To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The transition to a low-carbon economy will increase mineral commodity demands by up to tenfold by 2050. Improving the quality of lives in developing countries will further increase resource demands. Mineral ores are critical for manufacturing low-carbon technologies. The projected increase in demand provides a major business opportunity, in turn providing a driver for the required investment to move to low-carbon mining, processing and recycling. To improve efficiency and reduce the carbon footprint of mining and metals recycling, the industry can take advantage of solar photovoltaics, wind and batteries, and renewable energy power purchase agreements, and reduce flaring, venting and fugitive emissions. Adaptation to cope with extreme weather events is critical to ensure materials can be delivered to low-carbon technology producers. Reducing exposure to climate risks through an integrated adaptation–mitigation approach lessens operational, maintenance and insurance costs. This chapter reviews tools to help the sector simultaneously achieve both climate mitigation and adaptation cost-effectively.
This article interrogates the operating logic of China's street-level regulatory state, demonstrating that residents’ committees (RCs) assume a role as regulatory intermediaries to enhance the efficiency of local governance. Using Shanghai's new recycling regulations as a case study, it explores the mechanisms by which RCs elicit not only citizens’ compliance but also active participation. We show that the central mechanisms derive from the RCs’ skilful mobilization of particular social forces, namely mianzi and guanxi, which are produced within close-knit social networks inside Shanghai's housing estates (xiaoqu). We advance three arguments in the study of China's emerging regulatory state. First, we show how informal social forces are employed in regulatory governance at the street level, combining authoritarian control with grassroots participation. Second, the focus on RCs as regulatory intermediaries reveals the important role played by these street-level administrative units in policy implementation. Third, we suggest that the RCs’ harnessing of informal social forces is essential not only for successful policy implementation at street level but also for the production of the local state's political legitimacy.
Mutability—the ability to change form and substance—is a key feature of glass and metals. This quality, however, has proven frustrating for archaeological and archaeometric research. This article assesses the typological, chemical and theoretical elements of material reuse and recycling, reframing these practices as an opportunity to understand past behaviour, rather than as an obstacle to understanding. Using diverse archaeological data, the authors present case studies to illustrate the potential for documenting mutability in the past, and to demonstrate what this can reveal about the movement, social context and meaning of archaeological material culture. They hope that through such examples archaeologists will consider and integrate mutability as a formative part of chaînes opératoires.
Chapter 7, the concluding chapter, discusses the literary production of Manasses in light of the observations made in the close readings throughout the monograph. Returning to the theoretical considerations of the functions of occasional literature, special attention is here devoted to certain aspects of Manasses’ production: the recycling of Graeco-Roman and biblical material and his own verses within and across genres. The economy of reusing motifs, words, expressions and verses is considered from the perspective of occasional literature written on commission or in the hope of achieving commissions, but also from an aesthetic viewpoint. The ways in which Manasses comments upon his own situation as a writer and inscribes his own authorship into his texts are seen as the conscious creation of an individual voice, but also as a reflection of the Komnenian trend towards poetic self-assertiveness.
This chapter examines the post-Reformation afterlives of churchyard, wayside and market crosses. It explores how they were implicated in the Protestant war against idols alongside the manner in which many were recycled for alternative purposes, probing the new layers of meaning they acquired as they were modified and the contested legacies they left to the generations that inherited them. Particular attention is paid to crosses upon whose decapitated pedestals subsequently became the base for sundials. It argues that crosses converted into timekeepers not merely illuminate the interconnections between memory and materiality, space and temporality, in post-Reformation culture. They also offer insight into the evolving concept of the ‘monument’ itself. They afford a glimpse of the process by which things designed to provoke remembrance became things worthy of preservation as historic artefacts themselves. They became signposts to a disappearing past that had to be fossilised lest it be lost.
