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With the increasing availability of vehicle telemetry technology, there is great potential for Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) systems to improve trauma outcomes by detecting patients at-risk for severe injury and facilitating early transport to trauma centers.
National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 1999-2013 were used to construct a logistic regression model (injury severity prediction [ISP] model) predicting the probability that one or more occupants in planar, non-rollover motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) would have Injury Severity Score (ISS) 15+ injuries. Variables included principal direction of force (PDOF), change in velocity (Delta-V), multiple impacts, presence of any older occupant (≥55 years old), presence of any female occupant, presence of right-sided passenger, belt use, and vehicle type. The model was validated using medical records and 2008-2011 crash data from AACN-enabled Michigan (USA) vehicles identified from OnStar (OnStar Corporation; General Motors; Detroit, Michigan USA) records. To compare the ISP to previously established protocols, a literature search was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of first responder identification of ISS 15+ for MVC occupants.
The study population included 924 occupants in 836 crash events. The ISP model had a sensitivity of 72.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 41%-91%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI 92%-95%) for identifying ISS 15+ occupants injured in planar MVCs. The current standard 2006 Field Triage Decision Scheme (FTDS) was 56%-66% sensitive and 75%-88% specific in identifying ISS 15+ patients.
The ISP algorithm comparably is more sensitive and more specific than current field triage in identifying MVC patients at-risk for ISS 15+ injuries. This real-world field study shows telemetry data transmitted before dispatch of emergency medical systems can be helpful to quickly identify patients who require urgent transfer to trauma centers.
Current literature considers that Nasolamia velox has a limited distribution along the coastline of the Eastern Pacific with sporadic sightings in the Galapagos Archipelago. This study provides evidence of the occurrence of this species at the Revillagigedo Archipelago (18°99′186″N 112°08′44″W), Mexico, using acoustic telemetry and videos taken from 2014 to 2016. We report here movements from a coastal location (National Park Cabo Pulmo) to a group of oceanic islands (Revillagigedo Archipelago) by one single individual, supporting the idea of the potential connectivity of sharks between the Gulf of California and the Revillagigedo Archipelago. This report extends the known distribution of N. velox to 400 km off the mainland coast of the Americas, thereby increasing the knowledge of the distribution of a species commonly reported in fishery landings of the Eastern Pacific.
The performance of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems is a function of many parameters such as resonance matching, coil quality factor, system impedance match, and others. When designing and testing WPT systems, reliable measurement of system performance is essential. In our application, we use WPT to power biomedical implants for telemetry acquisition from small rodents, where rodent behavior data is used to study disease models. Such an application employs a large primary coil and a much smaller moving secondary coil, which can be defined as a loosely coupled WPT (LCWPT) system. This paper presents a novel wireless measurement system (WMS) that is used to collect real-time performance data from the secondary circuit (implant), while testing LCWPT systems. Presently, measuring the performance of the secondary side of LCWPT systems while they are in operation can be problematic. The literature reports various measurement errors when using voltage/current probes, or coaxial cables placed directly into the primary magnetic field. We have designed the WMS to greatly reduce such measurement errors, where the WMS measures the induced voltage (and hence received power) and relays this information by radio. Experiments were done to test the WMS, as well as comparison with cable-based measurements.
The movement and activity patterns of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, a vulnerable species off Brazil, were investigated using mark-recapture and acoustic telemetry at an oceanic insular Marine Protected Area, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil. A total of 93 sharks were captured and tagged, ranging from 82 to 265 cm of total length (TL). Nurse sharks were captured throughout the year, and all life-stages used the insular shelf. Fifteen sharks (16% of the total) were recaptured after periods at liberty ranging from 3.5 h to 705 days, and the distances between tag and recapture locations ranged from 0.07 to 3.5 km. Site fidelity and movements of 10 sharks ranging from 107 to 265 cm TL were investigated for 18 months with an array of automated telemetry receivers. The mean period of detection of the monitored sharks was 66 days, ranging from 13 to 119 days. One individual 158 cm TL was monitored with active tracking for 17 days, with distances between daily locations ranging from 0.84 to 3.32 km, exhibiting movements similar to those of sharks monitored by automated telemetry. Despite remaining motionless or exhibiting short range movements for several hours or days, nurse sharks can be relatively wide-ranging, and protected areas alone cannot be the only conservation measure used to protect this species, which requires a set of protective measures, including fisheries management.
