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This introduction sets the context for my study of the governance of official statistical agencies in Australia, Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and United States of America. It presents the theoretical framework used in the study, based on dramaturgical sociology. The research approach is discussed, including the selection of case study countries, the use of in-depth interviews and the dramaturgical approach to data analysis. An overview of the argument of the book is provided along with a summary of the remaining chapters.
This article analyzes the ambitious Case Quality Assessment System (CQAS) that the Supreme People’s Court of China (SPC) promoted during the first half of the 2010s. It offers a case-study of Court J, a grassroots court located in an affluent urban metropolis of China that struggled to come out ahead in the CQAS competition. The article discusses how the SPC quantified judging and the problems created by the metricization process. The CQAS project is analyzed as a case of metric fixation. By identifying the problems that doomed the CQAS, the article points out the challenges facing the authoritarian regime in subjecting good judging to quantitative output standards. The CQAS is a metric that judges judging. It reveals how judging is viewed by the party-state. The article concludes by discussing the legacy of the CQAS. Though it nominally ended in 2014, key indicators that it introduced for supervising judges are still used by the Chinese courts today. The CQAS presaged the growing centralization that the Chinese judicial system is undergoing today. Though the SPC has terminated the tournament-style competition that defined the CQAS, the metric remains the template used to evaluate judging.
Here we consider various examples of legal and regulatory responses to avoidable adverse medication events. There are a wide range of poorly interlinked regulatory processes, regardless of the country examined. Some approaches are proactive while others are reactive, serving mostly to provide compensation or to punish those felt responsible. Regulation can assist in promoting medication safety through influence and through compulsion, but what is really required is the whole-hearted engagement of everyone in the organization in the mission of achieving safe, high quality patient care. This goal will require both physician efforts, through professionalism and self regulation, and those of hospital boards of directors, through setting priorities and driving a just culture. While there is a role for the civil law (compensation for injured and in some degree of declarative retribution), litigation is likely to most effective when it is directed against institutions. The best approaches are based on “full disclosure and rapid compensation” practices. Criminal action in the regulation of safe medication practices in the perioperative period should be reserved for when recklessness is involved or where deliberate malfeasance is a factor.
Regulatory and legal processes relevant to avoidable adverse medication events have the potential to advance the cause of patient safety but it is expecting too much to believe that these processes alone will achieve the changes that need to be made, urgently and affordably, to reduce the persistently high rate of avoidable adverse medication events. Achieving the required change will require engagement by all concerned, from politicians, through directors of hospital boards and managers and clinical leaders of hospital services to front line clinicians – and also, of necessity, regulators and the legal profession. It has been argued elsewhere that there is an ethical imperative for greater engagement in patient safety,9 and we agree.
The early Republican period in Chinese history witnessed the emergence of a new generation of academic professionals. These new professional historians criticized the centrality of ancient historical time in Chinese historical studies. In contrast, they embraced objectivity as a goal of historical practice and regarded intellectual autonomy as integral to the discipline. With the shift in focus of historical studies, in the 1920s, some new academic professionals carved out a niche for themselves by developing world history into a specific teaching field. By the early 1930s, world historians such as Lei Haizong dedicated themselves to placing China’s past and future within a world-historical context. This chapter contends that the pursuit of intellectual autonomy was, however, interrupted by the war with Japan. At this moment of crisis, world historians exemplified by Lei Haizong became increasingly nationalistic. These historians glorified the unique nature of Chinese culture to promote national identity at a moment of crisis. As a result, a binary opposition between China and the world gradually emerged in Chinese historiography.
The chapter concludes the book by synthesizing key arguments from previous chapters and making comprehensive arguments about redesigning civil service systems. Previous chapters are examined to question if prior analysis was too optimistic. The chapter discusses processes for advancing the civil service reform agenda, including leveraging small wins to achieve incremental change and aiming for comprehensive reforms. Two examples of navigating comprehensive change, Georgia and South Africa, are discussed. Finally, research surrounding the integration of public service motivation and civil service reform is reviewed. An analysis of systematic programs of field experiments and macro-research about variations in national performance precedes a discussion of the dark side of public service motivation. The chapter concludes with a call for further scholarly scrutiny of public service motivation-related policies to be supplemented with real-world experimentation.
