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The recent ‘emotion turn’ in international theory is widely viewed as a cutting-edge development which pushes the field in fundamentally new directions. Challenging this narrative, this essay returns to the historical works of Walter Lippmann to show how thinking about emotions has been central to international theory for far longer than currently appreciated. Deeply troubled by his experience with propaganda during the First World War, Lippmann spent the next several decades thinking about the relationship between emotion, mass politics, and the challenges of foreign policy in the modern world. The result was a sophisticated account of the role of emotional stereotypes and symbols in mobilizing democratic publics to international action. I argue that a return to Lippmann's ideas offers two advantages. First, it shows his thinking on emotion and mass politics formed an important influence for key disciplinary figures like Angell, Morgenthau, Niebuhr, and Waltz. Second, it shows why the relationship between emotion and democracy should be understood as a vital concern for international theory. Vacillating between scepticism and hope, Lippmann's view of democracy highlights a series of challenges in modern mass politics – disinformation, the unintended consequences of emotional symbols, and responsibility for the public's emotional excesses – which bear directly on democracies' ability to engage the world.
What shapes Americans' attitudes toward and about Native Americans? Public opinion research acknowledges that race and ethnicity are a factor in shaping US public opinion. Native Americans have been almost entirely excluded from this research. But we do know that, despite being a relatively small population, the general public holds stereotypes and false narratives about Native Americans that have been perpetuated by popular culture, education curriculum, and national myths. In this paper, we use new and original data collected under the Reclaiming Native Truth project to examine the factors that shape attitudes toward Native Americans. More specifically, we examine individual and contextual factors that shape views of discrimination against Native Americans and resentment toward Native Americans. We find that political ideology (liberal versus conservative) and the reliance on Native American stereotypes are factors most consistently associated with resentment and attitudes about Native American discrimination, although direct personal experiences and factual knowledge also matter. Our findings contribute to conversations about attitudes toward racial and ethnic minority groups and emerging scholarship on the role of political attitudes in settler-colonial societies.
This chapter offers a brief study of mainly Latin ethnic proverbs that apply collective names of ethnic groups and associate them with fixed attributes. By analyzing such proverbial allusions, it shows that the “others” from the point of view of the Romans were located anywhere in the inhabited known world at the time, but there was special interest either in neighbouring and well-known people or in remote groups dwelling at the fringes of the world. The first, closer group, became the focus of mockery and the second, remote group, was so distant and unknown that its members became typed as strange and weird.
In the United States, politics has become tribal and personalized. The influence of partisan divisions has extended beyond the political realm into everyday life, affecting relationships and workplaces as well as the ballot box. To help explain this trend, we examine the stereotypes Americans have of ordinary Democrats and Republicans. Using data from surveys, experiments, and Americans' own words, we explore the content of partisan stereotypes and find that they come in three main flavors—parties as their own tribes, coalitions of other tribes, or vehicles for political issues. These different stereotypes influence partisan conflict: people who hold trait-based stereotypes tend to display the highest levels of polarization, while holding issue-based stereotypes decreases polarization. This finding suggests that reducing partisan conflict does not require downplaying partisan divisions but shifting the focus to political priorities rather than identity—a turn to what we call responsible partisanship.
Part II describes how the audiences of practice—the stateless nation, or Palestinians, the state-bearing nation, Jewish-Israelis, and the state minority, Arab Palestinian Israelis—decoded the text, as their interpretations related to their respective conflict-resolution outcome goals of justice, security and equality. Chapter 4 outlines how the majority of the stateless nation audience did not “see” Jewish Israeli characters, referring to them as “Jews,” and negatively stereotyped them an “army of infidels.” These Palestinian children actively resisted the text regarding their Jewish Israeli others and did not observe the series’ encoded pro-social relations between Jewish Israelis and Palestinians. Most interpreted those characters to be “Palestinians” or “Arabs,” generalizing their positive attitudes toward all Palestinian and Arab/Palestinian Israeli characters to their wider grouping on screen and off. Cognitive imbalance explains why 20 percent who decoded good-natured “partial Jews” did not generalize them to “Jews”. Sesame Street is unlikely to alter their inter-grouping attitudes toward Jewish Israelis or their policy-relevant political beliefs, even more crucial to managing the region’s ethnopolitical and multi-state conflicts. The majority constructed Arab/Palestinian Israelis as like them but living elsewhere, and held positive to very positive attitudes toward them. But their initial attitudes render this development less important.
This article examines how the film industry influenced prevailing gender and skin color stereotypes in India during the first four decades after Independence in 1947. It shows that Bollywood, the mainstream cinema in India, shared Hollywood's privileging of paler skin over darker skin, and its preference for presenting women in stereotypical ways lacking agency. The influence of film content was especially significant in India as audiences often lacked alternative sources of entertainment and information. It was left to parallel, and often regional, cinemas in India to contest skin color and gender stereotypes entrenched in mainstream media. As conventional archival sources for this history are lacking, the article employs new evidence from oral histories of producers and actors.