The discipline of clinical neuropsychiatry currently provides specialised services for a number of conditions that cross the traditional boundaries of neurology and psychiatry, including non-epileptic attack disorder. Neurophysiological investigations have an important role within neuropsychiatry services, with video-electroencephalography (EEG) telemetry being the gold standard investigation for the differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and non-epileptic attacks. This article reviews existing evidence on best practices for neurophysiology investigations, with focus on safety measures for video-EEG telemetry.
We conducted a systematic literature review using the PubMed database in order to identify the scientific literature on the best practices when using neurophysiological investigations in patients with suspected epileptic seizures or non-epileptic attacks.
Specific measures need to be implemented for video-EEG telemetry to be safely and effectively carried out by neuropsychiatry services. A confirmed diagnosis of non-epileptic attack disorder following video-EEG telemetry carried out within neuropsychiatry units has the inherent advantage of allowing diagnosis communication and implementation of treatment strategies in a timely fashion, potentially improving clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness significantly.
The identified recommendations set the stage for the development of standardised guidelines to enable neuropsychiatry services to implement streamlined and evidence-based care pathways.
We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.
We radio-tracked a pack of bush dogs Speothos venaticus (7–10 individuals) near Água Boa in Mato Grosso, Brazil, for 18 months to investigate their use of habitat in cultivated land. The pack's home range was 709 km2 (fixed-kernel 95%), which exceeds estimates of home range for the largest Neotropical carnivore, the jaguar Panthera onca. Of the 245 locations where the dogs were recorded 95% were within native vegetation (savannah and forest), even though these habitats comprised only 34% of the pack's home range. This indicates a preference for native vegetation, and this was reinforced by composition analysis of habitat use, which showed that the pack used savannah and forest more than expected and cultivated areas less than expected. Analysis of activity showed that the bush dogs were moving quickly in more than half of the locations in cultivated areas, foraging in most savannah locations and resting in most forest locations. Our results indicate that bush dogs can live in areas with a high proportion of cultivated land (66%), possibly because of the structural connectivity of the landscape (80% of the native habitat is within a single patch). However, their home range appears to be inflated compared to that of other carnivores, which may have a negative effect on the species in the long term.
At-sea behaviour of central-place foraging fur seals and penguins in the Southern Ocean is understudied during the latter stages of parental care and the subsequent pre-moulting period. This biologically important period is costly to investigate due to the risk (or certainty) of losing tracking instruments when the animals moult. Early in this period, parents must meet the increasing demands of larger, more mobile offspring that are still nutritionally dependent and then the parents must recover lost body condition prior to the onset of their annual moult. This study reports late-season, at-sea movement patterns of macaroni penguins, chinstrap penguins and adult female Antarctic fur seals from the subantarctic island Bouvetøya, in relation to remotely-sensed oceanographic features. Foraging trips differing significantly in direction and distance travelled compared to those performed earlier in the breeding season, coincide with the time when offspring would be expected to become independent. On these trips, macaroni penguins moved towards the Polar Front while chinstrap penguins and Antarctic fur seals moved southward. Individuals from all three species appeared to target submesoscale ocean features once they were presumed to have been released from the constraints of feeding their young and were able to travel greater distances from the colony.
Tigers Panthera tigris are highly threatened and continue to decline across their entire range. Actions to restore and conserve populations need to be based on science but, in South-east Asia, information on ecology and behaviour of tigers is lacking. This study reports the relationship between the home range size of female tigers and prey abundance, using data from radio-collared tigers in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, and published data from other studies. A total of 11 tigers, four males and seven females, were fitted with global positioning system collars, to estimate home ranges using 95 and 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP). Prey abundance was estimated by faecal accumulation rates. The mean home range size of male tigers was 267 and 294 km2 based on 95 and 100% MCPs, respectively; the mean female home range size was 70 and 84 km2, respectively. Territories of male and female tigers had little overlap, which indicated both sexes were territorial. Mean densities of the prey species sambar Rusa unicolor, barking deer Muntiacus muntjac and large bovids were 7.5, 3.5 and 3.0 km−2, respectively. When female home range size and prey abundance were compared at six locations in Thailand, and at other sites in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Russia, a significant negative correlation was found between prey abundance and home range size. Monitoring this relationship can provide managers with metrics for setting conservation goals.
