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Chapter 1 explores the gradual introduction of family planning to Cuban women, highlighting the Revolution’s centralization of state authority as well as its rejection of medical plurality. The chapter argues that medical leadership implemented policies that ultimately increased state control over women’s labor and reproductive decisions. Early public health models failed to include access to abortion and helped fuel rumors that the government had criminalized the procedures. But revolutionary leadership never responded to these popular rumors and instead emphasized the benefits of hospital births and the ideological dangers of birth control; evidence suggests that poor Afro-Cuban women and rural women were specific targets of this effort to regulate reproduction. By 1965, following an unexpected baby boom, the Ministry of Public Health began to provide women with some contraceptive options. But reproductive autonomy was not the goal of these reforms, and Cuban women’s persistent reliance on unauthorized abortions to regulate reproduction reveals that state health programs were not meeting the needs of all its citizens. The chapter shows that it was only after 1971 that both contraceptives and abortions became more available to Cuban women, reflecting a shift to bring the ideology more in line with that advanced by the Soviets.
Among the social challenges facing humanity, population and migration are at the root of many problems. Globalization has very significantly advanced across a range of areas, except with respect to the free movement of people. Extreme inequality has maintained rapid population growth in some regions, while in others the falling birth rate is leading to a rapid aging of the population. The anticipated global population of up to 11 billion in this century could only be supported with fundamental changes in lifestyles, consumption patterns, social relationships, institutions and value systems towards social justice and equity. Regional and global carrying capacities must be respected. Migration should be seen not as a threat but as an opportunity for both migrants and receiving communities. Large-scale, environmentally induced migrations can be anticipated and planned for to reduce human suffering.
For Greater Scaup Aythya marila, classified as ‘Vulnerable’ on the European Red List of Birds, the south-western Baltic Sea is one of the most important wintering sites in Europe. In this area, a large concentration of gillnet fishery temporally overlaps periods of the most abundant occurrence of foraging diving birds. The aim of the article is to show how bycatch can impact the population of a diving duck. To assess this, we calculate the Potential Biological Removal (PBR) for the studied Greater Scaup population and we model the population change according to age-structured matrix models. Summing all the available recent figures on Greater Scaup bycatch in north-west Europe yields an estimated mean annual total of 3,991 individuals (2% of the flyway population). For a baseline stable population, an age-structured matrix model indicates that at this bycatch level the Greater Scaup population that winters in north-west Europe will decrease by 36% over the next 30 years, qualifying the status of the population as ‘Vulnerable’ according to IUCN criteria. As this population also experiences decline prior to bycatch, this decrease will be 57%, which qualifies the status as ‘Endangered’. PBR as an indicator of population vitality does not work in our case because the PBR-informed allowable bycatch values have a significantly negative impact on the population. Our results indicate unambiguously that fishery bycatch is among the most important threats responsible for the Greater Scaup’s decline. While recent data suggest that some improvement has taken place in the species’ status over the last 10 years, measures to protect Greater Scaup from bycatch are required. The solution should involve the prohibition of gillnet fishing in selected key sites and the use of mitigation techniques in other areas.
The Parc National du Banc d’Arguin in Mauritania hosts the largest concentrations of coastal waterbirds along the East Atlantic Flyway. In spite of this importance, a review of the changes in the numbers of waterbirds in the area is lacking since the first complete count in 1980. Here we analysed the seven complete waterbird counts made since then, and the additional yearly counts made in one subunit (Iwik region) since 2003. We present evidence for changes in the community composition of waterbirds over the past four decades. Total waterbird numbers showed a decrease between 1980 and 2017, with only Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus showing a significant increase in numbers. Five species showed significant declines: Long-tailed Cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus, Red Knot Calidris canutus, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, and Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. In the remaining species, the variation in numbers between counts was too large, and the number of complete counts too small, for trends to be detected. The yearly counts at Iwik region also showed sharp decreases in the numbers of Red Knot, Bar-tailed Godwit, and Marsh Harrier, but not of Long-tailed Cormorant and Eurasian Curlew. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant change in species composition over time, which was caused mainly by changes in the species depending on the intertidal mudflats for feeding (generally in decline) vs. the species depending on fish and crustaceans in the sublittoral and offshore zones (often showing increases).
