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Infrastructure projects require collaborative exploration of what is needed and what is possible. Good leadership creates the goodwill and team spirit which generate a good outcome. To develop a whole global industry – e.g., the wind industry – this has to be sustained over a wide geography and a long period of time. Developing a new sector of an industry – e.g., offshore wind energy – raises new problems, particularly problems of the size of larger wind turbines, and all the necessary subsea infrastructure. This is seriously expensive for a market limited in size. Creating a stable market helps reduce the risk but the investment required to establish the physically large factories to build these large turbines in quantity for what remains a limited market appears prohibitive.
Political science does not offer a distinct subdiscipline to address the subject of energy. Insofar as political science has addressed energy, it has focused on issues often neglected by other disciplines, notably the role of geopolitics and international relations, and the domestic politics of resource-rich states. Apart from the different subfields, we examine different approaches including realism, constructivism, liberalism and Marxism. The rise and fall and rise again of academic articles on energy in leading political science journals is reviewed and linked to exogenous forces such as the price of oil. Two distinct energy topics which have received attention are nuclear power and the oil crises of 1973–79 because of their wider geopolitical ramifications. Perhaps the most prominent or consistent thread through studies of the politics of energy is the question of energy security or energy independence. Finally, in recent years, energy has increasingly emerged as a focus for study in environmental politics and climate change politics in particular.
The recent observation of spectacular photocatalytic activity enhancements generated tremendous interest in the synthesis, properties, and potential applications of black titania. Most black titania are core–shell structures consisting of a perfect crystalline core surrounded by a defective surface shell. Because the properties are attributed to the defective shell, it is particularly important, but very challenging, to obtain atomic structure information of the core, the shell, and the core–shell relationship on a single particle level. While the role of various synthesis approaches for producing black titania with different properties has been extensively reviewed, this review focuses on understanding the structure–functionality relationship in black titania on a single particle level. We start by introducing the crystal and electronic band structure of different TiO2 phases, followed by the discussion of particle size effects, the origin of lattice distortions, and phase control by synthesis, and concluding with the discussion of crystalline order formation and evolution creating the defective shell.
Open palates with large interpterygoid vacuities are a diagnostic characteristic of temnospondyl amphibians, the most species-rich group of early tetrapods. Aside from their functional roles, several other aspects of such vacuities, such as their variation and spatial relationships relative to the orbits, have received only scarce attention. The present work examines patterns of shape and size changes in the orbits and vacuities of temnospondyls using a time-calibrated phylogeny of 69 temnospondyl taxa and 13 additional early tetrapod ‘outgroups' (colosteids, an embolomere, ‘microsaurs' and nectrideans). Orbit and vacuity outlines are quantified in a comparative framework using standard eigenshape analyses. In addition, we employ a series of ratios of linear measurements of both orbits and vacuities, and subject them to a phylogenetic principal component analysis in order to evaluate their proportional changes relative to the skull and to one another. Finally, we examine rates of evolutionary change and their associated shifts for shape and size for both structures, and assess the strength and significance of the correlations between these two variables using phylogenetic generalised least squares analyses. Although orbits and vacuities have fairly simple outlines, they both reveal complex models of proportional change across the temnospondyl phylogeny. These changes exhibit strong phylogenetic signal, that is, trait covariance among taxa is predicted by tree topology. We discuss the hypothesis that, early in tetrapod evolution, the functional role of the vacuities was related to the accommodation of the anterior jaw muscles. Only later in evolution did such vacuities serve to accommodate the eye muscles only.
For the first time, the results of the study of the age and growth of blue hake Antimora rostrata in the waters of the Lazarev and Weddell seas (Antarctic) are presented. The longline catches were represented by fish from 42 to 69 cm in total length with weights between 420 and 2,900 g, and most individuals aged 25 to 27 years. A minimum age of 16 years was observed in a fish 47 cm long and weighing 450 g, while a maximum age of 35 years was recorded for an individual of 69 cm in length and 1,640 g in weight. The blue hake in the Lazarev and Weddell seas shows similar growth patterns to the fish from the Ross Sea and waters off Greenland.
In the past, alliance portfolio configuration (APC) studies concentrated mostly on the direct alliances or partners of a focal firm. However, a focal firm is also influenced by indirect alliances or partners. This study endeavors to focus on this aspect of APC. It contributes to APC research by extending the scope to three degrees from a focal firm. To assess the effects of extended APCs, 186 3-year window snapshots were created of the extended APCs of 31 Korean bio-pharmaceutical firms. These snapshots range from 2007 to 2014. The effects of structure (density), size (number of alliances and partners), and relationships to firm innovation were measured using the two-step generalized method of moments estimates. The results show that structural sparseness and larger-sized extended APCs are more favorable conditions for innovation, and that structural sparseness and size have a positive relationship to innovation performance.