Conservation of threatened large sharks and management of shark-human interactions requires an understanding of shark occurrence and movement patterns. Here, we present the first catch, movement and behaviour data of adult bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, in New Caledonia. Amongst six adult C. leucas tagged with passive acoustic tags, four females were caught in coastal waters while males were only found at an isolated oceanic barrier coral reef over 100 km from the nearest river mouth. Two females were monitored in the southern New Caledonia lagoon for 707 and 208 days respectively and displayed classical transient behaviour and sporadic short-term residency around a coastal reef bay, with movements in and out a river detected prior to spring. Adult C. leucas in New Caledonia may develop a sex-based spatial segregation with an atypical presence of adult males in oceanic environments, probably influenced by the unique estuarine-marine continuum of the New Caledonian great lagoon.
The movement patterns of males, females and juveniles of lekking species often differ due to differences in the commitment to lek activities, which may lead to differences in the spatial distribution and dispersal distances of seeds they eat. By sampling seeds in three lek and non-lek areas of the white-bearded manakin (Manacus manacus), we tested whether this lekking species increased the abundance and species richness of seeds in lek areas and, at a finer scale, in 21 displaying courts within lek areas. Combining data on seed defecation or regurgitation rates by free-ranging individuals, the number of seeds in droppings or regurgitations of mist-netted birds, and the distances travelled by birds equipped with radio-transmitters, we estimated the potential spatial distribution of seeds generated by six resident males and six females or juveniles during the morning peak of lek activity and when lek activity decreased in the afternoon. There was no difference in the species richness (46 and 44 morphospecies, respectively) and abundance of seeds (15.4 ± 7.3 seeds and 14.0 ± 1.1 seeds, respectively) between lek and non-lek areas. Within leks both parameters increased in courts (45 spp., 17.6 ± 14 seeds) compared with non-court sites (22 spp., 1.9 ± 1.8 seeds), likely as a consequence of the longer time spent by resident males in perches in or near display courts. Distances moved by juveniles and females per 60-min period (183 ± 272 m) were greater than resident males (42.6 ± 22.0 m) in the mornings, while the opposite happened in the afternoons (55.2 ± 40.7 m and 157 ± 105 m, respectively). We conclude that the spatial aggregation of seeds in lek areas of M. manacus occurs at the court level, and the spatial distribution of deposited seeds varies with manakin lekking status and the daily period of foraging.
We monitored the long-term residency of reef-associated ballan wrasse and sand-dwelling rays captured at the site of a potential future Marine Protected Area (MPA: Portelet Bay, Jersey) by implanting them with small transmitters and deploying underwater receivers inside the bay. Individual fish were detected at Portelet Bay for up to 618 days, but there were species-specific differences in residency and detection patterns. Ballan wrasse were year-round residents at the study site where they exhibited distinct, rhythmic, diel, tidal and seasonal patterns of behaviour, whereas rays were occasional visitors to Portelet Bay with no discernible pattern to their visits. Results indicate relatively small MPAs (<0.5 km2) that with suitable habitat could provide effective, long-term protection for ballan wrasse, but would likely be of little conservation benefit for rays. Our findings emphasize the importance of quantifying fish movements when planning MPAs which intend to protect multi-species assemblages of coastal fishes.
A fish aggregating device (FAD) called a payao is conventionally installed to catch
pelagic species in the Philippines. The waters around the Philippines are important
regions for yellowfin tuna stocks because they include spawning grounds and nurseries. To
understand the schooling behavior of juvenile yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares around a payao, 13 juveniles (20.5−24.0 cm fork length) double tagged with
ultrasonic transmitters (V7-2L-R256; Vemco Ltd.) and data loggers (DST-micro; Star-Oddi
Ltd.) were released around a payao. A self-recording receiver (VR2-DEL; Vemco Ltd.) was
attached on the mooring rope of the payao to follow the horizontal movements and data
loggers recorded the vertical movements of tagged juveniles. Nine juveniles were
recaptured simultaneously by ring net at the same payao after 4-7 days. One juvenile was
recaptured by hand line at another payao 12 km away from the tagging site after 6 days.
