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Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] is one of the most troublesome weeds worldwide. L. multiflorum is also a grass seed crop cultivated on 50,000 ha in Oregon, where both diploid and tetraploid cultivars are grown. A survey was conducted to understand the distribution, frequency, and susceptibility of L. multiflorum to selected herbicides used to control L. multiflorum. The herbicides selected were clethodim, glufosinate, glyphosate, mesosulfuron-methyl (mesosulfuron), paraquat, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, quizalofop-P-ethyl (quizolafop), pronamide, flufenacet + metribuzin, and pyroxasulfone. The ploidy levels of the populations were also tested. A total of 150 fields were surveyed between 2017 and 2018, of which 75 (50%) had L. multiflorum present. Herbicide-resistant populations were documented in 88% of the 75 populations collected. The most frequent mechanisms of action were resistance to Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), Acetolactate Synthase (ALS), 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSPs) inhibitors, and combinations thereof. Multiple and cross-resistance, found in 75% of the populations, were the most frequent patterns of resistance. Paraquat-resistant biotypes were confirmed in six orchard crop populations for the first time in Oregon. Herbicide resistance was spatially clustered, with most cases of resistance in the northern part of the surveyed area. ALS and ACCase resistant populations were prevalent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields. Multiple-resistance was positively correlated with plant density. Tetraploid feral populations were identified, but no cases of herbicide resistance were documented. This is the first survey of herbicide resistance and ploidy diversity in L. multiflorum in western Oregon. Resistant populations were present across the surveyed area, indicating that the problem is widespread.
The giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis, categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, was once widely distributed throughout South America. By the middle of the 20th century the giant otter had become locally extinct along the main rivers of the Orinoco basin. Although some populations seem to have recovered, the paucity of information available does not permit a full evaluation of the species' conservation status. The objective of this study was to estimate the abundance and density of the giant otter population along the Orinoco river in the municipality of Puerto Carreño, Vichada, Colombia, where there is important commercial and recreational fishing. Thirty-nine linear km were surveyed, repeatedly, with a total of 315 km of surveys. Population size was estimated by direct counts of individuals. All individuals detected were photographed and identified individually from their throat pelage patterns. In total, 30 otters were identified, giving a minimum density of 0.77 individuals per km, one of the highest reported for the species in Colombia. Given the high density in this well-developed area, our results highlight the importance of this population for the conservation of the species.
Integration of ethics into technology assessment in healthcare (HTA) reports is directly linked to the need of decision makers to provide rational grounds justifying their social choices. In a decision-making paradigm, facts and values are intertwined and the social role of HTA reports is to provide relevant information to decision makers. Since 2003, numerous surveys and discussions have addressed different aspects of the integration of ethics into HTA. This study aims to clarify how HTA professionals consider the integration of ethics into HTA, so an international survey was conducted in 2018 and the results are reported here.
A survey comprising twenty-two questions was designed and carried out from April 2018 to July 2018. Three hundred and twenty-eight HTA agencies from seventy-five countries were invited to participate in this survey.
Eighty-nine participants completed the survey, representing a participation rate of twenty-seven percent. As to how HTA reports should fulfill their social role, over 84 percent of respondents agreed upon the necessity to address this role for decision makers, patients, and citizens. At a lower level, the same was found regarding the necessity to make value-judgments explicit in different report sections, including ethical analysis. This contrasts with the response-variability obtained on the status of ethical analysis with the exception of the expertise required. Variability in stakeholder-participation usefulness was also observed.
This study reveals the importance of a three-phase approach, including assessment, contextual data, and recommendations, and highlights the necessity to make explicit value-judgments and have a systematic ethical analysis in order to fulfill HTA's social role in guiding decision makers.
To assess the knowledge, opinions and expectations of persons with and without obesity concerning personalised genotype-based nutrition.
Questions about nutrition, weight management and personalised genotype-based dietary recommendations were asked via standardised telephone-based interviews. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. The data were statistically weighted by age, gender, education, domicile and BMI.
Representative sample of the German population (n 1003) randomly sampled via a scientific Random Digit dial method plus 354 adults with a BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2 to enlarge the sample.
