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This chapter analyses the particularly complex representation of responsibility and selfhood present in the speech of Pasiphae in Euripides’ Cretans, in which the queen defends her act of falling in love with the bull. The chapter shows how Pasiphae is able to dissociate herself completely from her past actions by appealing to divine intervention, the role of her husband Minos, and an understanding of human morality and motivation that is rooted in hedonistic principles. Pasiphae’s defence thus relies on a concept of the fragmentation of the self that reveals her as one of Euripides’ most philosophically sophisticated female speakers.
Courtship behaviour varied not just across social class but also depended on individual inclination and disposition. There were agreed patterns of behaviour, particularly in middle-class society, that signalled to family, friends and the wider community that a couple were courting and the expectation was that the courtship would end in marriage. Not everyone observed or followed the rules of courtship, particularly around the issue of pre-marital sex. Courtships sometimes broke down and led to breach of promise to marry cases. While impossible to quantify, one of the facts to emerge from a study of breach of promise cases is the prevalence of sex as part of courtship. While the Presbyterian church authorities were tolerant, if not approving, of couples who consummated their relationship before marriage, the statistical evidence slowly emerging from scattered sources also indicates a significant number of pregnant Catholic brides. The single mother may have been shunned by society but there was less shame attached to the birth of children within seven or eight months of marriage. There is evidence in middle-class urban society of changing attitudes to courtship in the early decades of the twentieth century with more men and women anxious to make their own choice of spouse.
Studies have reported a sex bias in case fatalities of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is observed that men have a higher risk of developing a severe form of the disease compared to women, highlighting the importance of disaggregated data of male and female COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, other factors (eg, hormonal levels and immune functions) also need to be addressed due to the effects of sex differences on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. An insight into the underlying causes of sex differences in COVID-19 patients may provide an opportunity for better care of the patients or prevention of the disease. The current study reviews the reports concerning with the sex differences in COVID-19 patients. It is explained how sex can affect angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), that is a key component for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and summarized the gender differences in immune responses and how sex hormones are involved in immune processes. Furthermore, the available data about the impact of sex hormones on the immune functions of COVID-19 cases are looked into.
The 1898 crisis enabled the rapid growth of German-owned plantations and fincas de mozos, where German planters carved out a partial sovereignty that included a judicial system, the appointment of representatives of state authorities, and a combination of violence and patriarchal affection. Q’eqchi’s expressed their interpretation of this new economy through the figure of El Q’eq, a half-man, half-cow, produced from the sexual union between a German coffee planter and a cow. As a hypersexualized beast charged with protecting German plantations and ensuring order, El Q’eq also revealed the territorial limits of Guatemalan state sovereignty and unsettled claims of a linear march toward a liberal nation-state. El Q’eq was also a reflection of plantation discipline, the sexual economy of plantation life, and the perversion of Q’eqchi’ morals and social norms in racial capitalism.
In June 2018, the Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil’s (IEAB) General Synod voted, by an overwhelming majority, to amend its canons by redefining marriage as a ‘lifelong union between two people, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity’.2 In this essay, I intend to describe the process that led to such decision both as the result of major changes that happened in Brazilian society and as a response to IEAB’s inner process of discernment and theology-making in parallel with other Anglican provinces. Rather than merely copying theological developments and discussions produced in the English-speaking world, IEAB creatively engaged foreign and local sources (Anglican and non-Anglican), thus producing a contextually based theology that led to its embracing of same-gender couples as full members, worthy of all sacraments and rites.
To date, research on sex differentials in lifespan variation and life expectancy has mainly been conducted in Western countries and there is a dearth of data from South Korea. This study aimed to further the understanding of mortality transition and life expectancy in South Korea, and the associated trajectories of age-at-death variation, through an analysis of life disparity by gender. Using complete life tables for South Korea for 1970–2015, sex differentials (female–male differences) in life disparity and life expectancy at birth were estimated, and sex differentials in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. The results showed that sex differentials in life expectancy at birth have not reduced significantly in the last 45 years (1970: 7.1 years; 2015: 6.2 years). Life disparity has reduced more rapidly for females than males, and the difference increased from −0.1 year in 1981 to −1.6 years in 2015. Sex differentials in life expectancy and life disparity in South Korea were higher during 1970–2015 than in several Western countries with high life expectancy. The elderly age group (60 and above) contributed 50% of the total sex difference in life expectancy at birth in 1970, and this increased to 70% in 2015. The contribution of the age group 15–59 years reduced significantly over the period. Decomposition of life expectancy at birth by cause revealed that diseases of the circulatory system (2.2 years), followed by external causes (1.3 years), were the most important causes of the sex differences in life expectancy at birth in 1983, and in 2015 neoplasms (2.2 years) and external causes (1.1 years) explained half of the total sex differences. There has been a significant shift in the age-specific pattern of the contribution towards each cause of death. Overall, sex differentials in life disparity and life expectancy at birth have remained significant in South Korea in the last 45 years.