This chapter begins by introducing five marketing practices of persuasion relevant to marketised global justice: branding, advertising, public relations, public diplomacy/place branding, and propaganda. The chapter illustrates how these marketing practices are employed in the non-commercial sphere, and specifically by those invoking global justice. After this first introduction to the use of marketing practices outside of the commercial sphere, the political, economic, social, and cultural context of the extension of marketing practices is explained. For this, the chapter begins with a framing of the attention economy and its distributive effects. Spectacle is explained as a means through which attention is directed towards the visceral. Stereotyping as a common tool of spectacle is revealed as having distributional effects in retaining divides between the Global North and the Global South. From here, the discussion moves more directly to a consideration of the relationship between neoliberalism and law.
The previous chapter showed how the Solidarity Movement sought to declass its trade union past in favour of a historical and ideological narrative emphasising Afrikaner cultural unity and the politics of race. Yet profoundly classist attitudes, stereotypes, and prejudice, which contradicted the Movement’s official framing, persisted among its leadership. This chapter uncovers these sub-narratives. It argues that they reveal the discursive labour and strategic contradictions deployed by the Movement’s executives to manage the working-class roots of their organisation and reformulate working-class identity in such a manner as to serve the new social alliance their Movement represents, and to use it as a vehicle for advancing ethnic and racial interests in the wake of the demise of the racial state. This included the leadership’s deployment of class distinctions in terms of education, respectability, political attitudes, and morality to legitimise their own position and agenda. These findings attest to the persistent presence of deep class-based prejudice and tensions within the white population, begging a revision of existing scholarship on post-apartheid Afrikaner identity construction and homogeneous white subjectivities.
The abolition of slavery contributed to a population explosion in Rio de Janeiro over the 1890s and early 1900s which, combined with a severe economic crisis, resulted in a drastic shortage of housing. The urban poor, left to fend for themselves, began to build informal settlements on the city’s empty hillsides. The best known among them was called Morro da Favela, a toponym that mushroomed into a typology, by the 1920s, as more and more communities sprang up based on the favela model. The chapter examines the early representation of favelas in paintings, photographs, illustrations and cartoons, piecing together how the visual record of these communities morphed into convention and stereotype. Favelas quickly came to be pitted as the backdrop of archaism and backwardness against which ideas of modernity were counterposed. They were routinely linked to notions of blackness, Africanness and the wild frontier of Brazil’s hinterland (sertão). However, they also developed a distinct identity as objects of artistic interest and sites of cultural resistance. Attempts by municipal government to raze them eventually met with strong opposition not only from dwellers themselves but also from artists and intellectuals. The visit of futurist leader F.T. Marinetti to Morro da Favela, in 1926, is discussed for its symbolic import.
Language can shape and reinforce attitudes and stereotypes about living with dementia. This can happen through use of metaphors. However, common metaphors may not capture the complexity of experience of dementia from the perspective of the individual person or a family carer. This paper presents an alternative metaphor – that of a theatre production – based on the strategies used by carers to support people with dementia to live well in the community. We conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 12 family members caring for someone with dementia in the community in Queensland, Australia. Our aim was to explore the strategies these carers used to provide support. Interview recordings were fully transcribed and thematically analysed. We identified positive care-giving strategies that described multiple roles that carers fulfilled as they felt increasingly responsible for day-to-day decision making. Family carers explained how they supported the person with dementia to remain a central character in their life and continued to support the person to be themselves. To achieve this, family carers embodied roles that we identified as similar to roles in a theatre production: director, stage manager, supporting cast, scriptwriter, and costume designer and wardrobe manager. Our metaphor of a theatre production offers a fresh perspective to explore the experience of informal care-giving in the context of dementia.
The soldiers and officers who went off to fight in the summer of 1914 not only had modern weapons but also held certain beliefs about the enemy and the territories in which the hostilities were to take place. For the most part they had scant information about the specific characteristics of Galicia, Serbia, the Kingdom of Poland, East Prussia, Lithuania, and Belarus, but they did not go there free of prejudice or lacking in a priori judgments. Sometimes their ideas combined to form a very precise image of a place. These fixed notions, which had little to do with reality but were nonetheless enduring, came to be known as stereotypes shortly after the end of the war. The American journalist and adviser to President Wilson who coined the term ‘stereotype’, Walter Lippmann, based his theory on an analysis of the American press during the Great War. It is likely that the Eastern Front, and especially the ways in which the Germans and Austrians perceived the East, would have provided Lippmann with even more interesting data.
How do experiments help us understand the role of gender in electoral decisions and outcomes? In this chapter, we begin by reviewing some of the key questions that gender scholars have addressed through experimental work, looking at gender among office-holders, electoral candidates, and voters. We then address important considerations that experimental scholars must keep in mind when designing their studies. In so doing, we provide guidance for how to overcome the unique challenges of employing experiments to study gender and elections. We conclude by highlighting what we see as particularly pressing areas for future work.