This article offers a Japanese perspective on the debate about the international financial system immediately after the first oil shock of 1973–4. Using archival records from the OECD and Bank of Japan, I analyze the three key policy issues discussed at the meetings of Working Party 3 (WP3) of the OECD: petrodollar recycling, balance-of-payments adjustments, and the management of global growth. Documents show that the Japanese approach to capital controls, exchange rate management, state-led growth orientation and international banking strategies was rather strengthened by the impact of the oil shock. By 1975 the OECD viewed Japan, together with Germany and the United States, as one of the ‘locomotives’ that would trigger a revival of economic growth in the industrialized West.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation commonly used for telecommunications, navigation and food processing. More recently microwave technologies have found applications in fibre-reinforced polymer composites, which are increasingly used in aircraft structures. Microwave energy can be applied with low power (up to milliwatts) for non-destructive testing and high power (up to kilowatts) for heating/curing purposes. The state-of-the-art applications at high power include curing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, joining and recycling, whereas low-power microwave techniques can provide quality checks, strain sensing and damage inspection. Low-power microwave testing has the advantage of being non-contact, there is no need for surface transducers or couplants, it is operator friendly and relatively inexpensive; high-power microwave energy can offer volumetric heating, reduced processing time and energy saving with no ionising hazards. In this paper the recent research progress is reviewed, identifying achievements and challenges. First, the critical electromagnetic properties of composites that are closely related to the heating and sensing performance are discussed. Then, representative case studies are presented. Finally, the trends are outlined, including intelligent/automated inspection and solid-state heating.
Quantification of assemblages of ceramic building material (CBM) is now normal excavation practice, but there is insufficient standardisation of methodology and little study of the validity or uses of these analyses. Consequently, it is difficult to interpret confidently the resulting analyses or make comparisons between sites. This paper suggests a simple approach and tests its validity empirically in urban environments where the high level of constructional churn should generate assemblage homogeneity. It then shows how the results can help with site and building interpretation.
Rare earth element extraction induces environmental damages and the balance problem. In this article, we show that recycling can challenge both problems in a two-period framework. We also find other results depending on the amount of scrap that can be recycled. If the recycling activity is not limited by available scrap, it does not change extraction in the first period. Environmental taxes on extracted quantities reduce extraction and favor recycling. But if the recycling is limited, the extractor reduces extraction in period one, adopting a foreclosure strategy, and environmental taxes can decrease recycling. In all cases, environmental taxes are never equal to the marginal damage from pollution, in order to take into account the recycling effect.
By the time the Roman empire reached its greatest extent, in the early decades of the second century ad, wooden barrels were a key part of a trade network that supported a complex extended economy. These objects do not, however, routinely survive in the archaeological record and very few sites have yielded large, multi-phase, assemblages for study. Although relatively rare, individual finds and assemblages have been found sufficiently regularly to allow us to consider barrel production and use during the Roman period. These objects can have complex cultural biographies from their original production to their final deposition. Current and previous research at Vindolanda, a Roman fort in northern Britain at the edge of the Roman empire, provides a context for reflection on these objects and their biographies. Emphasis is given to whether this material demonstrates repeated, possibly habituated, practices of adaption and recycling.
This paper presents a recent study on recycling poly-ethylene-tetraphylate (PET), known as plastic waste material in Ghana, to wealth. Composites were produced by heating aggregates together with shredded PET plastic waste material, while bitumen was added to the plastic-coated aggregates. The composites produced were reinforced with 4.5 wt%, 9.0 wt%, 13.6 wt%, and 18.0 wt% PET. Mechanical properties of the fabricated composite samples were studied with a Universal testing machine for optimization. The work demonstrated that shredded PET plastic waste material acts as a strong binding agent for bitumen that can improve on the shelf life of the asphalt. From the results, 13.6 wt% concentration of PET was shown to experience the maximum compressive strength and flexural strength. Besides, water resistance was shown to increase with PET concentrations/weight fraction. From the data characterized 13.6 wt% of PET plastic gives the optimum plastic concentration that enhances the rheological properties of bitumen. The implications of the result are therefore discussed for the use of 13.6 wt% PET in road construction.
A case study of hard disk drives (HDDs) and rare-earth magnets is presented to show the use of decision support tools to identify and assess the barriers and opportunities for circular business models. Pilot demonstration projects, which showcased HDD circular recovery strategies, were useful as a low-risk opportunity for business model experimentation and to build trust among key supply chain actors.
