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To provide scientific, theoretical support for the improvement of medical disaster training, we systematically analyzed the National Disaster Life Support (NDLS) Course and established a training curriculum with feedback based on the current status of disaster medicine in China.
The gray prediction model is applied to long-term forecast research on course effect. In line with the hypothesis, the NDLS course with feedback capability is more scientific and standardized.
The current training NDLS course system is suitable for Chinese medical disasters. After accepting the course training, audiences’ capabilities were enhanced. In the constructed GM (1,1) model prediction, the developing coefficients of the pretest and the posttest are 0.04 and 0.057, respectively. In light of the coefficient, the model is appropriate for the long-term prediction. The predicted results can be used as the basis for constructing training closed-loop optimization feedback. It can indicate that the course system has a good effect as well.
According to the constructed GM model, the NDLS course system is scientific, practical, and operational. The research results can provide reference for relevant departments and be used for the construction of similar training course systems.
Capacity building is essential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to address the gap in skills to conduct and implement research. Capacity building must not only include scientific and technical knowledge, but also broader competencies, such as writing, disseminating research and achieving work–life balance. These skills are thought to promote long-term career success for researchers in high-income countries (HICs) but the availability of such training is limited in LMICs.
This paper presents the contextualisation and implementation of the Academic Competencies Series (ACES). ACES is an early-career researcher development programme adapted from a UK university. Through consultation between HIC and LMIC partners, an innovative series of 10 workshops was designed covering themes of self-development, engagement and writing skills. ACES formed part of the African Mental Health Research Initiative (AMARI), a multi-national LMIC-led consortium to recruit, train, support and network early-career mental health researchers from four sub-Saharan African countries.
Of the 10 ACES modules, three were HIC-LMIC co-led, four led by HIC facilitators with LMIC training experience and three led by external consultants from HICs. Six workshops were delivered face to face and four by webinar. Course attendance was over 90% and the delivery cost was approximately US$4500 per researcher trained. Challenges of adaptation, attendance and technical issues are described for the first round of workshops.
This paper indicates that a skills development series for early-career researchers can be contextualised and implemented in LMIC settings, and is feasible for co-delivery with local partners at relatively low cost.
The study explored the knowledge and service delivery skills of primary health care (PHC) workers to conduct cervical cancer screening programmes in Sango primary health centre in Sango town, Ado-Odo Ota, Ogun State in Nigeria.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women. The prevention and control services in Nigeria are provided mainly at post-primary health facilities. Authorities have advocated the integration of cervical cancer prevention into reproductive health services provided at PHC centres. The service delivery capabilities of PHC workers are critical for successful implementation of screening programmes.
Exploratory qualitative research design was used. Data were collected among 10 PHC workers who were purposively sampled at Sango PHC. Semi-structured interview guide with broad items and a checklist were used to assess participants’ cervical cancer screening knowledge and service delivery skills using visual inspection screening methods. Data were analysed thematically and triangulated.
A range of roles were represented in the interviews of the health care workers at the PHC studied. They had poor knowledge and skills about cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine. Study participants perceived nurses as most equipped PHC workers to conduct screening at PHC level, followed by the community health officers. Participants reported no cervical cancer services at the centre and community. The findings provided useful insight that guided the training of primary health workers and the development of a community-based cervical cancer screening model for women in rural communities.
Nurses and other PHC workers should be trained on visual inspection screening method. This low-cost but effective methodology could be incorporated into their training curricula as a strategy for scaling up cervical cancer prevention programmes across Nigeria.
Previous research has shown the importance of contextual factors for increasing employee innovativeness, but to effectively support innovative behavior, we need to also understand what forms of support are perceived as meaningful by the employees themselves. The current study investigated the experiences of 35 early-career engineers in creating, championing and implementing new ideas at the workplace. They reported relatively few instances of support that had been experienced as helpful, and nearly all of these were related to either managerial or co-worker support. This support ranged from encouragement and positive feedback to tangible help in troubleshooting and finding resources, and, in the case of managers, providing sufficient autonomy and responsibility to enable the interviewees to pursue their ideas. Managerial support was most frequently reported by those working in self-described innovative positions, whereas co-worker support was more commonly reported by those working in self- described innovative environments. Formal processes and incentives were less likely to have been perceived as helpful than informal interactions with managers and co-workers.