Scholars have examined the role that negative stereotypes play in electoral discrimination against minority candidates. Incorporating literature on in-group favoritism, the author argues here that some degree of this discrimination can be explained instead by voters holding positive stereotypes of majority candidates and discriminating in their favor. Based on the results of an original moderation-of-process survey experiment carried out in Italy, the study provides evidence of electoral discrimination pertaining to immigrant-origin candidates, concentrated among right-wing citizens. It finds that stereotypes have little mediating effect on discrimination against candidates with a migration background; rather, the primary role played by stereotypes is in discrimination in favor of majority candidates, that is, positive bias that reserves electoral benefits to them. The relevance of in-group favoritism is corroborated by the finding that large segments of the Italian voting population hold distinctively positive stereotypes of majority candidates without also negatively stereotyping immigrant-origin candidates.
This chapter focuses on hate speech in Japan from the perspective of social psychology and adjacent fields. First, the author discusses the definitions of and the debate around the social psychological concepts of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination, and how these concepts are interrelated. The importance of constructing social norms against hate speech and suppressing opportunities to deliver hate speech are discussed. Second, he discusses a series of applied research conducted mainly in Japan. Quantitative analyses of posts on social media reveal the characteristics of hate speech in Japan, as well as underling beliefs and attitudes. Specifically, themes such as ‘modern or symbolic racism’, ‘old-fashioned racism’, ‘historical revisionism’, and so on, were evident in these posts. Furthermore, these and other studies show that relatively few people are disproportionately able to bias the discourse on politically controversial topics. Questionnaire surveys show a consistent association between Internet usage and negative attitudes towards people from outside Japan. Together, these quantitative studies show how detrimental the information age can be in the absence of sufficient regulations.
Anglo-Italian ‘traditional friendship’ was a widely-assumed principle in European diplomacy during the second half of the 19th Century. But at a closer look, Anglo-Italian relations were less idyllic than it seemed.
While there has been progress for women in globally mobile work, there are enduring problems and challenges. In particular, women continue to be under-represented in management and leadership roles worldwide. In this chapter, we summarise current knowledge about women and globally mobile work and present a framework of factors that may either facilitate or hinder global mobility for women. We identify some important gaps in knowledge and suggest areas for future research to improve understanding of the experiences of women and their participation in global mobility. Finally, we offer practical recommendations for policy-makers, organisations that manage globally mobile workers, leaders and managers, and women who are currently and/or aspire to be globally mobile.
Chapter 1 demonstrates that employment discrimination law is not neutral or objective, favoring employers’ interests over those of employees as victims. It introduces fifteen US federal cases, rewritten using feminist perspectives and techniques, as well as only information available at the time of the original opinions. Commentaries accompany each opinion, explaining differences from the original and differences the rewritten opinion would have made to employment discrimination law. The chapter summarizes these cases and argues that the opinions, as rewritten: better narrate victims’ stories; improve the law around proving discrimination; diminish appearance regulation and encourage diversity in workplaces; eliminate the “double bind”; recognize LGBTQ+ rights in the workplace; prevent sex- and gender-based harassment; offer insight into intersectional approaches; and recognize the implicit bias and stereotypes that cause discrimination. This chapter also briefly examines the issues in employment discrimination law that this book does not discuss in depth, such as age and disability discrimination, predispute arbitration clauses, and discrimination by religious employers.
Chapter 2 demonstrates how the US Supreme Court could have used the feminist technique of storytelling by rewriting Desert Palace v. Costa from the perspective of the plaintiff, who received a jury verdict in her favor in the district court. The feminist judgment corrects the Supreme Court’s willingness to allow the defendant to write the plaintiff’s story by detailing the egregious facts in the case that shed light on the gendered treatment she suffered – treatment that included repeated severely hostile behaviors among her coworkers and differential treatment by her supervisors. The rewritten opinion gives the reader a significantly different view of the case from that offered by the original opinion. The rewritten opinion demonstrates that the feminist method of storytelling illuminates the ways in which the facts occurred in the real world, and in doing so creates a counterbalance to the supposedly “neutral” and “objective” view that the Court originally presented.
Gender is a highly salient and important social group that shapes how children interact with others and how they are treated by others. In this Element, we offer an overview and review of the research on gender development in childhood from a developmental science perspective. We first define gender and the related concepts of sex and gender identity. Second, we discuss how variations in cultural context shape gender development around the world and how variations within gender groups add to the complexity of gender identity development. Third, we discuss major theoretical perspectives in developmental science for studying child gender. Fourth, we examine differences and similarities between girls and boys using the latest meta-analytic evidence. Fifth, we discuss the development of gender, gender identity, and gender socialization throughout infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the study of gender development in childhood.
This chapter discusses what are apt comparisons between ages. It notes the social forces compelling change, in particular increased life expectancy, and considers how these are changing our views about age equality. It reviews the way age discrimination laws work and considers the proposals for new laws.