TwinsMX is a national twin registry in Mexico recently created with institutional support from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It aims to serve as a platform to advance epidemiological and genetic research in the country and to disentangle the genetic and environmental contributions to health and disease in the admixed Mexican population. Here, we describe our recruitment and data collection strategies and discuss both the progress to date and future directions. More information about the registry is available on our website: https://twinsmxofficial.unam.mx/ (content in Spanish).
Farmland bird populations in Germany are declining at a higher speed than species inhabiting other habitats. We studied potential causes for bird population changes based on data from standardised German breeding bird monitoring schemes. We related population trends to covariates describing the changes in the agricultural landscape in Germany, weather conditions during the breeding season and for some migratory species, conditions at stopover and wintering sites. Linear mixed effect models were used to analyse effect strength at species level and conclusions are drawn for the overall group of farmland bird species. The area of grassland and fallow land was shown to have the strongest positive effects and the area of maize and rapeseed the strongest negative effects on farmland bird population trends. The results obtained also indicate that despite the consistent influence of weather conditions during the breeding season, land-use changes had a stronger impact on bird populations than weather. Conditions at Sahel wintering sites did not show a consistent effect on population trends. Based on these findings the study quantitatively underpins and ranks key factors shaping farmland bird populations in Germany.
The present study was carried out to unveil interactive relevance among consecutive and alternate members of a tritrophic system comprised of sugar beet genotypes, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and its parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) using demographic parameters. To do so, H. hebetor was reared on S. exigua fed on 10 sugar beet genotypes, including SB26; SB27; SB29; SB33; SB34; (7112*SB36)*Sh-1-HSF-5; FC220; FC301; SBSI006; and HM 1339RZ in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 (L: D) h photoperiod. The data was analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Our results revealed high variation in duration of different life stages of H. hebetor on S. exigua reared on different sugar beet genotypes examined. The shortest (10.605 days) and longest (13.721 days) pre-adult period of H. hebetor was on S. exigua reared on SB26 and SB34, respectively. The longest (17.2 days) and shortest adult longevity (7.5 days) was on S. exigua reared on SB26 and SB27, respectively. The highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) (0.209 day−1) and finite rate of increase (λ) (1.233 day−1) were observed on S. exigua reared on SB34 and their lowest values (0.159 and 1.172 day−1, respectively) were recorded on SB27. Resistant and susceptible genotypes to S. exigua, FC301 and (7112*SB36)*Sh-1-HSF-5, respectively, were only genotypes on which H. hebetor had greater and approximately equal r compared with S. exigua. This finding indicates high capability of H. hebetor to be successfully employed against S. exigua on sugar beet genotypes which are extremely different in resistance to this pest.
The standard transthoracic echocardiography has some limitations in emergent and community-based situations. The emergence of pocket-sized ultrasound has led to influential advancements.
In this prospective study, in the hospital-based phase, children with suspected structural heart diseases were enrolled. In the school-based phase, healthy children were randomly selected from six schools. All individuals were examined by experienced operators using both the standard and the pocket-sized echocardiography.
A total of 73 individuals with a mean age of 9.9 ± 3.2 years in the hospital-based cohort and 143 individuals with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.9 years in the school-based cohort were examined. The agreements between the standard and the pocket-sized echocardiography were good or excellent for major CHDs in both cohorts (κ statistics > 0.61). Among valvular pathologies, agreements for tricuspid and pulmonary valves’ regurgitation were moderate among school-based cohorts (0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.12–1] and 0.6 [95% confidence interval 0.28–0.91], respectively). The agreements for tricuspid and pulmonary valves’ regurgitation were excellent (>0.9) among hospital-based population. Other values for valvular findings were good or excellent. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% (95% confidence interval 47.3–99.7) and 93.8% (95% confidence interval 85–98.3) among the hospital-based individuals, respectively, and those were 88% (95% confidence interval 77.8–94.7) and 68.4% (95% confidence interval 56.7–78.6) among the school-based individuals, respectively. The cost of examination was reduced by approximately 70% for an individual using the pocket-sized device.
When interpreted by experienced operators, the pocket-sized echocardiography can be used as screening tool among school-aged population.