There is no specific law in Nepal that directly criminalizes sex work. However, many sex workers have experienced arbitrary detention by law-enforcement authorities. The Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2007 (HTTCA) criminalizes pimps and clients, but not sex workers directly. However, the Act was overinclusive and often criminalized women engaged in voluntary sex work. The new Criminal (Code) Act 2017 criminalizes advertising and providing facilities for sex work in the section concerning crimes against the public good. These laws are used to prosecute sex workers. Two identity-based associations (IBAs) emphasize the importance of decriminalization, but do not support the legalization of sex work. A licensing system, if introduced under legalization, may exclude the most vulnerable sex workers, including housewives, migrants, and sexual minorities, who are secretly engaged in the business. I conclude that ongoing advocacy of IBAs should seek to provide safe working environments for sex workers in Nepal.
The key populations who are most vulnerable to HIV – sex workers, people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, transgender people – are criminalized in many countries, and often lead double lives, hiding in order to survive. This creates a data paradox, in which governments deny or minimize the existence of key populations, no research is done on their health needs, and lack of data reinforces official denialism. Criminalization of same-sex sexuality is statistically associated with implausibly low size estimates of men who have sex with men. Low size estimates can also contribute to implausibly high reported coverage of HIV testing among men who have sex with men, leading countries that are failing to reach key populations to mistakenly believe they are successful. In Kenya, a government effort to conduct a size estimation study of key populations, including gathering biometric data, faced resistance from those groups, who feared the data could expose them to risk of arrest and abuses. Working with Kenyan key populations advocates and human rights lawyers, the author documented this resistance, and growing demands by key populations that they play a leadership role in the design, implementation and evaluation of research about their health.
Analysing the fiction of Thomas Hardy, Chapter 4 considers Hardy’s depictions of deception, concealment and misleading appearances among humans alongside his interest in adaptive appearance. This interest clashed with Hardy’s channelling of the pastoral, which characterised the natural world and rural life by honesty and transparency. Critics have noted that Hardy’s fiction problematizes the ethics of honesty. It is argued here that the logic of adaptive appearance energised this tendency as characters’ fates depend on chance misperceptions and ambiguous appearances. This sense of Darwinian contingency complicates characters’ moral agency by suggesting that many of their acts, which have the effect of deceiving, are unconscious. Apparently purposeful behaviours blur with the more mechanised displays of natural and sexual selection. Through his evolutionary vision, Hardy sometimes reframes honesty and dishonesty as outgrowths of opposing primitive instincts toward altruism and egoism. However, this utilitarian framework also rendered deception morally ambiguous, allowing for the possibility of noble deceptions that would spare others pain. Hardy’s fiction further biologized deception by depicting physical bodies that hid or falsified their owners’ identities. Random variations and chance resemblances cause characters to interpret erroneous ancestral histories in each other, sometimes with disastrous consequences.
Narrative theory has been used extensively by queer theorists to reconceptualize the cultural workings of sex, gender, and sexuality, not to mention race, nation, indigeneity, and class, among other key categories. This chapter provides an overview of some queer renderings of narrative. The chapter focuses on the interconnections between narrative, sexuality, modernity, and colonialism before considering some dominant narrative genres and queer critical engagements with these: the transition autobiography, the coming out narrative, and the “progress” narrative, explored at the level of the individual and of the collective and historical. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the uses of some of these narrative forms in the 2015 same-sex marriage referendum in the Republic of Ireland.
Sexual interaction is an important activity that determines the reproductive schedule of organisms and can ultimately influence the fitness traits of both sexes. Although the influence of sexual interaction on the fitness of females has been extensively determined, little is known about the effects on males, which often have different mating strategies and optimal mating regimes from those of females. To understand how mating regimes (timing and frequency) modulate the fitness in both sexes, we used spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) to investigate the influence of delayed mating and repeated mating on the fitness of male and female. For females, the unmated and the delayed mating females outlived those mated immediately after adult emergence. The repeated mating shortened the lifespan of females that mated at 1-day-old, but not that mated 7-day-old. However, no significant variation in lifespan was observed for males across different mating regimes. We found although delayed mating significantly reduced the daily reproductive rate of the females, there was no significant difference in lifetime reproduction of females across treatments because the delayed mating females increased their reproductive lifespan as a compensation. Our study highlighted that the time and frequency of sexual interaction showed a sex-specific consequence on male and female spider mites, indicating that sexual interaction incurs a higher cost to females which have a much lower optimal mating frequency than males.