Data of 1357 participants were analysed (51·1 % female, age: 50·5 ± 18·5 years, 15·9 % adults with a BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2). About 42 % or 19 % of the survey participants stated to know the terms personalised dietary recommendation or genotype-based dietary recommendation, respectively. Of those, 15·8 % indicated to have an experience with a personalised or genotype-based dietary recommendation. Almost 70 % of the survey participants believed that a genotype-based dietary recommendation is a reasonable measure for weight management. About 55 % of the survey participants pointed out that a genotype-based dietary recommendation is an effective concept in general. One-third of the survey participants (34·6 %) indicated to conceive the usage of a genotype-based dietary recommendation.
Most of the survey participants did not know the term personalised or genotype-based dietary recommendation. One-third of the study participants are interested to use a genotype-based dietary recommendation. Therefore, more education of the public is necessary to properly help people making informed and serious decisions and assessing commercially available direct-to-consumer genetic tests.
Increasing emphasis is given on involving patients in health technology assessment (HTA). While this is mainly done at the level of regional and national HTA agencies, this tendency is also emerging in local HTA units. In this study, we provide the results of a survey conducted in local HTA units in the province of Quebec, Canada. The aim of the survey was to provide an overview of local HTA unit practices to involve patients, users, caregivers, and citizens in their process, their interest in doing so, and their information needs for this.
The survey was conducted in 2017 with a response rate of eleven units over a possibility of twelve.
Three units out of eleven (27.3 percent) never involved patients or members of the public in their processes and all indicated that they will involve them in the next few years. The three most important needs for support identified in the HTA units were in: recruiting and selecting patients; integrating experiential knowledge; and knowing and implementing the best methods and practices for partnership.
Patient involvement in local HTA units is quickly evolving and that is why they urgently need tools to involve more effectively patients and members of the public in their process.
Food intolerances are commonly reported and are predicted to have gastrointestinal health implications. We aimed to quantify the prevalence of food intolerances among US adults and identify culprit foods through a brief web-based survey.
We invited participation in an online cross-sectional survey involving a single questionnaire. Data were summarised using percentages or medians and interquartile range. Participant characteristics by self-reported food intolerance were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Pearson’s χ2 test. Adjusted analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression.
The survey was internet-based via Amazon’s mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing website for the completion of requester directed tasks.
Adults who were US-based internet users were invited at ages 18–80.
We collected 2133 survey responses (ages 18–79 years). The rate of food intolerance was 24·8 % (95 % CI 23·0, 26·6) in US adults. Younger (P < 0·01), female (P = 0·05) and Asian, African American or multiple race individuals (P < 0·01) predominated. Lactose intolerance was most common. Frequency of a non-lactose food intolerance was 18·1 % (95 % CI 16·5, 19·8). When categorised broadly, grains, fruit, lactose, fish, vegetables, alcohol and nuts were most troublesome for individuals in that order.
Self-reported food intolerance is common in US internet users. The effect of food on gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidant behaviours deserves further attention.
A stakeholder survey was conducted from April through June of 2018 to understand stakeholders’ perceptions and challenges about cropping systems and weed management in Brazil. The dominant crops managed by survey respondents were soybean (73%) and corn (66%). Approximately 75% of survey respondents have grown or managed annual cropping systems with two to three crops per year cultivated in succession. Eighteen percent of respondents manage only irrigated cropping systems, and over 60% of respondents adopt no-till as a standard practice. According to respondents, the top five troublesome weed species in Brazilian cropping systems are horseweed (asthmaweed, Canadian horseweed, and tall fleabane), sourgrass, morningglory, goosegrass, and dayflower (Asiatic dayflower and Benghal dayflower). Among the nine species documented to have evolved resistance to glyphosate in Brazil, horseweed and sourgrass were reported as the most concerning weeds. Other than glyphosate, 31% and 78% of respondents, respectively, manage weeds resistant to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors and/or acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. Besides herbicides, 45% of respondents use mechanical, and 75% use cultural (e.g., no-till, crop rotation/succession) weed control strategies. Sixty-one percent of survey respondents adopt cover crops to some extent to suppress weeds and improve soil chemical and physical properties. Nearly 60% of survey respondents intend to adopt the crops that are resistant to dicamba or 2,4-D when available. Results may help practitioners, academics, industry, and policy makers to better understand the bad and the good of current cropping systems and weed management practices adopted in Brazil, and to adjust research, education, technologies priorities, and needs moving forward.