An essential part of any space in which physical prototyping and prototype-driven product development is being conducted is the education of its users in the necessary skills to fully utilise the material resources of the space. This paper describes how two different skills were transferred between five projects in our research laboratory, TrollLABS. Based on the observed skill-transfers in the production of PCBs and use of RF-communication in mechatronics projects certain tendencies emerged: How the use of forced vocal experience sharing; And in-person transferring of skills has impacted the acquired skills of the learner. The observations further show that through the guidance of a more experienced user the learner is able to make “skill-jumps”: Intermediate skill steps, as well as underlying detailed knowledge, are skipped and the learner is able to reach a high skill level in a shorter time than the original acquirer of the skill. Furthermore, skills are retained in the space through cross-generational collaboration and communication. This article aims to share these insights and provide a starting point for answering some of the challenges of modern maker spaces.
A neurointerventional training model called HANNES (Hamburg ANatomical NEurointerventional Simulator) has been developed to replace animal models in catheter-based aneurysm treatment training. A methodical approach to design for mass adaptation is applied so that patient-specific aneurysm models can be designed recurrently based on real patient data to be integrated into the training system.
HANNES’ modular product structure designed for mass adaptation consists of predefined and individualized modules that can be combined for various training scenarios. Additively manufactured, individualized aneurysm models enable high reproducibility of real patient anatomies. Due to the implementation of a standardized individualization process, order-related adaptation can be realized for each new patient anatomy with modest effort. The paper proves how the application of design for mass adaptation leads to a well-designed modular product structure of the neurointerventional training model HANNES, which supports quality treatment and provides an animal-free and patient-specific training environment.
The range and number of educational and networking events that are available for fellows, trainees, and junior faculty to attend grows every year. Each meeting useful in its own way; each adding value to the development and the growth of an interventionist. Within paediatric, congenital, and structural heart disease, three of the standout meetings are: Pediatric and Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS-AICS), Congenital and Structural Interventions (CSI), and International Workshop on Interventional Pediatric and Adult Congenital Cardiology (IPC). All of these were started by leaders in our field; people known to be passionate educators and innovators. International congresses focusing more broadly on congenital cardiac disease in children and adults are rare. These forums allow more interdisciplinary discussions between the interventionist, surgeon, and non-invasive specialists. Purely interventional meetings are essential to allow colleagues to debate and explore the nuances and intricacies of technique and approach, developing concepts to be challenged in wider forums. During the recent 21st PICS-AICS meeting Prof. Ziyad M. Hijazi, Shakeel A. Qureshi, Mario Carminati, and Dr Damien Kenny shared their time to engage in frank, recorded conversations which provide a unique insight in to the process and concepts behind three of our most important educational congresses.
Apprenticeship was probably the largest mode of organized learning in early modern European societies, and artisan practitioners commonly began as apprentices. Yet little is known about how youths actually gained skills. I develop a model of vocational pedagogy that accounts for the characteristics of apprenticeship and use a range of legal and autobiographical sources to examine the contribution of different forms of training in England. Apprenticeship emerges as a relatively narrow channel, in which the master’s contribution to training was weakly defined and executed conservatively. The creation of complementary channels of formal instruction was constrained by cost and coordination problems. When we consider a range of British youths who obtained advanced skills as artisan practitioners (and engaged in invention or pursued natural philosophical interests), we see the importance of individual agency over institutional structures. For these youths, training could involve rejecting apprenticeship, engaging in periods of advanced study, including time in multiple workshops after the end of apprenticeship, and parallel campaigns to access scarce books and communities of scholarship.