Compared to universal jurisdiction, active nationality jurisdiction remains one of the least understood and written about forms of extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction. This article seeks to offer a normative account of the exercise of criminal jurisdiction by states over their nationals for crimes committed abroad such as sexual offences against minors, bribery of foreign public officials, or medical “circumvention” tourism. It highlights all of the reasons that militate against such assertions of jurisdiction as a matter of policy and law. It goes on to argue that the assertion of criminal jurisdiction over nationals for crimes committed abroad must be understood beyond its permissibility under international law as a modality that manifests the interests of the state of nationality, the territorial (host) state on occasion, the relevant individuals, and, increasingly, the international community.
Knowledge of the crop-weed interference on weed biology along with yield penalties can be used for the development of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics. Nevertheless, little is known about the beneficial effects of soybean density, an important aspect of IWM, on late Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) establishment time. Two field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to investigate how various soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]densities with A. palmeri establishment timings in weeks after crop emergence (WAE) affect height, biomass and seed production of the weed but also crop yield in drill-seeded soybean. Soybean density had a significant impact on dry weight and seed production of A. palmeri that established within the first two weeks of crop emergence, but not for establishment timings of the weed four weeks and later in relation to crop emergence. Differential performance of A. palmeri gender was observed regarding greater biomass production of female than male plants under crop presence merits further investigation. Grain yield reductions were recorded at earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e. 0 and 1 WAE) compared to 8 WAE establishment timing in 2014 and 2015. High soybean densities resulted in greater soybean yields compared to low soybean density, but no grain yield benefits were observed between medium and high soybean densities. Crop budget analysis revealed the benefits of moderate seeding rate (i.e. 250, 000 seeds ha-1) increases in comparison to lower (i.e. 125,000 seeds ha-1) or high (i.e. 400,000 seeds ha-1) on crop revenue, net income returns and breakeven price. Earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e. 0, 1 and 2 WAE) resulted in lower crop revenue and net income returns compared to later establishment timings of the weed.
Stressful events during the prenatal period have been related to hyperactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as metabolic changes in adult life. Moreover, regular exercise may contribute to the improvement of the symptoms associated with stress and stress-related chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of exercise, before the gestation period, on the metabolic changes induced by prenatal stress in adult mice. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS) and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS). When adults, the plasmatic biochemical analysis, oxidative stress, gene expression of metabolic-related receptors and sex differences were assessed in the offspring. Prenatal stress decreased neonatal and adult body weight when compared to the pregestational exercise group. Moreover, prenatal stress was associated with reduced body weight in adult males. PNS and EX + PNS females showed decreased hepatic catalase. Pregestational exercise prevented the stress-induced cholesterol increase in females but did not prevent the liver mRNA expression reduction on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α and γ in PNS females. Conversely, PNS and EX + PNS males showed an increased PPARα mRNA expression. In conclusion, pregestational exercise prevented some effects of prenatal stress on metabolic markers in a sex-specific manner.
Seasonal patterns in hospitalizations have been observed in various psychiatric disorders, however, it is unclear whether they also exist in schizophrenia. Previous studies found mixed results and those reporting the presence of seasonality differ regarding the characteristics of these patterns. Further, they are inconclusive whether sex is an influencing factor. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if seasonal patterns in hospitalizations can be found in schizophrenia, with special regard to a possible influence of sex, by using a large national dataset.
Data on all hospital admissions within Austria due to schizophrenia (F20.0–F20.6) for the time period of 2003–2016 were included. Age standardized monthly variation of hospitalization for women and men was analyzed and the level of significance adjusted for multiple testing.
The database comprised of 110,735 admissions (59.6% men). Significant seasonal variations were found in the total sample with hospitalization peaks in January and June and a trough in December (p < 0.0001). No significant difference in these patterns was found between women and men with schizophrenia (p < 0.0001).
Our study shows that schizophrenia-related hospitalizations follow a seasonal pattern in both men and women. The distribution of peaks might be influenced by photoperiod changes which trigger worsening of symptoms and lead to exacerbations in schizophrenia. Further research is necessary to identify underlying factors influencing seasonal patterns and to assess whether a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia is especially vulnerable to the impact of seasonal variations.
