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This chapter focuses on the performance limits and metrics for wireless networks that integrate UAV base stations. In particular, we first have a brief overview on performance analysis techniques such as stochastic geometry. Then, we introduce several detailed case studies to analyze the performance limits of wireless communications with UAVs, while uncovering important design tradeoffs and exposing the impact of various unique UAV features such as altitude, mobility, line-of-sight communications, and elevation angle, on the various metrics.
Data from neurological and radiological research show an abnormal neurological development in patients treated for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Thus, the aim of this study was to survey the quality of life scores in comparison with healthy children and children with other heart diseases (mild, moderate, and severe heart defects, heart defects in total). Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (aged 6.3–16.9 years) under compulsory education requirements, who were treated at the Children’s Heart Center Linz between 1997 and 2009 (n = 74), were surveyed. Totally, 41 children and 44 parents were examined prospectively by psychologists according to Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, a health-related quality of life measurement. The results of the self-assessments of health-related quality of life on a scale of 1–100 showed a wide range, from a minimum of 5.00 (social functioning) to a maximum of 100 (physical health-related summary scores, emotional functioning, school functioning), with a total score of 98.44. The parents’ assessments (proxy) were quite similar, showing a range from 10 (social functioning) up to 100. Adolescent hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients rated themselves on the same level as healthy youths and youths with different heart diseases. The results show that patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome aged 6–16 years can be successfully supported and assisted in their psychosocial development even if they show low varying physical and psychosocial parameters. The finding that adolescent hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients estimated themselves similar to healthy individuals suggests that they learnt to cope with a severe heart defect.
The decline in organized violence in the period after World War II provides the promise of a more peaceful future. How can we move further in this direction? Democratic peace—the absence of armed violence between democracies and the domestic peace of mature democracies—may provide part of the answer. This phenomenon is a well-established empirical regularity, but its mechanisms and its limits remain a subject of continuing research. The key role of democracy in reducing violence has been challenged by alternative explanations, such as the liberal peace, the capitalist peace, the developed peace, the organized peace, the quality of government peace, the feminist peace, and the civil society peace—but also by realism. In this essay, part of the roundtable “World Peace (And How We Can Achieve It),” I argue that it is a social-democratic peace that provides the best basis for a lasting world peace. This formula includes democracy but incorporates additional elements, such as a market economy, an active and competent state, close international cooperation, and the reduction of discrimination and group-based inequality. Combining these elements would provide a solid basis for eliminating violence between, as well as within, states. The main limitation of such a program is its demanding nature. Few states and interstate relations as yet fulfill all these conditions, but the long-term trends are moving in the right direction.
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Several nutraceuticals have shown interesting clinical results in HF prevention as well as in the treatment of the early stages of the disease, alone or in combination with pharmacological therapy. The aim of the present expert opinion position paper is to summarise the available clinical evidence on the role of phytochemicals in HF prevention and/or treatment that might be considered in those patients not treated optimally as well as in those with low therapy adherence. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular HF treatment options were weighed up and graded according to predefined scales. A systematic search strategy was developed to identify trials in PubMed (January 1970 to June 2019). The terms ‘nutraceuticals’, ‘dietary supplements’, ‘herbal drug’ and ‘heart failure’ or ‘left verntricular dysfunction’ were used in the literature search. The experts discussed and agreed on the recommendation levels. Available clinical trials reported that the intake of some nutraceuticals (hawthorn, coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, d-ribose, carnosine, vitamin D, probiotics, n-3 PUFA and beet nitrates) might be associated with improvements in self-perceived quality of life and/or functional parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output in HF patients, with minimal or no side effects. Those benefits tended to be greater in earlier HF stages. Available clinical evidence supports the usefulness of supplementation with some nutraceuticals to improve HF management in addition to evidence-based pharmacological therapy.