This study evaluated the population structure, growth and longevity of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the State of Sergipe. The obtained data were compared with other populations on a latitudinal scale in order to evaluate whether the latitudinal paradigm applies to this species. Shrimp sampling took place monthly from September 2013 to August 2014, in nine stations distributed at 5, 15 and 30 m depths, using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with a ‘double rig’ net. Sexual maturity was estimated by the logistic function y = a/(1 + b*exp(-cx)), and the sex ratio was analysed with the Chi-square test. The individual growth rate was estimated using the von Bertalanffy model, and the longevity was estimated by the inverse form of this formula. A total of 6418 (3457 females and 2961 males) was analysed. The size at onset of sexual maturity was 12 mm of carapace length (CL) for males and 12.5 mm CL for females. The total sex ratio did not differ from the expected (1:1). Males exhibited higher growth coefficients (k) and smaller asymptotic growth (CC∞ = 28.74 mm, k = 0.0081 day−1) than females (CC∞ = 30.79 mm, k = 0.0058 day−1). The estimated longevity (years) was 1.55 for males and 2.15 for females. No evident latitudinal pattern was observed regarding the size at onset of sexual maturity or the growth parameters for X. kroyeri. The information found, besides contributing to the knowledge about the biology of this shrimp, can also clarify hypotheses presented in relation to the latitudinal paradigm along the Brazilian coast.
A Lagrangian study was conducted in a eutrophic estuary (Guanabara Bay, Brazil) to investigate in situ plankton trophodynamics under the influence of the cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Coastal Water in a short-term temporal variability (scale of hours). We tested the hypothesis that the base of the plankton food web is composed of small cells and that microzooplankton is the main consumer of this assemblage. Samples of pico-, nano- and microplankton, as well as copepods, were collected during spring, when the entry of upwelling water in the Bay is commonly observed, and near the surface every 3 h during the 1-day sampling period. Potential predation of dinoflagellates, ciliates, copepod nauplii, copepodites and adult copepods was estimated based on predator-prey size relationships. The main trophic links in the Guanabara Bay food web for the period analysed were nanophytoplankton-copepods, nanophytoplankton-ciliates, and autotrophic dinoflagellates-heterotrophic dinoflagellates. According to microphytoplankton availability, adult copepods could not satisfy their food requirement, and nanophytoplankton represented an important supplementary food source. In fact, diel variations of nano- and microplankton biomass were opposite to that of copepods suggesting predation control by the latter on the former. The trophodynamics of Guanabara Bay, under the influence of upwelling water, resulted in marked differences from other eutrophic estuaries around the world.
In southern African savannas, geoxylic suffrutices or ‘underground trees’ attain only a hundredth to a tenth the height of normal trees, but other traits have received little attention. Geoxylic suffrutices and congeneric trees were compared for minimum and maximum values of seven morphological traits. Thirty-six geoxyle-tree pairs co-occurring in Katanga (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were compared, based on data from standard floras. The tree/geoxyle ratio ranged from 0.92 to 1.67 and was greater than 1 in 12 of 14 trait comparisons. However, the difference was significant in only five comparisons. Reproductive traits generally did not differ. The maximal value of leaf traits (lamina length, lamina width, petiole length) was 33–67% greater in trees. The morphological traits of geoxyles are not much altered compared with their tree counterparts, especially for reproductive traits. For vegetative traits, geoxyles express a restricted part of the phenetic space of trees, being unable to attain trait values as high as those of their tree congeners. However, unlike bonsais or alpine dwarfs, the leaves of geoxyles are not much smaller compared with normal trees.
In laboratories, the parasitism rate of Ostrinia furnacalis (Güenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) eggs by Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is low; however, efforts to control O. furnacalis with T. dendrolimi in the field have been successful. In this study, the effects of the number of attacks by T. dendrolimi against O. furnacalis eggs and diet of O. furnacalis larva on wasp development were investigated. The results indicated that more attacks increased significantly not only the successful parasitism rate of O. furnacalis eggs by T. dendrolimi, but also the percentage of host eggs that failed to develop into either O. furnacalis larvae or T. dendrolimi. Both the size and female proportion of T. dendrolimi offspring decreased as the number of attacks increased. The number of T. dendrolimi eggs laid in per host egg increased significantly as the ratio of wasps to host eggs increased from 1:5 to 3:5. Host diet also significantly affected the developmental time of immaturity and the emergence rate of adults of T. dendrolimi. These results illustrate how inundative releases of T. dendrolimi can successfully control O. furnacalis despite the fact that pest parasitism by the subsequent wasp generation decreases sharply in the field. The suitability of O. furnacalis eggs to T. dendrolimi and the superparasitism effects on offspring of T. dendrolimi are discussed.