A case study of hard disk drives and rare-earth magnets is presented to show the use of decision support tools (DSTs) to assess the complex interaction of variables that must be considered when demonstrating the viability of circular business models (CBMs). A mix of quantitative and qualitative DSTs such as life cycle assessment, techno-economic assessment, Ostrom's Framework for social-ecological systems, decision trees, and others were implemented by the iNEMI Value Recovery Project team to overcome many of the identified barriers to circular economy. The DSTs were used to guide stakeholder coordination, create and share environmental, logistical and financial data, and generate decision-making flowcharts which promote circular economic strategies. Demonstration projects were used as a low-risk opportunity for business model experimentation and to build trust among key supply chain actors. The tools highlighted by this case study could be useful for establishing or expanding CBMs for other electronic products or components, especially components containing critical materials.
Circular energy transformation of Turkey is essential to strengthen the national energy security. Turkey will benefit from moving towards a circular economy.
Circular economy (CE) has gained much attention due to global warming and climate change which are the most serious issues faced in the world. The United Nations has been struggling with the issues regarding sustainable development by releasing some programs and legislations, which are mostly supported by the EU. The EU's CE including both economy and energy within the scope of low-carbon world is binding for Turkey's energy transition. Among renewables, solar energy preserved the leading capacity expansion with an increase of 98 GW in 2019 in the world. Solar photovoltaic (PV) has become a mainstream energy source among renewables. Since the PV installation has been growing all around the world, several countries especially China, Germany, and the UK pay special attention to a sustainable PV waste management concept. We present the special case of Turkey within the global CE along with the current status of renewable energy in the global energy transformation. Turkey's energy outlook and the EU's targets are reviewed, and the significant role of solar energy in the CE transition process of Turkey has been revealed. We suggested adding a vision of “More Circular” to her new energy policy “More Domestic, More Renewable.”
A scalable battery recycling strategy to recover and regenerate solid electrolytes and cathode materials in spent all solid-state batteries, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases.
With the rapidly increasing ubiquity of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), sustainable battery recycling is a matter of growing urgency. The major challenge faced in LIB sustainability lies with the fact that the current LIBs are not designed for recycling, making it difficult to engineer recycling approaches that avoid breaking batteries down into their raw materials. Thus, it is prudent to explore new approaches to both fabricate and recycle next-generation batteries before they enter the market. Here, we developed a sustainable design and scalable recycling strategy for next-generation all solid-state batteries (ASSBs). We use the EverBatt model to analyze the relative energy consumption and environmental impact compared to conventional recycling methods. We demonstrate efficient separation and recovery of spent solid electrolytes and electrodes from a lithium metal ASSB and directly regenerate them into usable formats without damaging their core chemical structure. The recycled materials are then reconstituted to fabricate new batteries, achieving similar performance as pristine ASSBs, completing the cycle. This work demonstrates the first fully recycled ASSB and provides critical design consideration for future sustainable batteries.
A perspective on the current state of battery recycling and future improved designs to promote sustainable, safe, and economically viable battery recycling strategies for sustainable energy storage.
Recent years have seen the rapid growth in lithium-ion battery (LIB) production to serve emerging markets in electric vehicles and grid storage. As large volumes of these batteries reach their end of life, the need for sustainable battery recycling and recovery of critical materials is a matter of utmost importance. Global reserves for critical LIB elements such as lithium, cobalt, and nickel will soon be outstripped by growing cumulative demands. Despite advances in conventional recycling strategies such as pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, they still face limitations in high energy consumption, high greenhouse gas emissions, as well as limited profitability. While new direct recycling methods are promising, they also face obstacles such as the lack of proper battery labeling, logistical challenges of inefficient spent battery collection, and components separation. Here, we discuss the importance of recovering critical materials, and how battery designs can be improved from the cell to module level in order to facilitate recyclability. The economic and environmental implications of various recycling approaches are analyzed, along with policy suggestions to develop a dedicated battery recycling infrastructure. We also discuss promising battery recycling strategies and how these can be applied to existing and future new battery chemistries.