Contemporary welfare policies in many Western countries limit means tested public assistance for the long-term unemployed and spur rapid movement into the labor market. Studies on welfare use determinants that traced these policy changes focused on individuals’ characteristics, economic condition, and various policy components. Little attention was paid to welfare recipients’ job quality or its role in determining welfare exit. The present study examined the contribution of various job quality aspects, beyond wages, to welfare exit among welfare recipients in Israel. We considered the use of workers’ own skills and occupation, existence of standard employment contract (versus temporary), irregular work schedule, and application of mandatory and non-mandatory non-wage compensation attributes. The data derive from a national panel survey of 2,800 single-mother recipients of welfare in 2003. The results indicate the importance of these job components for welfare exit, above and beyond wages. Implications for policy are discussed.
This chapter examines the relationship between constructions of childhood and the development of narrative fiction in Ireland in the period after the Williamite settlement. By highlighting the figure of the child as a central preoccupation of this period, I propose a fresh consideration of religious controversy, the response to Enlightenment ideas, and the development of narrative fiction in Ireland in this period. The desire to create a new and improved Ireland was at one and the same time an aspect of English colonial ideology with a long and sometimes violent history, but also an optimistic and progressive vision which drew on the radical philosophies of Locke and others. Literacy and print culture were increasingly seen as pivotal to the spread of enlightenment and the improvement of both the individual and society, but anxiety as to the loyalty of Catholics also generated ambivalence about the benefits of widespread literacy. In this essay I will argue that a significant strand of early Irish fiction emerges from a distinctive preoccupation with questions of individual and societal formation and reformation, and that there are close links between early Irish fictions and discourses of religious reform, pedagogy, and social and economic improvement.
In the present study, an effective secondary selection of transgressive variants from a homozygous population of Pusa Sugandh 3 (PS3) has led to the development of basmati variant SKUA 494. SKUA 494 exhibited a grain yield (7.9 t/ha) with superiority of 21.5% over its progenitor (6.5 t/ha). Besides, the genotype revealed an earliness of about 13 and 15 days for flowering and maturity, respectively. Hulling, milling and head rice recovery traits of SKUA 494 were comparatively better over the controls PS3 and Pusa Basmati 1509. No significant differences in the cooking quality were observed in SKUA 494 over its parental line. Quality traits of SKUA 494 revealed an intermediate score for alkali spreading value, besides similar values for gel consistency and amylose content in comparison to PS3. On the basis of stability variables, stability index and overall mean for most of the traits, SKUA 494 depicted stable performance across the locations and over the years. Molecular analysis based on simple sequence repeat markers revealed polymorphism at locus flanking the quantitative trait loci for days to heading (Hd6) between SKUA 494 and its parent (PS3). Based on overall superiority in the performance and adaptability of SKUA 494, the variety has been recommended to farmers for general cultivation under temperate ecology.
The functional assessment of cancer therapy-bone marrow transplant (FACT-BMT) is a widely used instrument to assess quality of life (QOL) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, but there is little evidence of its validity in Latin American populations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version of the FACT-BMT in Mexican patients.
First, the original version was piloted with 15 HSCT patients to obtain an adequate cultural version, resulting in the adaptation of one item. After that, the new version was completed by 139 HSCT patients.
The results showed a FACT factor structure that explains 70.84% of the total variance, a factor structure similar to the original FACT structure, and with a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.867). For the BMT subscale, the best factor structure included 17 items which explain 61.65% of the total variance with an adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.696).
Significance of the results
The FACT-BMT was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate QOL in Mexican patients. Our results constitute new FACT-BMT empirical evidence that supports its clinical and research uses.