Beyond the basic information provided in foundation texts and test manuals, there is a notable scarcity of professional literature addressing complex issues and dilemmas in assessment. At times, psychologists need to make decisions based on their professional experience or personal preferences, and it is possible that some of these decisions are made without adequate justification or reflection. Intern psychologists may be confused by the differing advice they are given by university staff, supervisors and experienced practitioners. Our aim in this project was to identify specific issues in psychoeducational assessment that need clarity, guidance and reflection, not only during postgraduate training, but also across the professional lifespan. Focus groups with educational and developmental psychology interns revealed confusion about aspects of test administration and interpretation, as well as a number of challenging professional issues. The findings have implications for trainers and supervisors, as well as for experienced practitioners.
Workforce shortages in psychiatry are common worldwide. The international literature provides insights into factors influencing decisions to train in psychiatry but is predominately survey based. This national cohort study aimed to identify the characteristics of doctors who were most likely to apply to psychiatry training programmes. The sample comprised doctors who entered UK medical schools in 2007/8 and who made first-time specialty training applications in 2015. The association between application to psychiatry and doctors' sociodemographic and educational characteristics was examined using multivariable logistic regression.
Those most likely to apply were White, privately educated older doctors with below average performance at medical school.
To reduce workforce shortages, psychiatry must make itself more attractive to all doctors, especially those from underrepresented groups such as state-educated Black and minority ethnic individuals. Otherwise, national policies to widen participation in the study of medicine by such groups may exacerbate the current recruitment crisis.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in an effective technique used widely in Western countries. However, there is limited evidence as to the utility, perception and understanding of CBT in developing countries. This study describes and investigates the experience of CBT training and practice in a group of practitioners in Tanzania. A qualitative approach to the investigation was used, and seven participants from Tanzania’s only psychiatric hospital who had completed CBT training were interviewed. The resulting verbatim transcripts were analysed via interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five superordinate themes emerged from the analysis: ‘the medical model’, ‘novelty’, ‘practicalities’, ‘process’ and ‘therapist effects’. The two themes ‘therapist effects’ and ‘process’ are discussed in detail as these may be particularly relevant to the clinical application of the therapy in a new culture and context. The implications for future development of CBT in Tanzania are considered. In developing CBT for dissemination in Tanzania, specific cultural and clinical issues highlighted by indigenous clinicians need consideration.
Key learning aims
(1)To identify what range of factors may influence clinicians’ perception of and learning about CBT when CBT training is delivered in a mental health setting in Tanzania, or to those with East African origins.
(2)To consider the use of qualitative research approaches to inform the early stages of adapting CBT for use in new settings and applications.
(3)To be able to apply knowledge about cultural differences to standard CBT in order to promote culturally sensitive practice.
One method for appraising the competence with which psychological therapy is delivered is to use a structured assessment tool that rates audio or video recordings of therapist performance against a standard set of criteria.
The present study examines the inter-rater reliability of a well-established instrument (the Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised) and a newly developed scale for assessing competence in CBT.
Six experienced raters working independently and blind to each other’s ratings rated 25 video recordings of therapy being undertaken by CBT therapists in training.
Inter-rater reliability was found to be low on both instruments.
It is argued that the results represent a realistic appraisal of the accuracy of rating scales, and that the figures often cited for inter-rater reliability are unlikely to be generalizable outside the specific context in which they were achieved. The findings raise concerns about the use of these scales for making summative judgements of clinical competence in both educational and research contexts.
First aid, particularly bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is an important element in the chain of survival. However, little is known about what influences populations to undertake first aid/CPR training, update their training, and use of the training.
The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of people who have first aid/CPR training, those who have updated their training, and use of these skills.
As part of the 2011 state-wide, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of people over 18 years of age living in Queensland, Australia, stratified by gender and age group, three questions about first aid training, re-training, and skill uses were explored.
Of the 1,277 respondents, 73.2% reported having undertaken some first aid/CPR training and 39.5% of those respondents had used their first aid/CPR skills. The majority of respondents (56.7%) had not updated their first aid/CPR skills in the past three years, and an additional 2.5% had never updated their skills. People who did not progress beyond year 10 in school and those in lower income groups were less likely to have undertaken first aid/CPR training. Males and people in lower income groups were less likely to have recently updated their first aid/CPR training. People with chronic health problems were in a unique demographic sub-group; they were less likely to have undertaken first aid/CPR training but more likely to have administered first aid/CPR.