The autonomous position of legal professionals is no longer self-evident. Professionals are under increased pressure to reform. This phenomenon is not only true for legal professionals. A broader trend – which is recognised for the medical profession, academic profession and alike – is that paraprofessionals are gaining a more prominent position. In this paper, we focus on the developments in the Dutch public justice system. We conduct a case-study on the role of paraprofessionals in courts and in the public prosecution service – two understudied legal institutions in this regard. By drawing on empirical data unfolding the working routine of the judiciary and the prosecution service, we find two paradigms that define the thinking about professionalism: a traditional ‘pure professional’ paradigm and a new, more hybrid paradigm that includes (policy-based) managerial thinking. The latter appears to be enhanced by a New Public Management (NPM) approach within these institutions. Although we observe resistance among (para)professionals towards professional changes and ambiguity in the relationships between professionals and paraprofessionals, we also observe that managerialism has changed the work processes and the division of labour between professionals and paraprofessionals.
Contrary to orthodox views, Sparta’s full citizens, the Spartiates, were not professional or specialized full-time soldiers and, apart from practice in elementary drill, their training focused mainly on physical fitness. In so far as Sparta’s armies excelled in technical proficiency, it was through their tight-knit organization and hierarchical command structures and their methodical, if often inflexible, implementation of set manoeuvres.
The common perception of craftsmen in Classical Athens as banausoi who were looked down on by elite circles in society has become more nuanced over recent years. This chapter contributes to this discussion by investigating the range of social positions in evidence for ancient sculptors. Using theories of professionalism and the aspects of need, demand and reward for sculpture, it argues that in terms of economic rewards as well as social capital, sculptors in Classical Athens were rather well off. As such the negative connotations of banausoi are unlikely to match the realities of ancient Athenian life.
In Chapter 10, we interrogate the relation between scale and professionalism, which we define as meaning that important tasks are delegated through a rational division of labor to individuals with extensive training and experience, who are recruited and promoted in a meritocratic fashion, who view their job as a full-time career, and whose positions are amply staffed and remunerated. We argue that scale fosters professionalism because it produces higher (human) capital, and because it amplifies the complexity of governance. Subsequently, we examine the relationship empirically by sequentially looking at legislatures, bureaucracies, the education of public officials, the salary of public officials, and the number of voluntary associations. We find that increases in scale are associated with a growth of legislative and bureaucratic professionalism and capacity, higher levels of education and higher salaries of public officials, and a greater number of voluntary associations. Extant studies as well as our own analyses therefore suggest that scale is positively correlated with professionalism. These results are summarized in a short conclusion.
This final chapter focuses on professionalism and the contribution of research engagement to educators’ professional knowledge and identities. It briefly revisits the systemic positioning of practitioner research in other countries before elaborating on the current vision of professional standards for educators in Australia. While the standards relate to the broad and diverse aspects of professional practice for teachers, there are explicit references to research engagement in some standards and there is also scope for research to help educators to ensure they are addressing the others. Throughout this chapter we ask the reader to consider the potential of engagement with and in research for supporting educators’ professional growth, and promoting school improvement and collective leadership. The chapter also focuses on the attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of pre-service and in-service teachers in relation to practitioner research as they seek to develop their own professional identities.
This chapter examines the fiduciary duties of for-profit managers in modern liberal society. To arrive at the right “mix” of these duties, it compares the fiduciary duties implied by a standard descriptive model of our society with two competing normative models: Lockean libertarianism on the “right” and neo-classical republicanism on the “left.” This comparison shows that all three versions of liberalism, even the one with a Lockean night-watchman state, require far more extensive duties than we now expect, including a professionalization of management itself. And it shows that the version of liberalism with the most expansive state, neo-classical republicanism, requires the most appealing set of for-profit fiduciary duties. More basically, it concludes that what makes this latter set most appealing is that we ourselves are evaluating it from the perspective it recommends for for-profit managers: What is best, by our own best lights, for society as a whole.
The chapter analyses how Mujuru became the first black commander of the army in independent Zimbabwe. With assistance from the British army, Mujuru oversaw the integration of a new national army comprising three undefeated forces: ZANLA, ZIPRA and the Rhodesians. While the chapter is about Mujuru’s hand in the creation of a new army, it underscores Britain’s lasting influence on part of its former empire through active assistance in processes of post-colonial state-making such as military integration. The chapter argues that regard for expertise and professionalism, however imperfect, were a hallmark of the army Mujuru attempted to create. Mujuru understood professionalism in a particular way, which is that the independence army was to be an equipped and technically competent one, with a high degree of discipline, education, military training and operational readiness. The chapter explicates the sources of Mujuru’s regard for expertise and professionalism.
The chapter expounds Mujuru’s legacy in the independence army. Mujuru had enormous impact on the value system of the independence army, particularly in his efforts to foster a particular kind of professionalism. However, Mujuru’s time as head of the military coincided with mutinies by and persecution of ZIPRA elements in the army, as well as ZANU PF political violence against ZAPU supporters, in which thousands of civilian lives were lost. The chapter implicates Mujuru in some of these human rights abuses. Nonetheless, the chapter argues that Mujuru’s stances during the Gukurahundi violence were far from straightforward. He protected some ZIPRAs for their expertise and professionalism and because of personal and ethnic considerations. Mujuru did not subscribe to the fanatical politics of the time. Lastly, the chapter maintains that Mujuru supported Zimbabwe’s 1980s military intervention in Mozambique, in support of the FRELIMO government’s war against a domestic rebel movement, because of solidarity ties forged in the 1970s.
The remarkable effectiveness of the British army from Crimea to the Boer War reflected an institutional culture almost perfectly adapted to Victorian soldiers’ social origins, the tasks they were called upon to perform, and the colonial arenas in which they were asked to perform them, but also a culture increasingly out of step with its own society and evolving military technologies, methods, and challenges. Instead, fortified by the army’s success at its colonial tasks, and despite efforts by politicians and even some of the army’s own brightest intellectual lights, it survived – one might almost say defied – one institutional reform after another, until in South Africa in 1899, a string of calamitous defeats at the hands of what amounted to well-armed farmers upended both the army’s confidence and that of the British people in its professional competence. The institutional soul-searching that followed finally began transforming the British Army from what had become in many ways a military anachronism into a modern fighting force. That transformation came just in time to enable it to survive the bloody opening engagements of World War I and in the process help avert the rapid and decisive defeat of the Allied armies in France.
The American Civil War presented an exceptional state of affairs in modern warfare, because strong personalities could embed their own command philosophies into field armies, due to the miniscule size of the prior US military establishment. The effectiveness of the Union Army of the Tennessee stemmed in large part from the strong influence of Ulysses S. Grant, who as early as the fall of 1861 imbued in the organization an aggressive mind-set. However, Grant’s command culture went beyond simple aggressiveness – it included an emphasis on suppressing internal rivalries among sometimes prideful officers for the sake of winning victories. In the winter of 1861 and the spring of 1862, the Army of the Tennessee was organized and consolidated into a single force, and, despite deficits in trained personnel as compared to other Union field armies, Grant established important precedents for both his soldiers and officers that would resonate even after his departure to the east. The capture of Vicksburg the following summer represented the culminating triumph of that army, cementing the self-confident force that would later capture Atlanta and win the war in the western theater.
Here, the authors present two justifications usually cited as sufficient to warrant patients‘ trust in physicians: professional status and individual merit. Whereas in ‘status trust’ professionalism is taken as a guarantor of trustworthiness, in ‘merit trust’ a physician’s trustworthiness is assessed individually. On either account, trust is justified by the physician’s professionalism. ‘Professionalism’ may be defined as ‘acting trustworthily’ in exchange for autonomy of decision-making, whereas trustworthiness refers to ‘competence’ in terms of episteme (theoretical knowledge), techne (craft or skill), and phronesis (practical knowledge or experience), and ‘commitment’ as ‘to act in a way that the truster approves’. The authors argue that although in principle trust in physicians is justified, since both professionalism and individually assessed trustworthiness grant derivative authority, the reality is different. because an increasing number of patients reject the concept of professionalism and, accordingly, find it difficult (or even impossible) to assess physicians’ trustworthiness. Hence, they no longer believe that their trust in physicians is justified.
In this chapter, the authors present five changes in people’s attitude and behaviour, which not only can explain the decline of trust, but which must almost inevitably lead to a decline of trust. The first four changes may be summarised under the heading ‘loss of physicians’ authority’: (1) the discrediting of ‘professionalism’, which has led to a decline of professional authority; (2) the insistence on (and difficulty of) assessing physicians’ trustworthiness and the loss of merit-based authority; (3) a questioning of physicians’ medical authority caused by the disavowal of the basic tenets of scientific medicine (often referred to as the ‘crisis of modern medicine’); (4) increasing doubts regarding the physician’s agency and directive authority caused by the perceived commodification of medicine and a reconceptualisation of physicians as dependent employees. The fifth change refers to changes of risk perception and increasing risk-averseness. Contrary to what many believe, it is not risks which have increased, but uncertainty. Yet, people perceive this increase of uncertainty as an increase of risk – a risk which an increasing number of people are no longer willing to accept.