Since our last report on the voluntary Hungarian Twin Registry (HTR) in 2012, the number of pairs or multiplets included increased from 310 to 1044. Efforts to turn the registry into a population-based one are on the way. Nearly 128,000 twins living in Hungary (98,500 adults) will be mailed information on how to register on the new HTR website. Twins will be asked to invite their spouses and immediate family members. Meanwhile, strong cooperation through exchange programs has been developed with other foreign twin registries. Current research focuses on radiogenomics, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, gut microbiome as well as basic molecular research and yielded new awards and further publications.
From a uniformitarian perspective, I interpret the emergence of Old English as the outcome of colonization and language contact. Likewise, I argue that its spread and speciation into so many varieties around the world, including creoles and pidgins, are consequences of different instances of colonization, which varied according to whether this involved settlement, exploitation, or trade. Each colonization style produced a different population structure, which in turn influenced how the language was appropriated and restructured by its non-heritage speakers. In England itself, one must invoke how the colonization of the land by other European nations subjected the language to the superstrate influence of the colonizers, who shifted to it. Ecological factors such as population structure (which determine patterns of social interactions and language transmission) and periodization (associated with particular moments of language shift or appropriation) help account for the differential evolution of English around the world.
Over the last three decades, the organized American-Jewish community has preoccupied itself with sociodemographic concerns regarding maintenance of a viable Jewish life in the United States. In this article, I study a key dimension of this preoccupation with population trends: the quantity of the Jewish population, that is, the number of Jews. I show the centrality of this dimension in shaping a cluster of anxious discourses and interventionist engagements directed toward stemming numerical decline. Analyzing this policy world in terms of a “Jewish biopolitics,” I assess how the voluntary nature of American Jewry has shaped a distinct biopolitical field, reliant on “making Jews” by both biological and cultural reproduction, enmeshing dimensions of quantity and quality. Juxtaposing this Jewish biopolitical engagement with the one exercised by the Israeli state, I flesh out broader considerations and contributions, and introduce the exploratory concept of “minority community biopolitics.” The article is grounded in an anthropological study of policy, including fieldwork, interviews, and a review of the flurry of archival and public materials related to the topic.
Once widespread throughout the Black and Mediterranean Seas and the coasts of north Africa, the Endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus has disappeared throughout most of its original range. In Cyprus evidence suggests that the species became effectively extinct at the end of the 20th century. Following an increase of seal sightings around the island, a monitoring programme was established in 2009 to evaluate the status of the species. During 2009–2018, using field surveys, photographs from camera traps and an information network, we recorded an increasing number of seal sightings, and the birth of several pups, indicating the permanent presence of the species on the island. This is the first recorded re-establishment of a Mediterranean monk seal population in an area of its former range following near eradication.
We provide aggregate macroeconomic evidence on how, in the long run, a diverse degree of complexity in production may affect not only the rate of economic growth, but also the correlation between the latter, population growth and the monopolistic (intermediate) markups. For a sample of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, we find that the impact of population change on economic growth is slightly positive. According to our theoretical model, this implies that the losses due to more complexity in production are lower than the corresponding specialization gains. Using a finite mixture model, we also classify the countries in the sample and verify for each cluster the impact that the population growth rate and the intermediate sector’s markups exert on the 5-year average real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate.
Introduced species can have strong ecological, social and economic effects on their non-native environment. Introductions of megafaunal species are rare and may contribute to rewilding efforts, but they may also have pronounced socio-ecological effects because of their scale of influence. A recent introduction of the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius into Colombia is a novel introduction of a megaherbivore onto a new continent, and raises questions about the future dynamics of the socio-ecological system into which it has been introduced. Here we synthesize current knowledge about the Colombian hippopotamus population, review the literature on the species to predict potential ecological and socio-economic effects of this introduction, and make recommendations for future study. Hippopotamuses can have high population growth rates (7–11%) and, on the current trajectory, we predict there could be 400–800 individuals in Colombia by 2050. The hippopotamus is an ecosystem engineer that can have profound effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments and could therefore affect the native biodiversity of the Magdalena River basin. Hippopotamuses are also aggressive and may pose a threat to the many inhabitants of the region who rely upon the Magdalena River for their livelihoods, although the species could provide economic benefits through tourism. Further research is needed to quantify the current and future size and distribution of this hippopotamus population and to predict the likely ecological, social and economic effects. This knowledge must be balanced with consideration of social and cultural concerns to develop appropriate management strategies for this novel introduction.
