of alcohol and cannabis use on neuropsychological functioning over the course of 14 years in a sample of 175 adolescents (aged 12–15 years at baseline).
Time-specific fluctuations in alcohol use (within-person effect) predicted worse performance across time on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Block Design subtest (B = −.05, SE = .02, p = .01). Greater mean levels of percent days of cannabis use across time (between-person effect) were associated with an increased contrast score between Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color Word Inhibition and Color Naming conditions (B = .52, SE = .14, p < .0001) and poorer performance over time on Block Design (B = −.08, SE = .04, p = .03). Neither alcohol and/nor cannabis use over time was associated with performance in the verbal memory and processing speed domains.
Greater cumulative cannabis use over adolescence may be linked to poorer inhibitory control and visuospatial functioning performance, whereas more proximal increases in alcohol consumption during adolescence may drive alcohol-related performance decrements in visuospatial functioning. Results from this prospective study add to the growing body of literature on the impact of alcohol and cannabis use on cognition from adolescent to young adulthood.
Cognitive ability, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms are correlated in children. However, it is not known why they combine in the general child population over time. To address this, we used data on 17,318 children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study and followed-up five times between ages 3 and 14 years. We fitted three parallel-process latent growth curve models to identify the parallel unfolding of children's trajectories of internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and cognitive ability across this period. We also examined the effects of time-invariant (ethnicity, birth weight, maternal education and age at birth, and breastfeeding status) and time-varying covariates (maternal psychological distress and socioeconomic disadvantage) on the growth parameters of the trajectories. The results showed that the intercepts of the trajectories of cognitive ability and, particularly, externalizing symptoms were inversely correlated. Their linear slopes were also inversely correlated, suggesting parallel development. Internalizing symptoms were correlated positively with externalizing symptoms and inversely (and more modestly) with cognitive ability at baseline, but the slope of internalizing symptoms correlated (positively) only with the slope of externalizing symptoms. The covariates predicted 9% to 41% of the variance in the intercepts and slopes of all domains, suggesting they are important common risk factors. Overall, it appears that externalizing symptoms develop in parallel with both cognitive ability and internalizing symptoms from early childhood through to middle adolescence. Children on an increasing trajectory of externalizing symptoms are likely both increasing in internalizing symptoms and decreasing in cognitive skills as well, and are thus an important group to target for intervention.
Recent studies highlighted the multiple positive and negative contributions of livestock to society. Livestock production, through its direct and indirect impacts on land use, is an important driver of services provision. Although a few studies provide an account on the multiple services in different livestock systems, there is still an important knowledge gap on the drivers that contribute to the differentiation of services provisioning across areas. We investigated the hypothesis that the current level of services has derived from past intensification trajectories of livestock. The objective of this study was to understand the influences of past changes in livestock, land-use and socio-economic variables on the current provision of social, environmental and cultural services by the livestock sector in France. We combined a long-term country-wide database on livestock intensification between 1938 and 2010 and a database on services provisioning in 2010. We used a set of multivariate methods to simultaneously analyse the changes in livestock intensification from 1938 to 2010 and the current level of services provisioning. Our analysis focused on a set of 60 French departments where livestock play a significant economic role in agricultural production. Our study revealed that the provision of services was spatially structured and based on three groups of departments, characterised by different rates of change in intensification variables. In the first group, ‘Intensive livestock areas’, the high level of employment in the livestock sector was mainly associated with high rates of change in monogastric stocking rates (+1045%) and milk productivity (+451%). In the second group, ‘Extensive livestock areas’, the high levels of environmental and cultural services were mainly associated with moderate rates of change in herbivores stocking rate (+95%) and the stability of grassland area (+13%). In the third group, ‘Transition areas’, the low provision of all services was associated with the decline in livestock due to crop expansion. This study provides knowledge to understand how past changes determined the current contribution of livestock areas in providing differentiated bundles of services, which might help steer the development of the current livestock sector towards more sustainable trajectories.