The current study evaluated the effects of dietary roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratios and water supply on the carcass characteristics and yield of lambs. Forty Santa Inês crossbred lambs with an average body weight (BW) of 19 ± 2.8 kg were evaluated in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two proportions of roughage and concentrate (30:70 and 70:30) and two levels of water supply (ad libitum and restricted to 0.5). The animals were slaughtered at an average weight of 28 ± 31 kg. Centesimal composition, colour parameters (L*, a* and b*), shear force, cooking losses and pH were determined on the Longissimus lumborum muscle. There was no interaction effect between the R:C ratio and water supply on the evaluated variables. Total BW gain, average daily gain and final BW were affected by water restriction and R:C ratio. Water restriction reduced total BW gain, average daily gain and final BW. No effect of water restriction was detected on slaughter weight, centesimal composition, colour variations, shear force, pH, weight or yield of carcass. No effect of water restriction and diets was observed on the cuts, except for neck weight. Carcass weight and yield were affected by the R:C ratios. Restricting the water supply to 0.5 does not affect the carcass weight or yield of Santa Inês crossbred lambs or their meat quality characteristics (centesimal composition, colour, shear force and pH measurements). A higher proportion of concentrate in the diet results in heavier hot and cold carcass weights.
Patients with distributive shock who are unresponsive to traditional vasopressors are commonly considered to have severe distributive shock and are at high mortality risk. Here, we assess the cost-effectiveness of adding angiotensin II to the standard of care (SOC) for severe distributive shock in the US critical care setting from a US payer perspective.
Short-term mortality outcomes were based on 28-day survival rates from the ATHOS-3 study. Long-term outcomes were extrapolated to lifetime survival using individually estimated life expectancies for survivors. Resource use and adverse event costs were drawn from the published literature. Health outcomes evaluated were lives saved, life-years gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained using utility estimates for the US adult population weighted for sepsis mortality. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses assessed uncertainty around results. We analyzed patients with severe distributive shock from the ATHOS-3 clinical trial.
The addition of angiotensin II to the SOC saved .08 lives at Day 28 compared to SOC alone. The cost per life saved was estimated to be $108,884. The addition of angiotensin II to the SOC was projected to result in a gain of .96 life-years and .66 QALYs. This resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $12,843 per QALY. The probability of angiotensin II being cost-effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY was 86 percent.
For treatment of severe distributive shock, angiotensin II is cost-effective at acceptable thresholds.
The primary goal of rhinoplasty is patient satisfaction and improved quality of life. The present study was conducted to assess patient satisfaction with face and nose appearance, and quality of life after rhinoplasty.
Patients presenting for rhinoplasty completed the FACE-Q survey. This is a new instrument that measures patient-reported outcomes in those undergoing aesthetic procedures. The FACE-Q scales include satisfaction with facial appearance overall, satisfaction with the nose, psychological well-being, psychosocial distress and social function.
Sixty-five patients completed the FACE-Q at pre-operative and at post-operative follow-up visits. Post-operative scores increased significantly in terms of: satisfaction with facial appearance (p < 0.0001, t = 15.639, degrees of freedom = 64); social function (p < 0.0001, t = 12.208, degrees of freedom = 64); psychosocial distress (p < 0.0001, t = 13.864, degrees of freedom = 64); psychological function (p < 0.0001, t = 12.681, degrees of freedom = 64); and satisfaction with nose (p < 0.0001, t = 16.421, degrees of freedom = 64). Most patients reported more than 79 per cent satisfaction with the post-operative outcome.
The FACE-Q is an adequate instrument for determining successful aesthetic surgery based on patient satisfaction.
To evaluate stress and quality of life in parents of children with an intellectual disability (moderate–severe–profound), who attend a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intellectual Disability Service (CAMHS ID), and to estimate the perceived levels of challenging behaviour and satisfaction with supports.
Data from children attending the service from 2014 to 2017, along with clinician and parent rating scales were collected.
Most children had medical comorbidities, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and challenging behaviours. Half had a diagnosis of a mental health disorder. Less than half received respite care. Challenging behaviours and ASD were found to be correlated with increased parental stress while perception of support was inversely correlated with stress. Intellectual disability, ASD, and parental stress were correlated with a decrease in perceived family quality of life.
This study concurs with previous studies, outlining that parents of children with intellectual disability, in particular, where there is a diagnosis of comorbid ASD and challenging behaviour, experience increased psychological distress and lower quality of life.