Recaptured juveniles showed a diurnal schooling pattern suggesting different school shape
and foraging strategy between daytime and nighttime. Juveniles showed a diurnal horizontal
moving pattern, concentrated near the payao during daytime, while they were distributed
around the payao at nighttime. The fluctuations of swimming depth were synchronized among
fish. Juveniles also showed a diurnal vertical movement pattern in surface mixed layer.
They concentrated in a shallow and narrow range (11.2±8.2 m, mean ± SD) at nighttime,
while they were distributed to a deep and wide range (20.0 ± 11.8 m) during daytime. The
maximum vertical neighbor distance indicated the vertical thickness of the school and
showed a peak around noon. Higher vertical movement speed during daytime indicated
vertical foraging in a water column, while at nighttime the juveniles might forage
horizontally following the diurnal migration patterns of prey in the surface layer.
Several pelagic fish species are known to associate with floating objects. However, quantitative information on the main factors that drive this associative behaviour is still lacking. Small pelagic fish offer a particularly interesting case study for this phenomenon, since the small spatial scales involved in their association with floating objects allow experimental data to be collected at a fine scale. Here, we monitored twelve acoustically-tagged bigeye scads, Selar crumenophthalmus (Carangidae), (mean fork length 16.4 cm, SD 2.1 cm) around a floating object moored in shallow water (15 m depth) playing the role of a coastal fish aggregating device (FAD). To quantify the role played by variations in current and daylight, we calculated the speed distribution, pair correlation function and group polarization for the tagged fish hourly, from midday to dusk (13:00–18:00), for varying current strengths and daylight conditions. We found that the current induced a shift in the position of the aggregation upstream of the FAD, at distances that increased with the current strength. We found evidence of an expansion and a higher coordination in the aggregation at dusk, with increasing speed, distance among conspecifics and alignment. We discuss possible scenarios in which group polarization increases at dusk and suggest complementary measurements for future experiments that could confirm our findings.
This paper focuses on the design of a telemetry antenna system intended for small satellites. It provides an axial ratio (AR) lower than 3 dB over ±60° conical space angle with over 20% of bandwidth. The antenna consists of a multilayer patch element fed by a wideband feeding circuit. The latter is an appropriate adjustment of 90° hybrid couplers and 180° ring coupler. We show that this design provides high-quality circular polarization properties for agile small satellites without having to suspend their mission to download their data and also without sacrificing the antenna low profile and wide bandwidth. The antenna is fabricated and the experimental performance is presented and followed by a discussion.
The pole and line tuna fishery in the Maldives relies heavily on an array of 45 anchored
fish aggregating devices (FADs), making it one of the largest anchored FAD-based tuna
fisheries in the world. We examined the behaviour of skipjack (Katsuwonus
pelamis) and yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) tuna around
anchored FADs (1 000 to 2 000 m deep) in the Maldives using passive acoustic telemetry.
Eight neighbouring FADs (distance range: 30 to 95 km, average: 50 km) were equipped with
automated acoustic receivers in January 2009, for a period of 13 months. A total of 40
skipjack (37−54 cm FL) and 21 yellowfin (35−53 cm FL)
tuna were tagged with Vemco V13 transmitters in January (start of the northeast monsoon,
dry season) and November (end of the southwest monsoon, wet season) 2009 and released at
the two central FADs within this instrumented array. No movement between FADs was observed
for any acoustically-tagged tuna in the instrumented FAD array. These results suggest that
FADs in the Maldives may act independently. The maximum time a tagged skipjack remained
associated with a FAD was 12.8 days in January but only one day in November. In addition,
residence times at FADs were found to differ with time (month) and space (FAD location)
for skipjack tuna, suggesting that external biotic factors (e.g., prey, conspecifics or
predators) might influence the time this species spends at FADs. In November, the
residence times of yellowfin tuna (maximum observed time: 2.8 days) were three times
greater than those of skipjack tuna at the same FADs. This specific difference could be
explained either by the two species responding to different factors or by the species’
responses being dependent on the same factor but with different thresholds. No particular
preference for time of departure from the FADs was observed. Some monospecific and
multispecific pairs of acoustically-tagged individuals were observed leaving the FADs
simultaneously. Thus, this study indicates a high degree of complexity in the behavioural
processes driving FAD associations.