Training initiatives that target people on the basis of education level, income group, and the existence of chronic health problems might be one strategy for improving bystander CPR rates when cardiac arrest occurs in the home.
Franklin RC, Watt K, Aitken P, Brown LH, Leggat PA. Characteristics associated with first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and use in Queensland, Australia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):155–160
Interest in tactical medicine, the provision of medical support to law enforcement and military special operations teams, continues to grow. The majority of tactical physicians are emergency physicians with additional training and experience in tactical operations. A 2005 survey found that 18% of responding Emergency Medicine (EM) residencies offered their resident physicians structured exposure to tactical medicine at that time.
This study sought to assess interval changes in tactical medicine exposure during EM residency and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) fellowship training. A secure online survey was distributed electronically to all 212 EM residency programs and 44 EMS fellowship programs in the United States.
Responses were received from 99 (46%) EM residency and 40 (91%) EMS fellowship programs. Results showed that 52 (53%) of the responding residencies offered physician trainees formal exposure to tactical medicine as part of their training (P < .0001 compared to 18% in 2005). In addition, 32 (72%) of the 40 responding EMS fellowships (newly established since the initial survey) offered this opportunity. Experiences ranged from observation to active participation during tactical training and call-outs. The EM residents and EMS fellows provide support to local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. A small number of programs (six residencies and four fellowships) allowed a subset of qualified trainees to be armed during tactical operations.
Overall, training opportunities in tactical medicine have grown significantly over the last decade from 18% to 53% of responding EM residencies. In addition, 72% of responding EMS fellowships incorporate tactical medicine in their training program.
Petit NP, Stopyra JP, Padilla RA, Bozeman WP. Resident involvement in tactical medicine: 12 years later. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):217–219
Recent events in the workplace, government, and college campuses in the US have brought the issues of sexual harassment and assault to the forefront of media and public discussion. Industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists are uniquely suited to help address these issues by aiding in intervention development. Specifically, I-O psychologists can provide key insight regarding the context, design, development, and evaluation of sexual harassment and assault training efforts. Although some empirical evidence suggests that trainings are effective in the short term, there is little evidence to suggest long-term attitudinal or behavioral change outside of the training environment. Much of the research in this area, however, has focused solely on the training intervention, excluding the pre- and post-training environment. Thus, the present effort focuses on designing trainings that promote transfer, as well as improving measurement of desired outcomes, to provide a framework for improving sexual harassment and assault training. This framework addresses how individual differences, needs analysis, training design, evaluation, and post-training support contribute to lasting change while addressing the unique challenges associated with sexual harassment and assault. Last, this framework provides guidance for improving research in this area as well as practical suggestions for improving training programs.
Mini-sabbaticals are formal short-term training and educational experiences away from an investigator’s home research unit. These may include rotations with other research units and externships at government research or regulatory agencies, industry and non-profit programs, and training and/or intensive educational programs. The National Institutes of Health have been encouraging training institutions to consider offering mini-sabbaticals, but given the newness of the concept, limited data are available to guide the implementation of mini-sabbatical programs. In this paper, we review the history of sabbaticals and mini-sabbaticals, report the results of surveys we performed to ascertain the use of mini-sabbaticals at Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs, and consider best practice recommendations for institutions seeking to establish formal mini-sabbatical programs.
This study explores whether children can learn a structural processing bias relevant to pronoun interpretation from brief training. Over three days, 42 five-year-olds were exposed to narratives exhibiting a first-mentioned tendency. Two characters were introduced, and the first-mentioned was later described engaging in a solo activity. In our primary condition of interest, the Gesture Training condition, the solo-activity sentence contained an ambiguous pronoun, but co-speech gesture clarified the referent. There were two comparison conditions. In the Gender Training condition the characters were different genders, thereby avoiding ambiguity. In the Name Training condition, the first-mentioned name was simply repeated. Ambiguous pronoun interpretation was tested pre- and post-training. Children in the Gesture condition were significantly more likely to interpret ambiguous pronouns as the first-mentioned character after training. Results from the comparison conditions were ambiguous: there was a small but non-significant effect of training, but also no significant differences between conditions.