To examine associations of tree nut snack (TNS) consumption with diet quality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in UK adults from National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2014.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from 4-d food diaries, blood samples and physical measurements for CVD risk markers. To estimate diet quality, modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and modified Healthy Diet Score (HDS) were applied. Associations of TNS consumption with diet quality and markers of CVD risk were investigated using survey-adjusted multivariable linear regression adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, socio-economic and smoking status, region of residency and total energy and alcohol intake.
UK free-living population.
4738 adults (≥19 years).
TNS consumers had higher modified MDS and HDS relative to non-consumers. TNS consumers also had lower BMI, WC, SBP and DBP and higher HDL compared to non-consumers, although a dose-related fully adjusted significant association between increasing nut intake (g per 4184 kJ/1000 kcal energy intake) and lower marker of CVD risk was only observed for SBP. TNS consumption was also associated with higher intake of total fat, mono-, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin A, thiamin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium and iron; and lower intake of saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, total carbohydrate, starch, free sugar, sodium and chloride.
TNS consumers report better dietary quality and consumption was associated with lower CVD risk factors. Encouraging replacement of less healthy snacks with TNS should be encouraged as part of general dietary guidelines.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of the Varian portal dosimetry (PD) system as a quality assurance (QA) tool for breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans.
Materials and methods:
Four hundred portal dose images from 200 breast cancer patient IMRT treatment plans were analysed. The images were obtained using Varian PortalVision electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) on Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Three patient plans were selected, and the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) positions were randomly altered by a mean of 0·5, 1, 1·5 and 2 mm with a standard deviation of 0·1 mm on 50, 75 and 100% of control points. Using the improved/global gamma calculation algorithm with a low-dose threshold of 10% in the EPID, the change in gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm and 1%/1 mm criterion was analysed as a function of the introduced error. The changes in the dose distributions of clinical target volume and organ at risk due to MLC positioning errors were also analysed.
Symmetric and asymmetric breast or chest wall plan fields are different in delivery as well as in the QA. An average gamma passing rate of 99·8 ± 0·5 is presented for 3%/3 mm symmetric plans and 96·9 ± 4·5 is presented for 3%/3 mm asymmetric plans. An average gamma passing rate of 98·4 ± 4·3 is presented for 2%/2 mm symmetric plans and 89·7 ± 9·5 is presented for 2%/2 mm asymmetric plans. A large-induced error in MLC positioning (2·0 mm, 100% of control points) results in an insignificant change in dose that would be delivered to the patient. However, EPID portal dosimetry is sensitive enough to detect even the slightest change in MLC positioning error (0·5 mm, 50% of control points).
Stricter pre-treatment QA action levels can be established for breast IMRT plans utilising EPID. For improved sensitivity, a multigamma criteria approach is recommended. The PD tool is sensitive enough to detect MLC positioning errors that contribute to even insignificant dose changes.
When collecting egocentric network data, visual representations of networks can function as a cognitive aid for depicting relationships, helping to maintain an overview of the relationships, and keeping the attention of the interviewees. Additionally, network maps can serve as a narration generator in qualitative and in mixed-methods studies. While varying visual instruments are used for collecting egocentric network data, little is known about differences among visual tools concerning the influence on the resulting network data, the usability for interviewees, and data validity. The article provides an overview of existing visually oriented tools that are used to collect egocentric networks and discusses their functions, advantages, and limitations. Then, we present results of an experimental study where we compare four different visual tools with regard to networks elicited, manageability, and the impact of follow-up questions. In order to assess the manageability of the four tools, we used the thinking aloud method. The results provide evidence that the decision in favor of a specific visual tool (structured vs. unstructured) can affect the size and composition of the elicited networks. Follow-up questions greatly affect the elicited networks and follow-up cues can level out differences among tools. Respondents tend to prefer the concentric circles tool, with some differences in preferences and manageability of tools between participants with low and those with high socioeconomic status. Finally, assets and drawbacks of the four instruments are discussed with regard to data quality and crucial aspects of the data collection process when using visual tools.