Facilitated by the establishment of terrestrial networks and satellite constellations of Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers, large quantities of spatial and temporal information that trace ships' paths have been collected. The exponential increase in the amount of AIS data has caused expensive and time-consuming transmission, calculation and storage problems. Using appropriate trajectory simplification methods in a timely manner to compress redundant information while minimising the loss of importation information is important. To minimise the simplification error, this paper proposes an online multi-dimensional simplification algorithm for AIS trajectory streaming data. The simplification algorithm takes into account position, direction and speed preservation. Finally, a comparison experiment with other algorithms is made to examine the effectiveness of this algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed online multi-dimensional simplification algorithm can effectively preserve a ship's motion state, including its position, speed and course.
To estimate trajectories of the gambling disorder (GD) severity for 12 months following a manualized cognitive-behavior-therapy (CBT) program, and to identify the main variables associated with each trajectory.
Latent Class Growth Analysis examined the longitudinal changes of n = 603 treatment-seeking patients with GD.
Five separate empirical trajectories were identified: T1 (n = 383, 63.5%) was characterized by the most highest baseline gambling severity levels and positive progress to recovery during the follow-up period; T2 (n = 154, 25.5%) featured participants with high baseline gambling severity and good progress to recovery; T3 (n = 30, 5.0%) was made up of patients with high gambling baseline severity and slow progress to recovery; T4 (n = 13, 2.2%) and T5 (n = 23, 3.8%) contained participants with high baseline gambling severity and moderate (T4) and poor (T5) progress in GD severity during the follow-up. Psychopathological state and personality traits discriminated between trajectories. Poor compliance with the therapy guidelines and the presence of relapses also differed between the trajectories.
Our findings show that patients seeking treatment for GD are heterogeneous and that trends in progress following treatment can be identified considering sociodemographic features, psychopathological state and personality traits. These results could be useful in developing more efficient interventions for GD patients.
The global ageing population and the long prodromal period for the development of cognitive decline and dementia brings a need to understand the antecedents of both successful and impaired cognitive ageing. It is increasingly apparent that the trajectory of risk-factor change, as well as the level of the risk factor, may be associated with an increased or decreased risk of cognitive decline or dementia.
Our aim was to summarise the published evidence and to generate hypotheses related to risk-factor trajectories and risk of incident cognitive decline or dementia.
We collated data from longitudinal observational studies relating to trajectory of blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol and later cognitive decline or dementia using standard systematic review methodology. The databases MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 26 April 2018.
Thirteen articles were retained for inclusion. Analytical methods varied. Our summary of the current evidence base suggests that first body mass index and then blood pressure rises and then falls more steeply in those who go on to develop dementia. The evidence for cholesterol was less consistent.
Based on our review we present the hypothesis that weight falls around 10 years and blood pressure around 5 years before diagnosis. Confirmatory work is required. However, characterisation of risk according to combinations and patterns of risk factors may ultimately be integrated into the assessments used to identify those at risk of receiving a diagnosis of cognitive decline or dementia in late life.
In youth, anxiety-depressive traits (ADT) and trait-aggression (TA) are important risk factors of exhibiting maladaptive behaviors in adulthood (i.e. violence and substance use). However, the developmental co-occurrence of these traits in youth remains unknown. We thus sought to investigate the developmental trajectories of ADT and TA within a data-driven approach. The aim was two-fold: (i) to examine the developmental trajectories of ADT and TA in youth from ages 10 to 16, and (ii) to investigate both childhood predictors and problematic outcomes of the identified joint trajectories.
The sample comprised 1354 children provided from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) Consortium. Group-based trajectory modeling was first employed to identify individual trajectory models of ADT and TA independently (from ages 10 to 16). Then, joint trajectory models were built on the found trajectories. Last, logistic regressions were used to evaluate the childhood characteristics and negative outcomes of the joint trajectory groups.
Our results showed five trajectory groups with varying levels of ADT and TA. A significant co-occurrence between ADT and TA was found in three of the trajectory groups. Notably, higher levels of childhood psychopathology and more severe/frequent childhood abuse were found in the groups with moderate to high ADT and high TA. The groups with higher ADT and high TA were also more likely to exhibit violence and substance use.
This study exposes the importance of assessing ADT and TA simultaneously and early in childhood to prevent and manage the risk of problematic behaviors in adolescence.