Plastics generally play a very important role in a plethora of industries, fields and our everyday lives. In spite of their cheapness, availability and important contributions to lives, they however, pose a serious threat to the environment due to their mostly non-biodegradable nature. Recycling into useful products can reduce the amount of plastic waste. Thermal degradation (Pyrolysis) of plastics is becoming an increasingly important recycling method for the conversion of plastic materials into valuable chemicals and oil products. In this work, waste Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles were thermally converted into useful gaseous and liquid products. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used for the conversions with the liquid product yield of 65 % at a temperature range of 400°C to 550°C. The chemical analysis of the pyrolytic oil showed the presence of functional groups such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters, and phenyl ring substitution bands. The main constituents were 1-Tetradecene, 1-Pentadecene, Cetene, Hexadecane, 1-Heptadecene, Heptadecane, Octadecane, Nonadecane, Eicosane, Tetratetracontane, 1-Undecene, 1-Decene). The results are promising and can be maximized by additional techniques such as hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation to obtain value-added products.
Composite materials, or at least materials that could be regarded as composites, are widespread in nature. This is, of course, a reflection of the many gains in ‘efficiency’ that can be made by integration of two or more constituents. Moreover, the development of artificial composite materials, for mechanical and/or other purposes, has benefited considerably from insights gained by examining bio-composites, and by their direct utilisation. The kingdoms of both plants (wood, grasses, straw, etc.) and animals (bone, skin, teeth, marine shells, corals, etc.) offer many examples of highly successful materials that are essentially composites. Their importance relates not only to lessons about structure–property relationships, but also to the issue of degradation and recycling. While the ‘rotting’ of wood is often regarded as its Achilles’ heel, viable recycling strategies are increasingly required for all materials (and manufactured composites are often perceived as being unsatisfactory in this respect). It is clearly not appropriate in a book of this type to provide great detail about natural materials, or indeed about recycling, but a few of the main principles and issues involved are briefly summarised here.
Cast iron objects recovered primarily in eastern Mongolia, spanning the Xiongnu through the Early Historic periods (ca. 3rd BC–AD 17th century), were examined for their radiocarbon (14C) concentration and microstructure. Most of the samples examined were found to have originated from charcoal-based smelting with a few exceptions that were made using a mineral coal-based technique. A comparison of 14C dates with dates derived from artifact typology allowed the charcoal-smelted objects to be classified into two groups, based on whether the radiometric and typological periodization are in agreement or not. In addition, those with differing 14C and typological dates can be divided into two subgroups with and without evidence for a melt treatment applied after original casting. These conflicting dating results are confusing and would seem to provoke skepticism about the use of 14C measurements for dating iron artifacts. We demonstrate however that 14C analysis, when combined with metallographic examination and other lines of chronological evidence, can clarify the history of a given iron object and its multiple users, often separated in time by more than a millennium.
Diverse theoretical perspectives suggest that place plays an important role in human behavior. One recent perspective proposes that habitual and recursive use of places among humans may be an emergent property of obligate tool use by our species. In this view, the costs of tool use are reduced by preferential occupation of previously occupied places where cultural materials have been discarded. Here we use the model to generate five predictions for ethnographic mobility patterns. We then test the predictions against observations made during one month of coresidence with a residentially mobile Dukha family in the Mongolian Taiga. We show that (1) there is a strong tendency to occupy previously used camps, (2) previously deposited materials are habitually recycled, (3) reoccupation of places transcends kinship, (4) occupational hiatuses can span decades or longer, and (5) the distribution of occupation intensity among camps is highly skewed such that most camps are not intensively reoccupied whereas a few camps experience extremely high reoccupation intensity. These findings complement previous archaeological findings and support the conclusion that the constructed dimensions of human habitats exert a strong influence on mobility patterns in mobile societies.
Since the earliest stages of international climate policy, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been framed and widely accepted as a problem that needs to be solved by reducing its amount in the atmosphere. In principle this is a correct and relevant starting point for efforts to decarbonize societies. At the same time, however, the unquestioned and one-sided framing of CO2 as a problem has significantly biased the strategies for tackling climate change. We introduce the origins, meanings and implications of one-sided framing of CO2 in climate policy. We also discuss how alternative framings could impact policymaking and eventually our capacity to mitigate climate change. We introduce a paradox: framing CO2 as a problem often translates into policies that hamper the implementation of technologies to decrease the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. We suggest that plurality in framing CO2 could lead to innovative ways and strategies to combat climate change.