Fully randomized conjoint analysis can mitigate many of the shortcomings of traditional survey methods in estimating attitudes on controversial topics. This chapter explains how we applied conjoint analysis at seven universities and describes the population of participants in our experiments.
The organization of space within cities is mainly driven by spatial equilibrium forces. This chapter argues that a person who is indifferent about living in two locations within the city must derive the same net utility from these locations. This allows us to explain how rent costs decline away from the city centre as people need to be adequately compensated for higher transportation costs. We can extend the basic framework to incorporate the choice of different transport methods, changes in the slope of the rent gradient, the choice of the amount of land to use (and thus population density), building height, individual heterogeneity, the role of amenities, and observed segregation within the city.
We collected monthly reports on gastrointestinal illness (GII) episodes among 2348 adults in a 1-year cohort in South West Sweden. The GII episodes were collected by SMS (Short Message System) and validated by telephone interviews among the cohort participants and nationwide. The annual incidence was 0.64 and 0.43 cases per person-year for 28-day self-defined GII (any symptom) and acute GII (vomiting and/or ≥3 episodes of diarrhoea), respectively. The incidence was about 20% higher for the 14-day recall, compared with 28-day recall. The duration of illness was on average 2.3 days. We observed a unimodal seasonal distribution of GII, with the highest prevalence during winter. Responses collected by SMS highly correlated with responses collected by telephone. SMS survey was an efficient tool for the collection of repeated estimates of GII.
The Guts of the Matter is a study of our oldest ecological problem: the transmission of infectious intestinal pathogens from human waste. Over deep time, fecal pathogens have killed innumerable infants and young children and been a principal constraint on human population growth. Over the past several generations, we have gained increasing control over the transmission of infectious intestinal disease. These advances have contributed to an ongoing population explosion that is dramatically transforming global ecological systems. The introduction provides a guide to the book’s structure, introducing the individual chapters with a brief summary of each.
SDG3, Health and Wellbeing for All, depends on many other SDGs but there are also potential conflicts and trade-offs. In this chapter, ee stress the importance of forests to global health and well-being as well as for Indigenous and local populations. In contrast, short-term economic and human health gains from further forest conversion (e.g. deforestation for food production) will create direct and indirect health risks for humans, as well as for other biota. Controlling indiscriminate burning and clearing of forests can reduce significant harm to health and well-being, via improved quality of water, soil and air, by reducing exposure to some infectious diseases, through preservation of traditional (and future) medicines, and by supporting other forest resources and services, including climate regulation. Many infectious diseases are associated with forest disturbance and intrusions and some may be prevented or modified through forest management. Universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including family planning, is a critical SDG3 target to decrease demographic pressures on forests at local, regional and global scales, and to enhance well-being. Greater exposure to green space, including the ‘urban forest’, is likely to have many benefits for mental, social and physical health for the increasingly urban global population.
What governs labour force participation in later life and why is it so different across countries? Health and labour force participation in older ages are not strongly linked, but we observe a large variation across countries in old-age labour force participation. This points to the important role of country-specific regulations governing pension receipt and old-age labour force participation. In addition to the statutory eligibility age for a pension, such country-specific regulations include: earnings tests that limit the amount of earnings when pension benefits are received; the amount of benefit deductions for early retirement; the availability of part-time pensions before normal retirement; special regulations that permit early retirement for certain population groups; and either subsidies or extra costs for employers if they keep older employees in their labour force. This paper asks two questions: Can we link a relatively low labour force participation at ages 60–64 to country-specific regulations that make early retirement attractive? and Can we link a relatively high labour force participation at ages 65–74 to country-specific regulations that make late retirement attractive? To answer these questions, we compared the experiences in a set of developed countries around the world in order to understand better the impact of country-specific rules and laws on work and retirement behaviour at older ages and, by consequence, on the financial sustainability of pension systems.