Maritime anomaly detection can improve the situational awareness of vessel traffic supervisors and reduce maritime accidents. In order to better detect anomalous behaviour of a vessel in real time, a method that consists of a Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm and a recurrent neural network is presented. In the method presented, the parameters of the DBSCAN algorithm were determined through statistical analysis, and the results of clustering were taken as the traffic patterns to train a recurrent neural network composed of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) units. The neural network was applied as a vessel trajectory predictor to conduct real-time maritime anomaly detection. Based on data from the Chinese Zhoushan Islands, experiments verified the applicability of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can detect anomalous behaviours of a vessel regarding speed, course and route quickly.
Theories of maladaptive anxiety in children have suggested different developmental trajectories across age. Weems (2008) suggested that one subgroup of children demonstrates high and stable levels of broad anxiety, but shifting levels of dimension-specific symptoms in part due to related normative challenges. In a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined patterns of dimension-specific anxiety symptoms in subgroups of children following different developmental trajectories of broad anxiety. A total of 300 children (150 girls, 150 boys) ages 8–11 at baseline, completed the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale four times over 3 years. Using latent class growth mixture modeling, we found evidence of three subgroups of children following different trajectories of broad anxiety across age: low-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. Compared with other children, the subgroup with moderate and increasing levels of broad anxiety demonstrated an initially higher level of separation anxiety with larger improvement across time but, initially, similar levels of generalized and social anxiety with a larger increase across age. High broad anxiety was partly carried by different sets of dimension-specific symptoms at different ages, which suggests that children with high levels of broad anxiety across time may be more sensitive to normative challenges that happen in typical child development.
Breeding for resilience requires a better understanding of intra-flock variability and the related mechanisms responsible for robustness traits. Among such traits, the animals’ ability to cope with feed fluctuations by mobilizing or restoring body reserves (BR) is a key mechanism in ruminants. The objective of this work was to characterize individual variability in BR dynamics in productive Romane ewes reared in extensive conditions. The BR dynamics profiles were characterized by combining individual longitudinal measurements of BW and body condition scores (BCS) over several production cycles. Historical data, including up to 2628 records per trait distributed in 1146 ewes, underwent cluster analysis. Two to four trajectories were observed for BW depending on the cycle, while three trajectories were found for BCS, whatever the cycle. Most trajectories suggested that BR dynamics were similar but the level of BR may differ between ewes. Nevertheless, some trajectories suggested that both BR dynamics and levels were different for a proportion of ewes. Clustering on BW and BCS profiles adjusted for individual level trends, resulted in differences only in the level of BW or BCS, rather than differences in trajectories. Thus, the overall shape of trajectories was not changed considering or not the individual level trend across cycles. In addition to individual variability, the ewe’s age at first lambing and litter size contributed to the distribution of the ewes between the trajectories. Regarding the entire productive life, three trajectories were observed for BW and BCS changes over three productive cycles. Increase in BW at each cycle suggested that ewes kept growing up until 3 to 4 years old in our conditions. Similar alternation of BCS gains and losses across cycles suggested BR dynamics might be repeatable. Many individual trajectories remained the same throughout a ewe’s life, whatever the age at first lambing, parity or litter size. Our results demonstrate the relevance of using BW and BCS changes for characterizing the diversity of BR mobilization–accretion profiles in sheep in a long timespan perspective.
Low birth weight has been shown to be related to increased risk of depression later in life – but the evidence is not conclusive. We examined the association of size at birth with repeatedly measured depressive symptoms in 947 individuals from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a community-based age-homogeneous cohort born in 1965, and followed with questionnaires between ages 16 and 43 (participation rate above 90% in all the surveys). Information on birth size was retrieved from archived birth records. Length of gestation was known for a subsample of 512 individuals (54%). We studied the association of birth weight and ponderal index with self-reported depressive symptoms at ages 16, 21, 30 and 43; with the life-course average of depressive symptoms score and with longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms retrieved by latent class growth analysis. Socioeconomic background, mental illness or alcohol problems of a parent, exposure to social adversities in adolescence and prematurity were accounted for in the analyses. We did not find any relationship between weight or ponderal index at birth and our measure of depressive symptoms between ages 16 and 43 in a series of different analyses. Adjustment for length of gestation did not alter the results. We conclude that size at birth is not associated with later-life depressive symptoms score in this cohort born in the mid-1960s in Sweden. The time and context need to be taken into consideration in future studies.