To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Primates are an order of mammals which share a set of traits inherited from a common ancestor that distinguishes them from all other mammals. These derived traits are not all unique to primates and none of the individual traits is shown by all primates. Primates range in body mass from the 30 g Madame Berthe's mouse lemur to around 250 kg for a male Grauer's gorilla. This variation in size is in line with that found in other mammalian orders and is closely associated with what they eat (diet), how they move (locomotion), and their behaviour. In this chapter, I provide a general introduction to the primates and their evolutionary adaptations (traits produced by natural selection for their current function), including their distribution and habitats, adaptations to life in the trees, diet and dietary adaptations, brains and sensory traits, life history and reproduction, behaviour and locomotion, social behaviour and interactions with other species. I then survey the major groups of primates. Throughout the chapter, I highlight terms that are common in the literature but are problematic.
Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) maroccanus (Dollfus, 1951), an insufficiently described quadrigyrid acanthocephalan of cyprinid fishes from Northwest Africa, is redescribed based on recently collected specimens from the Algerian barb Luciobarbus callensis (Valenciennes) in Algeria. Newly observed morphological features for A. (A.) maroccanus include the arrangement of proboscis hooks (not in regular circles), the male reproductive structures extending into the copulatory bursa and the presence of a para-receptacle structure and vaginal sleeve. The mechanism of copulation of this acanthocephalan is described based on several copulating pairs. The phylogenetic position of A. (A.) maroccanus within Eoacanthocephala was assessed based on partial 28S rDNA sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed A. (A.) maroccanus in a clade with Palliolisentis (Demidueterospinus) ophiocephalus (Thapar, 1931), both species included in the Quadrigyridae, the only family within the Gyracanthocephala.
Extinction is a profound biological event, yet despite its finality it can be difficult to verify and many frameworks have been proposed to define formally that extinction has occurred. For most taxonomic groups and regions there is no reliable list of species considered to be probably or possibly extinct. The record of plant extinctions in Australia is no exception, characterized by high turn-over within lists, low transparency of attribution and lack of consistency between jurisdictions. This makes it impossible to evaluate how many plant taxa have become extinct in Australia. We present an ecological framework for assessing the likelihood of plant extinctions, based on taxonomic soundness, degree of habitat modification, detectability and search effort, underpinned by the best available expert knowledge. We show that, in sharp contrast to both the fate of the Australian fauna and prevailing assumptions, only 12 of 71 plant taxa currently listed as or assumed to be extinct are considered probably extinct, and a further 21 possibly extinct. Twenty taxa listed as or assumed to be extinct have dubious taxonomy or occurrence in Australia, and the remaining 18 taxa are considered possibly extant and further surveys are required to ascertain their status. The list of probably and possibly extinct plants is dwarfed by the number thought extinct but rediscovered since 1980. Our method can be used for vascular floras in other regions characterized by well-documented and curated floras and high levels of expert knowledge, and provides a transparent platform for assessing changes in the status of biodiversity.
This chapter explores an intriguing book/object hybrid in the Whipple Museum’s collection: a set of mosses in the Whipple Museum dated 1818 and labelled Musci Britannici. These sets of labelled specimens are known as exsiccatae (from the Latin for ‘dried’) and usually consist of pressed plants all belonging to the same taxonomic group mounted on loose sheets contained in covers or boxes. Such an object highlights and straddles divisions between libraries and museums, between cabinet and field work, and between commerce and the established practice of gift exchange in natural history. By studying the production and distribution of exsiccatae at a time when taxonomic systems were in formation, it is argued that, more than books or collections, they were instruments for seeing, designed to hone visual skills and calibrate observational powers. It also offers a window onto the social status and working skills of artisan botanists such as the maker of Musci Britannici, Edward Hobson, a poor warehouseman from Manchester.
This article introduces an approach to teaching ancient Mediterranean religions by using types of classification to compare ancient to modern groups. A brief narrative introduces pedagogy challenges around understanding the multi-various intersections of ancient group affiliations with other aspects of society. Different modes of classification and comparison are presented as a way to enable such understanding. Finally, worksheets meant for copy and classroom use are presented, explained, and detailed for their potential in Classics pedagogy at both the secondary and tertiary levels.
A new species of the genus Plagiorhynchus Lühe, 1911 from the intestine of the long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) from northern Mexico is described. Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) aznari n. sp. is morphologically distinguished from other congeneric species from the Americas by having a trunk expanded anteriorly and a cylindrical proboscis, armed with 19 longitudinal rows of hooks, with 14–15 hooks each row. Nearly complete sequences of the small subunit and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the new species were determined and compared with available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the two molecular markers consistently showed that P. (Plagiorhynchus) aznari n. sp. is closely related to P. (Plagiorhynchus) allisonae, and this clade is sister to a clade formed by P. (Prosthorhynchus) transversus and P. (Prosthorhynchus) cylindraceus from Plagiorhynchidae. The new species represents the second record of the genus in Mexico and the fourth species in the Americas. The phylogenetic relationships among the members of the order Polymorphida in this study provide significant insights into the evolution of ecological associations between parasites and their definitive hosts. Our analyses suggest that the colonization of marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl in Polymorphidae might have occurred independently, from a common ancestor of Centrorhynchidae and Plagiorhynchidae that colonized terrestrial birds and mammals.
Three species, Lobothallia brachyloba Paukov & I. V. Frolov, L. epiadelpha Paukov & A. Nordin and L. zogtii Paukov & Davydov, from arid regions of Eurasia (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Mongolia) are described as new to science. Lobothallia brachyloba has flat, firmly attached lobes, immersed apothecia lacking a distinct thalline margin, and contains norstictic acid. Both Lobothallia epiadelpha and L. zogtii contain stictic acid and have a brown thallus and sessile apothecia. Lobothallia epiadelpha initially develops on crustose Circinaria spp, has thick lobes loosely attached to the substratum, and brown apothecial discs with constant thalline margins. Lobothallia zogtii is a free-living species with brownish black to jet black apothecial discs surrounded by a receding thalline margin. Lecanora bogdoënsis is synonymized with Lobothallia praeradiosa and Lobothallia helanensis is synonymized with L. subdiffracta. Three new combinations, Lobothallia hedinii (H. Magn.) Paukov, A. Nordin & Sohrabi, L. lacteola (Oxner) Şenkardeşler, Paukov, Davydov & Sohrabi, and L. subdiffracta (H. Magn.) Paukov, are proposed. Phylogenetic analyses of Lobothallia brachyloba, L. epiadelpha and L. subdiffracta (ITS, mtSSU) are presented, showing their relationships within Lobothallia. The lectotype of the name Aspicilia lacteola Oxner is designated. A key to 18 species of Lobothallia is provided.
This research article addresses an important issue related to how teachers can support Aboriginal secondary school students' learning of science. Drawn from a larger project that investigated the study of vertebrates using Queensland Indigenous knowledges and Montessori Linnaean materials to engage Indigenous secondary school students, this article focuses on the three-staged lessons from that study. Using an Action Research approach and working with participants from one secondary high school in regional Queensland with a high Indigenous population, there were several important findings. First, the materials and the three-staged lessons generated interest in learning Eurocentric science knowledge. Second, repetition, freedom and unhurried inclusion of foreign science knowledges strengthened students' Aboriginal personal identity as well as identities as science learners. Third, privileging of local Aboriginal knowledge and animal language gave rise to meaningful and contextualised Linnaean lessons and culturally responsive practices.
Trilobites are an iconic group of extinct arthropods that lived in Palaeozoic oceans for c. 270 Ma, before their demise at the end of the Permian Period. Despite their considerable diversity (> 22 000 species) and abundance, particularly in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks, as well as intensive study for well over 200 years, trilobite systematics remains in a state of flux. In this contribution, the complex history of trilobite classification over the last century is briefly reviewed, including the seminal scheme published by Henry Swinnerton in 1915. The cryptogenesis problem, which relates to the supposedly obscure phylogenetic links between major post-Cambrian trilobite clades and their Cambrian sister taxa, is also discussed. Previous studies have suggested that the cryptogenesis problem is largely a taxonomic artefact, but the Cambrian origins of some post-Cambrian groups, such as the orders Proetida and Odontopleurida, are still unclear. Future directions for research on trilobite systematics are outlined, from taxonomic studies involving comprehensive documentation and extensive illustration of morphology at the species level, through to broad-scale phylogenetic analyses that initiate or test hypotheses about relationships across the major groups. Other ongoing issues to be addressed include identifying the sister group of Trilobita, and determining whether certain taxa, such as the suborder Agnostina and Cambrian family Burlingiidae, represent trilobites.
A new species of Lavandula (Lamiaceae) is described from the Western Hajar Mountains of Oman. The species is fully described and illustrated. Habitat details and an assessment of its conservation status are provided.
As the most diverse animal phylum, Arthropoda expectedly has a complex nomenclatural history. Fossil stem groups scattering diagnostic traits of extant clades further complicate the matter. There have been some recent attempts at reorganizing higher-level arthropod taxonomy based on new fossil interpretations and phylogenetic results. However, I argue that this proposed terminology has introduced unnecessary confusion both for semantic reasons and because the core of these interpretations is being falsified. In this paper, I defend the rightful use of Arthropoda and Euarthropoda as key terms in organizing the major branches of the arthropod evolutionary tree and emend Euarthropoda based on the most recent findings in this field. To help with the description of the tree when dealing with euarthropods that belong outside of the main radiative clade including extant taxa, I propose the name Cenocondyla nom. nov., which represents the least inclusive group containing both Mandibulata and Chelicerata.
As part of ongoing molecular phylogenetic work on the large Gesneriaceae genus Cyrtandra, new insights into the taxonomy and relationships of the Cyrtandra of Japan, Taiwan and Batan Island in the northern Philippines have emerged. Cyrtandra umbellifera is confirmed as a species with a distribution that includes both Taiwan and Batan Island. Cyrtandra yaeyamae is found to be distinct from the widespread C. cumingii, with a distribution that includes both the Ryukyu Islands in Japan and Batan Island.
The genus Graphis sensu Staiger was recently divided into two genera, Graphis s. str. and Allographa. The latter contains mostly species with robust lirellae with a well-developed, often massively carbonized excipulum. With one exception, it also contains all species with a pigmented, yellow to orange pruina on the lirellae. Until now, seven species of Allographa were known with this character, all present in the Neotropics and one also in Africa. Here we describe two further species, both from tropical Asia, thus extending the known distribution of Allographa species with pigmented lirellae to the entire tropics. Allographa kamojangensis Jatnika, Noer & Lücking sp. nov. from Indonesia (Java) was recognized as a new taxon on the social media Facebook site Lichens Connecting People. Detailed studies showed that it deviates from the neotropical A. firferi in the much larger ascospores and the orange, K+ immediately purple-violet pigment, and from A. lutea in the completely carbonized excipulum and the larger ascospores. Allographa jayatilakana Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking sp. nov. was discovered in the second author's backyard during a recent inventory of Graphidaceae in Sri Lanka. It differs from A. flavominiata in the much shorter ascospores, from A. firferi in the terminally muriform ascospores, and from A. ochracea in the yellow-orange, K+ yellow then slowly purple-violet pruina. A key is presented to all nine species of Allographa with pigmented lirellae.
The new lichen species Lecidea phaeophysata is described from rocks close to the coast in Italy, Portugal, France and Ireland. Distinguishing features include Porpidia-type asci and simple paraphyses that are fuscous brown pigmented in their upper section. Its systematic position is discussed but is unclear as molecular data are lacking (all collections are c. 20 years old). Therefore, we chose to describe the species in a broadly-circumscribed Lecidea rather than erecting a new monotypic genus. A key to saxicolous lecideoid lichens present on Atlantic coasts in Europe is also provided.
Eleven new species of crustose, lichenized fungi are described from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Nine species are saxicolous, whereas Lecania vermispora occurs on the stems of Hebe elliptica and Tephromela lignicola is lignicolous on fence posts. The new species are: Bacidia marina, with a sordid blue-green K−, N+ violet epihymenium and acicular, multiseptate ascospores; B. pruinata, with pruinose apothecia and multiseptate ascospores; Buellia gypsyensis, with a thallus containing 5-O-methylhiascic acid and with Amandinea-type conidia; Cliostomum albidum, with pruinose apothecia lacking pigments; C. longisporum, with long narrow ascospores (c. 20 × 3 µm); Coccotrema rubromarginatum, with a placodioid thallus having a red-brown margin and lower surface; Hymenelia microcarpa, with minute, immersed apothecia (<0·1 mm diam.) and a trebouxioid photobiont; Lecania vermispora, with vermiform, 3–6 septate ascospores; Lepra argentea, with papillate isidia with dark caps; Rhizocarpon malvinae, which is similar to R. reductum but with a grey thallus, generally sessile apothecia with a thick raised margin and often with the Cinereorufa-green pigment in the epithecium and upper exciple; and Tephromela lignicola, a sterile, sorediate species on fence posts. Most of these species are reported only from the Falkland Islands although Coccotrema rubromarginatum is also reported from Isla de los Estados and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ascoconidia are reported from Lepra argentea and cephalodia from Pertusaria pachythallina. Keys to the species reported from the Falkland Islands in the genera of the newly described species are also provided.
Describing species has been a formal, intellectually rich and influential applied and basic area of study for many of the past 260 years. While formally described eukaryotic diversity still falls short of estimated eukaryotic species diversity by many hundreds of thousands of species, some recent accounts have suggested a growing number of taxonomists are within reach of describing all extant species. We present a case study that illustrates, to the contrary, a recent ‘taxonomic impediment’ in part attributable to derogation of taxonomy as a scientific discipline: contemporary practice has re-interpreted taxonomy largely as an endeavour in enumerating species. We argue that challenges lie in (1) a poor understanding of taxonomy's epistemology; (2) excessive displacement of interest toward ecological or molecular studies; (3) over-interpretation of the contributions of multiple authors describing a species; and (4) perspectives that are strongly influenced by well-known taxa. The historical and recent literature on scyphozoans reveal ghosts of taxonomy's past that persist in the present, but suggest also that a renaissance enabled by integrative taxonomy is possible in the (near) future.
Three species of Panaeolus were collected in the western region of Paraná State, South Brazil. Panaeolus sylvaticus is proposed as a new species, based on macro- and micromorphological features and substrate (rotten wood and litter). Panaeolus antillarum and P. papilionaceus var. parvisporus, two coprophilous and widely distributed species, are also reported. All species are illustrated and discussed in detail, regarding their taxonomy, ecology and distribution. A key to the known species of Panaeolus from Paraná State is presented.
Digenea Carus, 1863 represent a highly diverse group of parasitic platyhelminths that infect all major vertebrate groups as definitive hosts. Morphology is the cornerstone of digenean systematics, but molecular markers have been instrumental in searching for a stable classification system of the subclass and in establishing more accurate species limits. The first comprehensive molecular phylogenetic tree of Digenea published in 2003 used two nuclear rRNA genes (ssrDNA = 18S rDNA and lsrDNA = 28S rDNA) and was based on 163 taxa representing 77 nominal families, resulting in a widely accepted phylogenetic classification. The genetic library for the 28S rRNA gene has increased steadily over the last 15 years because this marker possesses a strong phylogenetic signal to resolve sister-group relationships among species and to infer phylogenetic relationships at higher levels of the taxonomic hierarchy. Here, we have updated the database of 18S and 28S rRNA genes until December 2017, we have added newly generated 28S rDNA sequences and we have reassessed phylogenetic relationships to test the current higher-level classification of digeneans (at the subordinal and subfamilial levels). The new dataset consisted of 1077 digenean taxa allocated to 106 nominal families for 28S and 419 taxa in 98 families for 18S. Overall, the results were consistent with previous higher-level classification schemes, and most superfamilies and suborders were recovered as monophyletic assemblages. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, new phylogenetic hypotheses from complete mitochondrial genomes have been proposed, although their power to resolve deep levels of trees remains controversial. Since data from NGS methods are replacing other widely used markers for phylogenetic analyses, it is timely to reassess the phylogenetic relationships of digeneans with conventional nuclear rRNA genes, and to use the new analysis to test the performance of genomic information gathered from NGS, e.g. mitogenomes, to infer higher-level relationships of this group of parasitic platyhelminths.
The new species Lenonchium zanjanense sp. n. is described from a natural habitat of Zanjan province, Iran, including line, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy illustrations and a molecular (18S, 28S) study. It is characterized by its 3.50–4.51 mm long body, rounded lip region, continuous and 13.5–15.5 µm broad, odontostyle 21–24 µm long, neck 362–490 µm long, double guiding ring, pharyngeal expansion 190–285 µm long, female genital system didelphic–amphidelphic, uterus simple and 185–320 µm long or 3.4–5.9 times the corresponding body diameter, vulva nearly equatorial (V = 45–53), tail conical-elongated to filiform (90–165 µm, c = 23–43, c′ = 2.4–5.3) with three or four mucro-like projections at the tip, spicules 58–64 µm long and 16–21 contiguous ventromedian supplements ending at the level of the anterior end of the spicules. The taxonomy of the genus is updated, with an emended diagnosis, list of species, key to their identification and a compendium of their main morphometrics. Lenonchium asterocaudatum is regarded as identical and a junior synonym of L. denticaudatum. New insights into the phylogeny of the group are also provided, and the classification of Lenonchium within Nordiidae is seriously questioned.