In this article, we explore whether women's underrepresentation among political and workplace decision makers may subject female citizens and employees to COVID-19-related decisions that are at odds with their preferences. We find that women overall, as well as female political party members, workers, and workplace leaders in particular, share a distinctively female perspective that more heavily emphasizes caution with respect to COVID-19 compared with men. Given the limited representation of women leaders across most industries and in politics, COVID-19 regulations are thus likely to be less cautious than would be the case if there were an equitable representation of women across leadership roles. We argue that female employees, in particular, face a representational “double whammy” for COVID-19: gender imbalances in workplace leadership create inequities that are compounded—rather than redressed—by unequal political representation. We conclude by addressing how this dynamic may enhance the movement of women away from Republican candidates moving forward.
UK clinical guidelines recommend treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults by suitably qualified clinical teams. However, young people with ADHD attempting the transition from children's to adults’ services experience considerable difficulties in accessing care.
To map the mental health services in the UK for adults who have ADHD and compare the reports of key stakeholders (people with ADHD and their carers, health workers, service commissioners).
A survey about the existence and extent of service provision for adults with ADHD was distributed online and via national organisations (e.g. Royal College of Psychiatrists, the ADHD Foundation). Freedom of information requests were sent to commissioners. Descriptive analysis was used to compare reports from the different stakeholders.
A total of 294 unique services were identified by 2686 respondents. Of these, 44 (15%) were dedicated adult ADHD services and 99 (34%) were generic adult mental health services. Only 12 dedicated services (27%) provided the full range of treatments recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Only half of the dedicated services (55%) and a minority of other services (7%) were reported by all stakeholder groups (P < 0.001, Fisher's exact test).
There is geographical variation in the provision of NHS services for adults with ADHD across the UK, as well as limited availability of treatments in the available services. Differences between stakeholder reports raise questions about equitable access. With increasing numbers of young people with ADHD graduating from children's services, developing evidence-based accessible models of care for adults with ADHD remains an urgent policy and commissioning priority.
Patient safety is a key priority for healthcare systems. Patient safety huddles have been advocated as a way to improve safety. We explored the feasibility of huddles in general practice.
We invited all general practices in West Yorkshire to complete an online survey and interviewed practice staff.
Thirty-four out of 306 practices (11.1%) responded to our survey. Of these, 22 practices (64.7%) reported having breaks for staff to meet and eight (23.5%) reported no longer having breaks in their practices. Seven interviewees identified several barriers to safety huddles including time and current culture; individuals felt meetings or breaks would not be easily integrated into current primary care structure.
Despite their initial promise, there are major challenges to introducing patient safety huddles within the current context of UK general practice. General practice staff may need more convincing of potential benefits.
Most textbooks on regression focus on theory and the simplest of examples. Real statistical problems, however, are complex and subtle. This is not a book about the theory of regression. It is about using regression to solve real problems of comparison, estimation, prediction, and causal inference. Unlike other books, it focuses on practical issues such as sample size and missing data and a wide range of goals and techniques. It jumps right in to methods and computer code you can use immediately. Real examples, real stories from the authors' experience demonstrate what regression can do and its limitations, with practical advice for understanding assumptions and implementing methods for experiments and observational studies. They make a smooth transition to logistic regression and GLM. The emphasis is on computation in R and Stan rather than derivations, with code available online. Graphics and presentation aid understanding of the models and model fitting.
Knowledge of weed control practices and farmers’ awareness of herbicide resistance could be a basis for improving weed management programs with respect to herbicide resistance, but research on this topic is limited. This study reports current weed control practices and levels of awareness of herbicide resistance among cereal farmers of northern Greece. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 250 cereal farmers of Evros district, based on a structured questionnaire. Most farmers (82.8%) used herbicides in cereal production, with one application per growing season. Farmers appeared divided with respect to using the same herbicide each year; the majority of the farmers (90.8%) applied crop rotation. Almost half of the farmers (47.2%) did not know what herbicide resistance is, but most farmers (75.1%) felt herbicide resistance would be a problem for them. According to their answers on nine knowledge questions about herbicide resistance, 66.8% of the farmers had good knowledge, and 33.2% had poor knowledge. Almost seven in 10 farmers (69.8%) did not consider herbicide resistance when purchasing an herbicide for use, and only 40.4% were willing to change common weed control practices to prevent herbicide resistance. Awareness of herbicide resistance did not differ by sex; poor awareness levels increased with advanced age, low education levels, and small farm size. Farmers who used chemical weed control had higher awareness levels of herbicide resistance than farmers who never used herbicides. Farmers who were keeping records of herbicide applications, those who observed low efficacy of herbicides in their field, and those who applied crop rotation had high awareness levels of herbicide resistance, whereas farmers who used the same herbicide each year had poor awareness. Findings shed light on inter-relationships between farmers’ awareness of herbicide resistance and current weed control practices that could be useful for targeted extension education.
Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) is one of the most important pests in organic sweet corn (Zea mays) production. Breeding of corn earworm-resistant varieties has been identified as a potential approach to deal with this pest, but it is critical that plant breeding efforts reflect the contexts and needs of organic producers who might eventually adopt earworm-resistant varieties. In November–December 2017, we surveyed organic sweet corn producers in the U.S. to learn about impacts of corn earworm on organic sweet corn production, how producers are currently managing the pest and opportunities for plant breeding to reduce its overall impact. The survey confirmed that corn earworm is the most challenging insect pest for organic sweet corn producers, that current management options remain limited and that earworm-resistant varieties could improve the ability of growers to consistently produce damage-free sweet corn and to improve the value of sweet corn within organic operations.
Measuring racial animus is quite difficult in an era where explicit racism is still deemed socially unacceptable. This chapter shows that existing measures of racism toward Latinos fail to capture the full extent of animosity toward the group and limits our understanding of how White animus toward Latinos shapes American politics. It provides a wide range of both focus group and survey data to document how White’s commonly express animus about Latinos in everyday discourse. Evidence is provided that shows that this form of animus represents a coherent belief system that is distinct from other beliefs such as political ideology, a preference for Anglo-American culture, ethnocentrism, and old-fashioned racial stereotypes. The connection between this belief system and concerns about race is then established.
To determine the Final ICU Need in the 24 hours prior to ICU discharge for children with cardiac disease by utilising a single-centre survey.
A cross-sectional survey was utilised to determine Final ICU Need, which was categorised as “Cardiovascular”, “Respiratory”, “Feeding”, “Sedation”, “Systems Issue”, or “Other” for each encounter. Survey responses were obtained from attending physicians who discharged children (≤18 years of age with ICU length of stay >24 hours) from the Cardiac ICU between April 2016 and July 2018.
Measurements and results:
Survey response rate was 99% (n = 1073), with 667 encounters eligible for analysis. “Cardiovascular” (61%) and “Respiratory” (26%) were the most frequently chosen Final ICU Needs. From a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression model fitted to “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory”, operations with significantly reduced odds of having “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need included Glenn palliation (p = 0.003), total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair (p = 0.024), truncus arteriosus repair (p = 0.044), and vascular ring repair (p < 0.001). Short lengths of stay (<7.9 days) had significantly higher odds of “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need (p < 0.001). “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory” Final ICU Needs were also associated with provider and ICU discharge season.
Final ICU Need is a novel metric to identify variations in Cardiac ICU utilisation and clinical trajectories. Final ICU Need was significantly influenced by benchmark operation, length of stay, provider, and season. Future applications of Final ICU Need include targeting quality and research initiatives, calibrating provider and family expectations, and identifying provider-level variability in care processes and mental models.
Video consultation (VC) is considered promising in delivering healthcare closer to the patient and improving patient satisfaction. Indeed, providing care-at-distance via VC is believed to be promising for some situations and patients, serving their needs without associated concomitant costs. In order to assess implementation and perceived benefits, patient satisfaction is frequently measured. Measuring patient satisfaction with VC in healthcare is often performed using quantitative and qualitative outcome analysis. As studies employ different surveys, pooling of data on the topic is troublesome. This systematic review critically appraises, summarizes, and compares available questionnaires in order to identify the most suitable questionnaire for qualitative outcome research using VC in clinical outpatient care.
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched for relevant articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Methodological quality appraisal of yielded questionnaires to assess VC was performed using the validated COSMIN guideline.
This systematic search identified twelve studies that used ten different patient satisfaction questionnaires. The overall quality of nine questionnaires was rated as “inadequate” to “doubtful” according to the COSMIN criteria. None of the questionnaires retrieved completed a robust validation process for the purpose of use.