This study used a person-centered approach to identify subgroups of adolescents who are at risk for depression and suicidal ideation. Latent class analysis was first applied to 1,290 adolescents from a Canadian cohort study in order to identify latent vulnerability subtypes based on 18 psychosocial vulnerability factors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the associations between class membership and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation 2 years later. The moderating role of sex in the associations between latent classes and depressive symptoms was explored. Five latent classes were identified: Low Vulnerability (42%), Substance Use Only (13%), Moderate Vulnerability (28%), Conduct Problems (8%) and High Vulnerability (9%). Compared with the Low Vulnerability class, the probabilities of presenting depressive symptoms were higher for the Substance Use Only class, OR = 1.93, 95% CI [1.21, 3.06], the Moderate Vulnerability class, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [2.09, 4.20], the Conduct Problems class, OR = 3.03, 95% CI [1.84, 4.98], and the High Vulnerability class, OR = 5.4, 95% CI [3.42, 8.53]. Furthermore, interaction effects with sex were identified in relation to depressive symptoms only. The probability of presenting suicidal ideation was higher only for the High Vulnerability class, OR = 4.51, 95% CI [2.41, 8.43]. This study highlights the importance of a person-centered perspective that considers both vulnerability subtypes and sex because these associations are complex rather than linear or additive.
Transparent Casper zebrafish allow studies of vertebrate sexual maturation and gonad development in vivo. Casper gonad dynamics can be observed longitudinally over time and non-invasively. Gonad maturation and reproduction are complex processes subject to disruption by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). DES was used as a ‘proof of principle’ to ascertain the usefulness of the Casper model to determine EDC effects on gonad maturation. Puberty onset in control juvenile Casper zebrafish (N = 43) averaged 13.2 weeks post fertilization (WPF) for females and included increased vent size, while in males puberty occurred at 11.7 WPF along with maintenance of small vents. DES treatment for 6 days in early juveniles (N = 20) induced an average delay in puberty of 5 weeks in females and 10 weeks in males. DES induced loss of breeding tubercles and vent enlargement in post-pubescent males. Puberty in control fish was correlated with an average body length of 1.7 cm for males and 1.8 cm for females. Increased testes opacity, small vent and breeding tubercles denoted male puberty. Puberty in females was defined as ovarian follicle diameters reaching 400 µm with increasingly opaque follicles and by an increased vent size. These results are like those for wild-type zebrafish and indicate that the Casper model is a useful system for studying gonad dynamics in vivo. Future use of transgenic reporter lines in Casper will allow new avenues of investigation into the reproductive biology of this vertebrate model.
Suicide risk is greatly increased in schizophrenia. Our study aim was to investigate interactional factors related to the recognition of suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia.
This case-control study focused on 66 schizophrenia patients who had committed suicide Study methods included in-depth interviews of next of kin and interviews of patients that had been saved from suicide and perfect information and statistics were extracted from patient's files and documents in fatemi hospital and analyzed by chi-square.
Studies show the most prevalence of disease is in male, citizens, single persons, uncaptioned and the average age was in the mid-thirties. Most participants had an under high school diploma, (56/1%). Almost 60/6% of the sample had a history of a previous depression, undifferentiated type of schizophrenia, previous anti socials acts (56/1%) According to the findings most participants (81/8%) had no precedence of being imprisoned. we survey the declared assumptions of the research and study the presence of any relation or lack of it between variable factors
Our findings suggest Prevention of suicide in schizophrenia is likely to result from treatment of affective symptoms, improving adherence to treatment, and maintaining special vigilance in patients with risk factors,
During the 2017 European hepatitis A (HA) outbreak we assessed HA incidence in our cohort of 2300 HIV-infected patients, implemented preventive measures and evaluated practices and knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STD). HA incidence was assessed between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017 and included all symptomatic patients with virologically confirmed HA. Preventive measures consisted in identifying at risk and not immunised patients to propose them a free HAV vaccination, and an anonymous survey related to transmission routes of STD and to sexual behaviours. Twenty HA were diagnosed. All were homosexual men recently diagnosed with HIV and another STD. None were vaccinated against hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hospitalisation was required for 52%. We identified 250 patients at risk to acquire HAV and invited them to a free immunisation program. A total of 110 (44%) were vaccinated, of whom 74 responded to our survey. A majority of them (84%) reported recent active anal and oral sexuality with multiple (52%) male partners (81%), and ChemSex consumption (14%). Internet was the meeting link for 58%. Another STD history was found in 69%. One third of these individuals had no idea about STD transmission modes. This HA outbreak pointed the insufficient vaccine coverage against HAV and knowledge on STD, which may be improved by Internet.