Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Linking individual behaviour and migration success in Salmo salar smolts approaching a water withdrawal site: implications for management

  • Jon C. Svendsen (a1) (a2), Kim Aarestrup (a1), Hans Malte (a3), Uffe H. Thygesen (a4), Henrik Baktoft (a1), Anders Koed (a1), Michael G. Deacon (a5), K. Fiona Cubitt (a6) and R. Scott McKinley (a6)...

Abstract

Seaward migration of immature salmonids (smolts) may be associated with severe mortality in anthropogenically altered channels. Few studies however, have identified distinct behaviours that lead to exposure to adverse habitats or even unsuccessful migration. This study used high resolution telemetry to map migration routes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts approaching a water withdrawal zone associated with an aquaculture facility in a lowland river. Individual smolts were tagged with an acoustic transmitter and released upstream of the water withdrawal zone. A trap was installed downstream of the water withdrawal zone. The trap captured all smolts that passed the water withdrawal zone. The tracking results confirmed previous studies on Pacific salmon showing that Atlantic salmon smolts may perform milling behaviours (i.e. upstream excursions and circular swimming behaviour) in anthropogenically altered channels. Non-milling and milling smolts were compared. Smolts performing milling behaviours covered a larger area (m2) and experienced an increased probability of entering the water withdrawal zone, considered an adverse habitat. Finally, smolts were identified as either passing (67%) or non-passing (33%) the water withdrawal zone based on the recapture data from the trap. In total, 20% of the non-passing smolts entered the aquaculture facility. Several behavioural traits differed between the remaining (80%) non-passing smolts and the passing smolts. In particular, time spent near the water withdrawal zone correlated negatively with the probability of passage. These links between individual behaviours and exposure to adverse habitats and passage probability may be applied to improve management of salmonid populations.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a Corresponding author: jos@aqua.dtu.dk