Conclusion and recommendations
Although high-quality studies on measurement properties of these questionnaires are scarce, the questionnaire developed by Mekhjian has the highest methodological quality achieving validity on internal consistency and the use of a large sample size. Moreover, this questionnaire can be used across healthcare settings. This finding may be instrumental in further studies measuring patient satisfaction with VC.
After a heyday in the 1970s and 1980s, probability sampling became much less visible in archaeological literature as it came under assault from the post-processual critique and the widespread adoption of “full-coverage survey.” After 1990, published discussion of probability sampling rarely strayed from sample-size issues in analyses of artifacts along with plant and animal remains, and most textbooks and archaeological training limited sampling to regional survey and did little to equip new generations of archaeologists with this critical aspect of research design. A review of the last 20 years of archaeological literature indicates a need for deeper and broader archaeological training in sampling; more precise usage of terms such as “sample”; use of randomization as a control in experimental design; and more attention to cluster sampling, stratified sampling, and nonspatial sampling in both training and research.
How well do vignette designs capture actual behaviour in the real world? This study employs original survey data featuring both hypothetical vignettes and behavioural questions in order to assess the external validity of descriptive and causal inferences in survey experiments. The survey was conducted in a three-province, probability-proportional-to-size sample of 1,897 rural residents in China and focuses on the legal mobilization of citizens in response to grievances involving land rights. In terms of descriptive inference, we find that relative to the behavioural benchmark, hypothetical vignettes significantly over-estimate legal mobilization in response to a grievance, particularly for higher-cost actions like petitioning the government and litigating in court. We find that data from hypothetical vignettes affect causal inference as well, producing significantly different results regarding the effect of political connections and legal knowledge on legal mobilization. The study makes a contribution by identifying conditions under which hypothetical vignettes are less likely to produce valid inference. It engages a rich literature on disputing and legal mobilization in the field of Chinese politics and helps to resolve debates over the role of political connections and legal knowledge.
Digitalisation is an integral part of modern agriculture. Several digital technologies are available for different animal species and form the basis for precision livestock farming. However, there is a lack of clarity as to which digital technologies are currently used in agricultural practice. Thus, this work aims to present for the first time the status quo in Swiss livestock farming as an example of a highly developed, small-scale and diverse structured agriculture. In this context, the article focuses on the adoption of electronic sensors and measuring devices, electronic controls and electronic data-processing options and the usage of robotics in ruminant farming, namely, for dairy cattle, dairy goats, suckler cows, beef cattle and meat-sheep. Furthermore, the use of electronic ear tags for pigs and the smartphone usage for barn monitoring on poultry farms was assessed. To better understand the adoption process, farm and farmer’s characteristics associated with the adoption of (1) implemented and (2) new digital technologies in ruminant farming were assessed using regression analyses, which is classified at a 10% adoption hurdle. The results showed clear differences in the adoption rates between different agricultural enterprises, with both types of digital technologies tending to be used the most in dairy farming. Easy-to-use sensors and measuring devices such as those integrated in the milking parlour were more widespread than data processing technologies such as those used for disease detection. The husbandry system further determined the use of digital technologies, with the result that farmers with tie stall barns were less likely to use digital technologies than farmers with loose housing systems. Additional studies of farmers’ determinants and prospects of implementation can help identify barriers in the adoption of digital technologies.
Yushu Prefecture in Qinghai Province provides some of the largest known stretches of habitat for the Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia in China. People living in these areas are dependent on agropastoralism. Support from local communities is necessary for effective long-term conservation action for snow leopards, but loss of livestock to snow leopards can create financial burdens that induce negative attitudes and encourage retaliatory killing. We assessed factors driving herders' attitudes towards snow leopards and their conservation. We found that herders had higher agreement with positive than with negative statements about snow leopards despite nearly half reporting livestock loss to snow leopards within the last 5 years. No retaliatory killing was reported. Herders with more years of formal education and fewer livestock losses were more likely to have positive attitudes whereas those with lower importance of snow leopards to their religion, fewer livestock losses, and fewer years of education were more likely to have negative attitudes. Understanding the multifaceted mechanisms responsible for positive views towards species is imperative for reaching conservation goals. Our findings ascribe to the importance of increased education and adherence to Tibetan beliefs in promoting conservation tolerance towards snow leopards in Qinghai Province, but also indicate a need for further research into the impact of livestock loss.