To study the diet of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the Strait of Gibraltar, a total of 176 stomachs were examined from the Moroccan artisanal fishery targeting this species, from April to September 2015. The frequency of occurrence (FO), percentage in number and in weight of prey as well as the per cent index of relative importance of prey (%IRI) were calculated to assess the diet preferences of swordfish in relation to its body size, sex and month. Our findings confirm the opportunistic feeding behaviour of swordfish. The prey items consist primarily of fish (54.6% in number and 82.7% in weight), followed by cephalopod (43.36% in number and 17.25% in weight). The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and the southern shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) are the most important prey, with a % IRI of 47.54 and 35.04%, respectively. The results revealed that there are no significant differences in the diet preferences among sexes and size classes. However, diet composition varied significantly among months. A significant correlation was found between the body length of predator and prey size. The remarkable decrease in the fullness index (fi) from June to August suggests that swordfish were in a spawning condition, with reduced feeding.
Food is an important factor for the survival of juvenile fish. Knowledge of the diet of co-existing species helps clarify their relationships with each other. A number of Mugilidae species are known to co-exist in estuarine systems, raising the question of whether they compete for food resources. The feeding behaviours of five juvenile Mugilidae species were studied in the estuaries of Strymonikos (North Aegean Sea) using stomach content analysis. It was found that the species Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens and Mugil cephalus presented high feeding activity during summer and autumn and L. ramada and L. aurata during winter and spring. The diet overlap between the species was generally moderate to low and the pair L. saliens – M. cephalus exhibited the highest overlap in Richios estuarine system. The species do not appear to compete for common resources, probably because there is not always a spatiotemporal overlap, enough food is available or they exploit different resources. Four out of the five species exhibited similar patterns of feeding strategies with varying levels of specialization at an individual level and a rather generalized pattern at the population level. This more generalized feeding strategy may permit them to co-exist. Only M. cephalus showed a more specialized feeding behaviour, with a strong preference for microalgae. The absence of a general pattern for the trophic levels according to seasons, sizes or locations, also imply the opportunistic character of the species. Both season and fish size influenced the variation in the diet composition.
This article investigates the structural characteristics of firms that promote activities involving partners who coordinate with each other to achieve common or individual goals. The article also aims to verify empirically whether these activities generate advantages for companies embedded in relationships by examining the effects of industry, age and size on interfirm network management activities in a sample of Spanish companies operating in several industries and belonging to networks. The results show differences according to the life cycle stage: growth or maturity. Only the relation between interfirm network management activity and performance has been confirmed in both samples. The findings point to the need to consider the industrial environment when analysing firms’ networking decisions because the situations they face differ in mature or growing industries.
The thermal shock resistance (TSR) of ZnS wave-transparent ceramic depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the aerodynamic heating, pneumatic pressure, external constraint, size, aspect ratio and other factors in its actual service process. The theoretical model was established by introducing the analytical solution of transient heat conduction problem of ZnS plate under aerodynamic heating into its thermal stress field model and the pneumatic pressure was introduced. The present work mainly focused on the influences of constraint, size and aspect ratio on the critical rupture temperature difference of ZnS plate subjected to aerodynamic heating and pneumatic pressure. The numerical simulation was also conducted to verify the theoretical model. The results show that the large heat transfer condition corresponds to the poor TSR unless the constraint is too strong; the square plate provides the better TSR in case of different pneumatic pressures; a reasonable side length according to the range of pneumatic pressure would lead to the better TSR.
Core collections are the integral part of biotechnology-aided modern-day crop improvement programmes and utilized for a variety of applications including conventional plant breeding, association mapping, resequencing, among others. Since their advent, determination of core collection size has been based on the size of the whole collection. In this study, we precisely estimated the size of the core collection based on the diversity of the whole collection using the Similarity Elimination method. For each of the elimination cycle, allele retention and pairwise and mean genetic distances were calculated and used as the criteria for the precise estimation of the core collection size. We sampled a coconut core collection with 266 entries by retaining the diversity of the whole collection. During the elimination process, accessions with very rare alleles were eliminated first when compared with those having rare and common alleles. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis that the less frequent alleles seldom contribute to the genetic distance when compared with common alleles. In conclusion, presize can be efficiently utilized in any crop for the precise estimation of core collection size.
We give a sharp upper bound on the size of a triangle-free graph of a given order and connected domination. Our bound, apart from strengthening an old classical theorem of Mantel and of Turán improves on a theorem of Sanchis. Further, as corollaries, we settle a long standing conjecture of Graffiti on the leaf number and local independence for triangle-free graphs and answer a question of Griggs, Kleitman, and Shastri on a lower bound of the leaf number in triangle-free graphs.