References

Hide All
[1] Aarestrup, K., Jepsen, N., 1998, Spawning migration of sea trout (Salmo trutta (L)) in a Danish river. Hydrobiologia 371/372, 275281.
[2]Aarestrup, K., Koed, A., 2003, Survival of migrating sea trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts negotiating weirs in small Danish rivers. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 12, 169176.
[3]Aarestrup, K., Jepsen, N., Koed, A., Pedersen, S., 2005, Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream. J. Fish Biol. 66, 721728.
[4]Agostinho, A.A., Gomes, L.C., Fernandez, D.R., Suzuki, H.I., 2002, Efficiency of fish ladders for neotropical ichthyofauna. River Res. Applic. 18, 299306.
[5]Arnekleiv, J.V., Rønning, L., 2004, Migratory patterns and return to the catch site of adult brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a regulated river. River Res. Applic. 20, 929942.
[6]Brown, L.S., Haro, A., Castro-Santos, T., 2009, Three-dimensional movement of silver-phase American eels in the forebay of a small hydroelectric facility. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 58, 277291.
[7]Buchanan, R.A., Skalski, J.R., McMichael, G.A., 2009, Differentiating mortality from delayed migration in subyearling fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 66, 22432255.
[8]Cote, J., Fogarty, S., Weinersmith, K., Brodin, T., Sih, A., 2010, Personality traits and dispersal tendency in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 277, 15711579.
[9] Crozier W.W., Kennedy G.J.A., 1993, Marine survival of wild and hatchery reared salmon (Salmo salar L.) from the river Bush, Northern Ireland. In Mills D.H. (Ed.). Salmon in the sea and the new enhancement strategies. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 139–162.
[10]Davidsen, J., Svenning, M.-A., Orell, P., Yoccoz, N., Dempson, J.B., Niemelä, E., Klemetsen, A., Lamberg, A., Erkinaro, J., 2005, Spatial and temporal migration of wild Atlantic salmon smolts determined from a video camera array in the sub-arctic river Tana. Fish. Res. 74, 210222.
[11]Enders, E.C., Gessel, M.H., Williams, J.G., 2009, Development of successful fish passage structures for downstream migrants requires knowledge of their behavioural response to accelerating flow. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 66, 21092117.
[12]Ehrenberg, J.E., Steig, T.W., 2002, A method for estimating the “position accuracy” of acoustic fish tags. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 140149.
[13]Ehrenberg, J.E., Steig, T.W., 2003, Improved techniques for studying the temporal and spatial behavior of fish in a fixed location. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 700706.
[14]Finstad, B., Økland, F., Thorstad, E.B., Bjorn, P.A., McKinley, R.S., 2005, Migration of hatchery- reared Atlantic salmon and wild anadromous brown trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. J. Fish Biol. 66, 8696.
[15]Gehrke, P.C., Gilligan, D.M., Barwick, M., 2002, Changes in fish communities of the Shoalhaven River 20 years after construction of Tallowa Dam, Australia. River Res. Applic. 18, 265286.
[16]Goodwin, R.A., Nestler, J.M., Anderson, J.J., Weber, L.J., Loucks, D.P., 2006, Forecasting 3-D fish movement behavior using a Eulerian-Lagrangian-agent method (ELAM). Ecol. Model. 192, 197223.
[17]Gosset, C., Rives, J., Labonne, J., 2006, Effect of habitat fragmentation on spawning migration of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15, 247254.
[18]Hansen, M.M., Jensen, L.F., 2005, Sibship within samples of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and implications for supportive breeding. Conserv. Genet. 6, 297305.
[19]Haro, A., Odeh, M., Noreika, J., Castro-Santos, T., 1998, Effect of water acceleration on downstream migratory behavior and passage of Atlantic salmon smolts and juvenile American shad at surface bypasses. T. Am. Fish. Soc. 127, 118127.
[20]Heggenes, J., Røed, K.H., 2006, Do dams increase genetic diversity in brown trout (Salmo trutta)? Microgeographic differentiation in a fragmented river. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 15, 366375.
[21] Hoar W.S., 1988, The physiology of smolting salmonids. In Hoar W.S., Randall D.J. (Eds.). Fish Physiology, vol. 11. Academic Press, New York, pp. 275–343.
[22]Hvidsten, N.A., Jensen, A.J., Rikardsen, A.H., Finstad, B., Aure, J., Stefansson, S., Fiske, P., Johnsen, B.O., 2009, Influence of sea temperature and initial marine feeding on survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts from the Rivers Orkla and Hals, Norway. J. Fish Biol. 74, 15321548.
[23] Johnsen B.O., Arnekleiv J.V., Asplin L., Barlaup B.T., Næsje T.F., Rosseland B.O., Saltveit S.J., Tvede A., 2011, Hydropower development – ecological effects. In Aa Ø., Einum S., Klemetsen A., Skurdal J. (Eds.). Atlantic salmon ecology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, pp. 351–385.
[24]Johnson, P.N., Bouchard, K., Goetz, F.A., 2005, Effectiveness of strobe lights for reducing juvenile salmonid entrainment into a navigation lock. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 25, 491501.
[25]Johnson, S.L., Power, J.H., Wilson, D.R., Ray, J., 2010, A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea River and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 30, 5571.
[26]Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N., 2004, Factors affecting marine production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62, 23692383.
[27]Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B., Hansen, L.P., 1998, The relative role of density-dependent and density-independent survival in the life cycle of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. J. Anim. Ecol. 67, 751762.
[28]Jonsson, N., Jonsson, B., 2002, Migration of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta in a Norwegian river. Freshw. Biol. 47, 13911401.
[29]Kanno, Y., Vokoun, J.C., 2010, Evaluating effects of water withdrawals and impoundments on fish assemblages in southern New England streams, USA. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 17, 272283.
[30]Kemp, P.S., Gessel, M.H., Williams, J.G., 2005, Seaward migrating subyearling Chinook salmon avoid overhead cover. J. Fish Biol. 67, 13811391.
[31]Kemp, P.S., Williams, J.G., 2008, Response of migrating Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts to in-stream structure associated with culverts. River Res. Applic. 24, 571579.
[32]Kemp, P.S., Williams, J.G., 2009, Illumination influences the ability of migrating juvenile salmonids to pass a submerged experimental weir. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 18, 297304.