Maternal risk factors for pregnancy outcomes are known to vary by employment status. We evaluated whether pre-pregnancy diet quality varies by occupation in a population-based sample.
We analysed interview data from 7341 mothers in a national case–control study of pregnancy outcomes. Self-reported job(s) held during the 3 months before pregnancy were classified using Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes. Usual diet in the year before conception was assessed with a semi-quantitative FFQ and evaluated using the Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy (DQI-P). Using logistic regression, we calculated adjusted OR and 95 % CI to estimate associations between low diet quality (defined as the lowest quartile of DQI-P scores) and occupation types.
The National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Arkansas, California, Georgia, Iowa, Massachusetts, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Texas, Utah.
Employed mothers of infants born between 1997 and 2011.
No occupation was strongly associated with low diet quality. Moderate but relatively imprecise associations were observed for women employed in management (OR: 1·3; 95 % CI: 1·1, 1·7); arts, design, entertainment, sports and media (OR: 1·4; 95 % CI: 0·9, 2·1); protective service (OR 1·3; 95 % CI: 0·7, 2·5) and farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (OR: 0·5; 95 % CI: 0·2, 1·1).
Our analyses suggest that women in certain occupations may have lower diet quality in the months before pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine whether certain occupations could benefit from interventions to improve diet quality in the workplace for women of reproductive age.
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) greater than 100, and that various processing methods will increase standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and DIAAS. Nine ileal-cannulated gilts were randomly allotted to a 9 × 8 Youden square design with 9 diets and eight 7 d periods. Values for SID of AA and DIAAS for 2 reference patterns were calculated for salami, bologna, beef jerky, raw ground beef, cooked ground beef, and ribeye roast heated to 56, 64, or 72oC. The SID for most AA was not different among salami, bologna, beef jerky, and cooked ground beef, but was less (P < 0.05) than values for raw ground beef. The SID of AA for 56oC ribeye roast was not different from values for raw ground beef and 72oC ribeye roast, but greater (P < 0.05) than for 64oC ribeye roast. For older children, adolescents, and adults, the DIAAS for all proteins, except cooked ground beef, were greater than 100, and bologna and 64oC ribeye roast had the greatest (P < 0.05) DIAAS. The limiting AA for this age group were sulfur AA (beef jerky), Leucine (bologna, raw ground beef, and cooked ground beef), and Valine (salami and the 3 ribeye roasts). In conclusion, meat products generally provide high quality protein with DIAAS greater than 100 regardless of processing. However, overcooking meat may reduce AA digestibility and DIAAS.
The welfare state literature has largely ignored the impact of a country's quality of government on its levels of redistribution. Using cross-sectional time-series analysis of twenty-one Central and Eastern European countries, this article shows that environments characterized by higher levels of corruption, rampant bureaucratic inefficiency and ineffective enforcement of the rule of law are associated with lower levels of redistribution. Poor government directly affects the supply side of the redistribution process by hindering countries’ ability to allocate funds to redistribution and deliver them to their beneficiaries. Contrary to existing demand-oriented perspectives, the proposed causal mechanism does not blame lower redistribution on the lack of public support for the welfare state. Rather, it focuses on the capacity of states to adopt and implement inequality-reducing policies. The results are robust to numerous extensions and model specifications.
Chapter 5 deals with electrical issues and is broadly divided in two. The first half explains the operating principles of the several different types of generator found on wind turbines and their influence on dynamics and electrical power quality. Generator types are illustrated schematically and their characteristics explained using simple physical principles. Geared and gearless (direct drive) generators are discussed, and there is a brief historical review of generator developments. The second half of the chapter deals with electrical networks and further examines the issue of power quality. The importance of reactive power and how modern generators can manipulate it to aid voltage stability are explained; the role of external devices such as Statcoms, SVCs, and pre-insertion resistors is also discussed in this context. Measurements from a MW-scale wind turbine illustrate voltage control via reactive power management over a period of several days. The challenge of low grid strength is illustrated with a practical example of a small wind farm development on a rural network with low fault level. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of wind turbine lightning protection.