The current classification of epileptic seizures, epilepsies, and epilepsy syndromes is considered first. The presence of progressive neurological signs is a cause for concern and suggests a degenerative disorder. Investigations may include biochemical investigation, EEG, video telemetry, cranial imaging, and DNA diagnostics. Affected males with fragile-X have an increased frequency of epilepsy. Estimates of its prevalence vary from 28% to 45%. Seizures may be generalized tonic-clonic, partial with or without secondary generalization, or of multiple types. Advances in human molecular genetic techniques have allowed positional cloning strategies to be applied to identification of the defective genes and their protein products. A number of studies have been performed on the incidence of epilepsy in the offspring of epileptic parents, and provide an empiric risk of 1. 7%-7. 3%, with a median of 4. 2% for all types of seizures, including febrile convulsions and single seizures.
A method was developed to attach underwater acoustic transmitters on the knobby sea star Protoreaster nodosus. Cylindrical transmitters, each measuring 36 mm length × 13 mm diameter in size and 11 g in weight, were used in this study. Each transmitter was placed in a neoprene holder that was attached externally to the middle of one arm of P. nodosus with a nylon monofilament fishing line. Attachment was achieved by threading the monofilament line through two small perforations aborally along its mid-ridge and adorally through the ambulacral groove. Some 36 individuals were successfully tagged over a three-year period between 2007 and 2010 on an intertidal reef in Singapore using this technique. Tagging did not appear to affect survival, feeding or movement of sea stars during the period of attachment, which averaged 60 days. This method may work equally well with other types of tags, such as depth recorders and accelerometers.
The Scottish Hydrometric Network consists of a number of river gauging stations which have been located at sites considered suitable to provide long term flow records. Economic recession has placed some stress on the gauging programme, and has given rise to extensive closures of gauging stations in England and, to a minor extent so far, in Scotland. The way in which the network became established provides a mixture of strengths and weaknesses which could have unpredictable consequences in an adverse economic climate. Changing technology provides some opportunity to reduce the cost of data acquisition and improve the deployment of manpower, while maintaining data standards. In these changing circumstances, particularly with extensive use of computer systems, it is important that standards are established for data returned to the Water Archive and that the network is not allowed to degenerate by default.
Seaward migration of immature salmonids (smolts) may be associated with severe mortality in anthropogenically altered channels. Few studies however, have identified distinct behaviours that lead to exposure to adverse habitats or even unsuccessful migration. This study used high resolution telemetry to map migration routes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts approaching a water withdrawal zone associated with an aquaculture facility in a lowland river. Individual smolts were tagged with an acoustic transmitter and released upstream of the water withdrawal zone. A trap was installed downstream of the water withdrawal zone. The trap captured all smolts that passed the water withdrawal zone. The tracking results confirmed previous studies on Pacific salmon showing that Atlantic salmon smolts may perform milling behaviours (i.e. upstream excursions and circular swimming behaviour) in anthropogenically altered channels. Non-milling and milling smolts were compared. Smolts performing milling behaviours covered a larger area (m2) and experienced an increased probability of entering the water withdrawal zone, considered an adverse habitat. Finally, smolts were identified as either passing (67%) or non-passing (33%) the water withdrawal zone based on the recapture data from the trap. In total, 20% of the non-passing smolts entered the aquaculture facility. Several behavioural traits differed between the remaining (80%) non-passing smolts and the passing smolts. In particular, time spent near the water withdrawal zone correlated negatively with the probability of passage. These links between individual behaviours and exposure to adverse habitats and passage probability may be applied to improve management of salmonid populations.