[33] Kemp, P.S., O’Hanley, J.R., 2010, Procedures for evaluating and prioritising the removal of fish passage barriers: a synthesis. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 17, 297322.
[34]Martel, G., Dill, L.M., 1995, Influence of movement by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr on their detection by common mergansers (Mergus merganser). Ethology 99, 139149.
[35]McCormick, S.D., Hansen, L.P., Quinn, T.P., Saunders, R.L., 1998, Movement, migration, and smelting of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 7792.
[36]Meldgaard, T., Nielsen, E.E., Loeschcke, V., 2003, Fragmentation by weirs in a riverine system: a study of genetic variation in time and space among populations of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) in a Danish river system. Conserv. Genet. 4, 735747.
[37]Nams, V.O., 2006, Improving accuracy and precision in estimating fractal dimension of animal movement paths. Acta Biotheor. 54, 111.
[38]Nestler, J.M., Goodwin, R.A., Smith, D.L., Anderson, J.J., Li, S., 2008, Optimum fish passage and guidance designs are based in the hydrogeomorphology of natural rivers. River Res. Applic. 24, 148168.
[39]Nielsen, C., Holdensgaard, G., Petersen, H.C., Björnsson, B.T., Madsen, S.S., 2001, Genetic differences in physiology, growth hormone levels and migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon smolts. J. Fish Biol. 59, 2844.
[40]Olsèn, K.H., Petersson, E., Ragnarsson, B., Lundqvist, H., Jarvi, T., 2004, Downstream migration in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt sibling groups. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61, 328331.
[41]Olsson, I.C., Greenberg, L.A., Eklov, A.G., 2001, Effect of an artificial pond on migrating brown trout smolts. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 21, 498506.
[42]Parrish, D.L., Behnke, R.J., Gephard, S.R., McCormick, S.D., Reeves, G.H., 1998, Why aren’t there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 281287.
[43]Petrosky, C.E., Schaller, H.A., 2010, Influence of river conditions during seaward migration and ocean conditions on survival rates of Snake River Chinook salmon and steelhead. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 19, 520536.
[44]Plumb, J.M., Perry, R.W., Adams, N.S., Rondorf, D.W., 2006, The effects of river impoundment and hatchery rearing on the migration behaviour of juvenile steelhead in the lower Snake River, Washington. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 26, 438452.
[45]Roscoe, D.W., Hinch, S.G., 2010, Effectiveness monitoring of fish passage facilities: historical trends, geographic patterns and future directions. Fish Fish. 11, 1233.
[46]Saunders, J.W., 1960, The effect of impoundment on the population and movement of Atlantic salmon in Ellerslie Brook, Prince Edward Island. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 17, 453473.
[47]Schilt, C.R., 2007, Developing fish passage and protection at hydropower dams. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 104, 295325.
[48]Semmens, B.X., 2008, Acoustically derived fine-scale behaviors of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) associated with intertidal benthic habitats in an estuary. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65, 20532062.
[49]Shrimpton, J.M., Björnsson, B.T., McCormick, S.D., 2000, Can Atlantic salmon smolt twice? Endocrine and biochemical changes during smolting. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57, 19691976.
[50]Smith, L.S., 1982, Decreased swimming performance as a necessary component of the smolt migration in salmon in the Columbia River. Aquaculture 28, 153161.
[51]Sonny, D., Knudsen, F.R., Enger, P.S., Kvernstuen, T., Sand, O., 2006, Reactions of cyprinids to infrasound in a lake and at the cooling water inlet of a nuclear power plant. J. Fish Biol. 69, 735748.
[52] Strand, J.E.T., Davidsen, J.G., Jørgensen, E.H., Rikardsen, A.H., 2011, Seaward migrating Atlantic salmon smolts with low levels of gill Na + , K +  -ATPase activity; is sea entry delayed? Environ. Biol. Fishes. 90, 317321.
[53]Svendsen, J.C., Eskesen, A.O., Aarestrup, K., Koed, A., Jordan, A.D., 2007, Evidence for non- random spatial positioning of migrating smolts (Salmonidae) in a small lowland stream. Freshw. Biol. 52, 11471158.
[54]Svendsen, J.C., Aarestrup, K., Deacon, M.G., Christensen, R.H.B., 2010, Effects of a surface oriented travelling screen and water abstraction practices on downstream migrating Salmonidae smolts in a lowland stream. River Res. Applic. 26, 353361.
[55] Thorstad, E.B, Økland, F., Finstad, B., Sivertsgard, R., Bjorn, P.A., McKinley, R.S., 2004, Migration speeds and orientation of Atlantic salmon and sea trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. Environ. Biol. Fish. 71, 305311.
[56] Todd C.D., Friedland K.D., MacLean J.C., Hazon N., Jensen A.J., 2011, Getting into hot water? Atlantic salmon responses to climate change in freshwater and marine environments. In Aa Ø., Einum S., Klemetsen A., Skurdal J. (Eds.). Atlantic salmon ecology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, pp. 409–443.
[57]Unwin, M.J., Webb, M., Barker, R.J., Link, W.A., 2005, Quantifying production of salmon fry in an unscreened irrigation system: a case study on the Rangitata River, New Zealand. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 25, 619634.
[58]Venditti, D.A., Rondorf, D.W., Kraut, J.M., 2000, Migratory behavior and forebay delay of radio-tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon in a lower Snake River impoundment. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 20, 4152.
[59]Welton, J.S., Beaumont, W.R.C., Clarke, R.T., 2002, The efficacy of air, sound and acoustic bubble screens in deflecting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts in the River Frome, UK. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 9, 1118.
[60]Wolf, P.A., 1951, A trap for the capture of fish and other organisms moving downstream. T. Am. Fish. Soc. 80, 4145.
[61]Zabel, R.W., Faulkner, J., Smith, S.G., Anderson, J.J., Holmes, C.V., Beer, N., Iltis, S., Krinke, J., Fredricks, G., Bellerud, B., Sweet, J., Giorgi, A., 2008, Comprehensive passage (COMPASS) model: a model of downstream migration and survival of juvenile salmonids through a hydropower system. Hydrobiologia 609, 289300.

Keywords

Linking individual behaviour and migration success in Salmo salar smolts approaching a water withdrawal site: implications for management

  • Jon C. Svendsen (a1) (a2), Kim Aarestrup (a1), Hans Malte (a3), Uffe H. Thygesen (a4), Henrik Baktoft (a1), Anders Koed (a1), Michael G. Deacon (a5), K. Fiona Cubitt (a6) and R. Scott McKinley (a6)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed