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Conservation planning involves selecting target taxa, establishing the geographic and taxonomic breadth of the conservation actions and producing some form of strategy or action plan for implementation. The selection of which taxon or taxa to conserve should be based on a series of measurable criteria such as the threat of genetic erosion / extinction, value of the taxon to humankind or the ecosystem, or the potential ease of use of the taxon or taxa. Once the target taxon is chosen, its geographic distribution, habitat preferences, phenology, and taxonomy are established to identify gaps in existing conservation actions to formulate an effective conservation strategy. Gap analysis is used to analyse the literature, passport data on gene bank accessions, label information on herbarium specimens for each taxon, as well as consulting taxonomic experts, and databases and concludes with strategic action to enhance conservation. Increasingly these strategic actions are tested in terms of their mitigation of climate change for the target taxon / taxa and formulated into a national strategy and action plan that gives background to their selection and clearly establishes the required conservation actions needed. The success of these actions is then measured against biodiversity indicators, so progress can be reviewed.
Here we convey the variety and complexity of late-antique Greek and Latin correspondences, tracing their antecedents from Classical times, their indebtedness to the apostle Paul, and subsequently to the post-apostolic writers. In the course of this overview we consider the considerable influence which Adolf Deissmann wielded in the first quarter of the twentieth century, and subsequently, on the question of what exactly a letter is. Now we are more cautious about writing and speaking about ‘letters’ and the ‘letter-genre’. Our next step in this chapter was to attempt a taxonomy of the more than 9,000 literary letters from Christian Late Antiquity, beginning with the category of dissenting voices.
Horizontal and vertical distribution of cephalopod paralarvae (PL) from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the Western Caribbean was studied during two oceanographic cruises in 2006 and 2007. A total of 1034 PL belonging to 12 families, 22 genera, 24 species, 5 morphotypes and a species complex were identified. Abralia redfieldi, Onychoteuthis banksii and Ornithoteuthis antillarum were the most abundant taxa. The taxonomic identification from these three species was corroborated with DNA barcoding (99.8–100% of similarity). Paralarvae of Octopus insularis were reported for the first time in the wild. Most PL occupied the Caribbean Surface Water mass in the 0–25 m depth stratum. Largest paralarval abundances were related to local oceanographic features favouring retention such as the Honduras Gyre and Cozumel eddy. No day-night differences were found in PL abundance, although Abralia redfieldi showed evidence of diel vertical migration. Distribution of PL in epipelagic waters of the MBRS was probably related to ontogenetic migration, hydrographic features of meso and subscale, and to the circulation regimes dominated by the Yucatan Current. The MBRS represents an important dispersion area for PL, potentially connecting a species-rich Caribbean community with the Gulf of Mexico and Florida waters.
This chapter introduces the following three, which survey the principal forms of Renaissance polyphony. Crucial to these forms is the relationship of music and text, which reveals considerable differences in approach during the period itself and relative to later periods from the Baroque to the present day. In unravelling these differences, the notion of genre and its pertinence to Renaissance music is critiqued in the light of recent scholarship, showing that Renaissance approaches to the concept of the musical work were also considerably different. Whilst this is a somewhat contentious issue, the points of tension uncovered here make sense of the evidence of primary sources (especially before the advent of print) concerning the re-purposing of polyphony outwith the context of its composition. The key difference from subsequent periods is that the notion of an ‘original’ would likely have had little pertinence to Renaissance musicians, and certainly none of the baggage that pertains to it in a later, Urtext-driven age. It also explains the relative porousness of the categories that later become studied under the heading of genre.
This second chapter devoted to forms considers that most malleable of genres, the motet, which served an especially wide range of functions and was therefore especially adaptable. Since a survey of the motet in a book of this size (let alone a single chapter) is practically impossible, a single source is taken as a snapshot of the repertory at precisely the midpoint of the period covered in this book: the Medici Codex, compiled c.1519 at the behest of pope Leo X (Giovanni de’ Medici, r.1513–1521) as a wedding-gift for a young relative. Whilst spanning little more than twenty years, the Medici Codex’s contents includes music by composers of at least two generations and represents nearly all the techniques then available, from the most up-to-date to those whose pertinence was then on the wane. It offers an ideal vantage-point from which to survey the Renaissance motet.
Despite the great interest to quantify the structure of host–parasite interaction networks, the real influence of some factors such as taxonomy, host body size and ecological opportunity remains poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the general patterns of organization and structure of interactions in two anuran–parasite networks in the Brazilian Pantanal (seasonally flooded environment) and Atlantic Forest (non-flooded forest). We present theoretical models to test whether the structures of these host–parasite interaction networks are influenced by neutrality, host taxonomy and host body size. Subsequently, we calculated metrics of connectance, nestedness and modularity to characterize the network structure. We demonstrated the structure networks were influenced mainly by body size and taxonomy of the host. Moreover, our results showed that the seasonally flooded environment present networks with higher connectance/nestedness and lower modularity compared to the other environment. The results also suggest that seasonal floods may promote ecological opportunities for new species associations.
The genera Ophiophragmus and Amphiodia are amphiurids that are considered taxonomically difficult due to their great resemblance, few diagnostic characters and synonymy problems. Our aim is to redescribe the species using scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of diagnostic structures, and to provide new information for the identification of these Ophiuroidea. Five Amphiodia spp. and six Ophiophragmus spp. recorded in Brazil were rigorously redescribed. The descriptions include new diagnostic characters derived from external morphology, arm microstructures and morphometry. We also provided comparative analyses of species with shared characters such as Amphiodia riisei and Amphiodia trychna. The geographic and bathymetric distributions of the studied species were updated, and new records are provided. All the information presented may be used in taxonomic, ecological and phylogenetic studies, helping to fill gaps in the knowledge of the biodiversity, ecology and evolution of these Ophiuroidea. Conclusively, all the tools applied here assisted in the identification of genera and species and could be useful in other taxonomic studies of Echinodermata.
Porina collina Orange, Palice & Klepsland is described as new from siliceous rocks in the Czech Republic, Great Britain and Norway. The thallus produces isidioid propagules which resemble those in P. rosei, P. hibernica and P. pseudohibernica, but which are more fragile and poorly-defined, and almost ecorticate; the perithecial wall is dark purplish brown and the ascospores are 3-septate. Sequences of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA suggest that the new species belongs in the Porina byssophila clade.
This chapter introduces the proliferation of festivals and ‘festivalization’ internationally in the twenty-first century, offers definitions and exclusions, and outlines a typology of theatre and performance festivals that now exist globally (elite festivals, alternative and fringe festivals, ‘second-wave’ festivals, and festivals that focus on a single culture or region). It briefly summarizes the book’s chapters on theorizing festivals, research methodology, festival cities, Indigenous festivals, European festivals, the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, Under the Radar, Australian festivals, Arab festivals, the Kampala International Theatre Festival, the National Arts Festival in Grahamstown, Asian Festivals, francophone festivals, festivals in Latin America, and the RUTAS festival.
PsychTable.org is a new online, mass-collaborative tool for the social sciences that aggregates evidence for and classifies the evolved psychological adaptations (EPAs) that have been proposed to comprise the human mind. This article provides an overview of the need for this reference tool and how it can benefit researchers who incorporate the behavioral sciences into their work. The article walks the reader through a hypothetical use case for PsychTable.org and describes the features of the website. PsychTable.org is intended to help key stakeholders better understand the linkages between EPAs and political behavior, public policy, and ethics.
What does it mean to take a “public reason approach to courts”? Public reason conceptions come in a wide range of varieties, but such conceptions do not necessarily translate into a specific jurisprudence. This chapter attempts to outline the main ways in which philosophical conceptions of public reason and jurisprudential approaches tend to correlate in the current literature. It characterizes the public reason approach to courts in an inclusive way, subsuming authors who accept (1) the general “idea of public reason” or the idea that legitimate legal and political impositions must be publicly justifiable and (2) an “ideal of public reason for courts” or the idea of public reason as conferring a duty on at least some courts, in some cases, to help secure the public justifiability some types of political and legal impositions. On this basis the chapter then identifies and characterizes six dominant public reason approaches to courts in the literature: “political liberal,” “liberal,” “classical liberal,” “deliberative,” “natural law,” and “public reason as justification vis-à-vis a broader audience.” The final sections discuss limitations and objections to the proposed taxonomy.
The continental shelf edge of the NW Gulf of Mexico supports dozens of reefs and banks, including the West and East Flower Garden Banks (FGB) and Stetson Bank that comprise the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Discovered by fishermen in the early 1900s, the FGBs are named after the colourful corals, sponges and algae that dominate the region. The reefs and banks are the surface expression of underlying salt domes and provide important habitat for mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) and deep coral communities to 300 m depth. Since 2001, FGBNMS research teams have utilized remotely operated vehicles (e.g. ‘Phantom S2’, ‘Mohawk’, ‘Yogi’) to survey and characterize benthic habitats of this region. In 2016, a Draft Environmental Impact Statement proposed the expansion of the current sanctuary boundaries to incorporate an additional 15 reefs and banks, including Elvers Bank. Antipatharians (black corals) were collected within the proposed expansion sites and analysed using morphological and molecular methods. A new species, Distichopathes hickersonae, collected at 172 m depth on Elvers Bank, is described within the family Aphanipathidae. This brings the total number of black coral species in and around the sanctuary to 14.
Three new species of echinoderid kinorhynchs are described from Daidokutsu, a submarine cave in Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Echinoderes gama sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of middorsal acicular spines on segments 4–8; lateroventral acicular spines on segments 7–9; lateroventral tubes on segment 5; sublateral tubes on segment 8; laterodorsal tubes on segment 10; and type-2 gland cell outlets in subdorsal and lateroventral position on segment 2. Echinoderes kajiharai sp. nov. is defined by the presence of middorsal acicular spines on segments 4, 6, 8; lateral accessory acicular spines on segment 9; lateroventral acicular spines on segments 6–8; lateroventral tubes on segments 2 and 5; midlateral tubes on segment 10; and type-2 gland cell outlets in laterodorsal position on segments 2 and 5, and subdorsal position on segments 8 and 9. Echinoderes uozumii sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of middorsal acicular spines on segments 4 and 6; lateroventral acicular spines on segments 6–9; lateroventral tubes on segments 2 and 5; sublateral tubes on segment 8; laterodorsal tubes on segment 10; type-2 gland cell outlets in subdorsal and lateral accessory position on segment 2; and blunt, short pectinate fringe teeth of primary pectinate fringe on segment 1. In addition, the Echinoderes multiporus species group including E. kajiharai sp. nov., and the Echinoderes bispinosus species group including E. uozumii sp. nov. are established. Furthermore, the distribution of the two species groups and the origin of Echinoderes species in Daidokutsu are discussed.
It is often claimed that changes in material culture signify adaptations to changing environments. Deploying novel conceptual models and computational techniques, research funded by the European Research Council seeks to reconstruct the patterns and processes of cultural transmission and adaptation at the turbulent transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene.
In this rejoinder the author responds to the commentaries to the chapter. While the commentaries favor taxomonetric/categorical vs. dimensional approaches, the author explores various possibilities to integrate these two perspectives. Such an approach would better fit research finding and allows for preservation of the merits of each approach. Such integration has to resolve such challenges as definition of conceptually and clinically meaningful dimensions, identification of the disorder-specific concepts that are not dimensional, conceptualization of orthogonal dimensions, and integration of the dimensional and categorical approaches through identification of moderators.
The following commentary on Jang and Choi’s chapter Issues and New Directions in Personality Disorder (PD) Genetics (This Volume) echoes their call to harness advances in PD assessment rather than rely on politically derived "top down" nosologies. We first discuss how recent work in the joint hierarchical structure of PD traits and psychopathology, as well as, personality dynamics (i.e., how personality manifests in different situations) likely offer fruitful avenues for exploring the more nuanced role of genetics in the development and maintenance of PD. Second, we highlight the need to better understand the role of environment in PD genetics and discuss emerging models (e.g., common pathway model). Third, we stress the need for more research and larger samples in order to arrive at stronger conclusions. Fourth, we consider how advances in gene-environment research can help to determine targets for PD prevention and treatment.
Over the past twenty years, several taxonomies of personality and psychopathology have been developed. More recently, many studies have compared dimensional models of personality pathology to categorical diagnoses of personality disorders. Altogether, this proliferation of research suggests the value of articulating the desirable properties of a good taxonomic system. Here, the authors extend basic research in cognitive science on the limitations of representational capacity, which suggests that humans need to compress complex clinical presentations to make good judgments. With this in mind, the authors propose that information compression and information fidelity are two principles that are essential to good taxonomy. The principle of information compression is that taxonomies should prune the complexities of a detailed clinical presentation to focus on important sources of covariation. The principle of information fidelity is that a good taxonomy should maintain essential features that reasonably approximate the structure of an individual or the population. They conclude with the claim that the overarching goal of taxonomic science in classifying personality pathology is to provide clinicians and researchers with empirically based informative priors that help to bias thinking toward useful clinical distinctions.
This comment concurs with Miller and Widiger’s review on the five-factor model’s potential to describe personality pathology. Remaining challenges are the definition of the domain that one wants to cover and how to separate personality description from dysfunction.
Categorical rubrics are the prevailing approach to personality disorder (PD) assessment and diagnosis. Diagnostic manuals, funding bodies, and training programs tend to follow this categorical model. Yet there is now abundant evidence that PD categories are impeding research progress on personality pathology. This chapter describes an emerging dimensional perspective on personality problems, the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). The HiTOP framework encapsulates factor analytically derived higher- and lower-order dimensions of personality pathology, ranging from an overarching general factor of psychopathology at the hierarchy’s apex to homogeneous maladaptive personality traits and acute symptoms at the base. This multi-level system bypasses aspects of categorical PD diagnoses that researchers find problematic (e.g., comorbidity, within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and insufficient coverage of personality problems encountered in the clinic). HiTOP has the potential to renew field-wide interest in PD and streamline social, psychological, and biological research on personality pathology.