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This paper describes a camera simulation framework for validating machine vision algorithms under general airborne camera imperfections. Lens distortion, image delay, rolling shutter, motion blur, interlacing, vignetting, image noise, and light level are modelled. This is the first simulation that considers all temporal distortions jointly, along with static lens distortions in an online manner. Several innovations are proposed including a motion tracking system allowing the camera to follow the flight log with eligible derivatives. A reverse pipeline, relating each pixel in the output image to pixels in the ideal input image, is developed. It is shown that the inverse lens distortion model and the inverse temporal distortion models are decoupled in this way. A short-time pixel displacement model is proposed to solve for temporal distortions (i.e. delay, rolling shutter, motion blur, and interlacing). Evaluation is done by several means including regenerating an airborne dataset, regenerating the camera path on a calibration pattern, and evaluating the ability of the time displacement model to predict other frames. Qualitative evaluations are also made.
In this work, PbS and PbS/CdS core–shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a new photochemical approach. Prepared QDs were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), UV–Vis, and Z-scan analyses. Synthesized QDs were in a cubic phase with a spherical morphology, and the crystallite sizes are estimated using the strain–size method. A uniform shift of Bragg diffraction peaks and quenching (200) Bragg plane are interpreted as the growth of the CdS shell. Linear optical properties were investigated using Urbach analysis and Tauc formula. It was found that the density of states of QD conduction and valence bands are three dimensional. The estimated sizes of PbS QDs and PbS/CdS using exciton absorption peaks at room temperature are 1.8 and 2.7 nm, respectively, which are in good agreement with the strain–size plot analysis. The growth of the CdS shell resulted in a considerable decrease in the nonlinearity refractive index and a significant increase in the nonlinear absorption.
Nanoparticles of high-refractive-index materials like semiconductors can achieve confinement of light at the subwavelength scale because of the excitation of Mie resonances. The nanostructures out of high-refractive-index materials have extensively been studied theoretically and realized in experiments exploring a wide range of photonic applications. Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from the family of van der Waals layered materials have been shown to exhibit tailorable optical properties along with high refractive index and strong anisotropy. We envision that TMDCs are a promising material platform for designing metasurfaces and ultra-thin optical elements: these van der Waals materials show a strong spectral response on light excitations in visible and near-infrared ranges, and metasurface properties can be controlled by nanoantenna dimensions and their arrangement. In this work, we investigate a periodic array of disk-shaped nanoantennas made of a TMDC material, tungsten disulfide WS2, placed on top of a silicon layer and oxide substrate. We show that the nanostructure resonance in TMDC disk-shaped nanoantenna array can be controlled by the variation in silicon layer thickness and have a dependence on the presence of index-match superstrate cover. We also report on the spectral features in absorption and reflection profiles of the same structure with different surrounding index.
A novel technique providing a cost effective sustainable wet chemical etching method of synthesizing black Moly thin films rapidly has been presented. A top- down method for fabricating MoO3 has been investigated to understand the effect of chemical etchant concentration on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the thin films on Mo substrates. The XRD patterns demonstrated the formation of Tugarinovite MoO2 films on Mo substrate after annealing at 500°C in a vacuum. In this work, we developed nanostructured MoO3 on Mo substrate solar absorber, with a high solar absorptance of over 89%. These results suggest that solar absorbers made from refractory metal oxide nanostructures can be used for solar thermal applications.
A novel Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based ‘Turn-ON’ biosensor has been developed using fluorescent ZnO/APTMS-FITC (ZFA) nanoflakes as sensing probe. In this biosensor, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the detection of L-lactate, a diagnostic marker for abnormal physiological conditions like muscular dystrophy, myocardial infraction, abnormal tissue formation and tissue damage. Lactate Dehydrogeanse (LDH) catalyses the conversion of L-Lactate to L-Pyruvate, in presence of β-NAD reducing to β-NADH. We tried to explore this mechanism with FRET based system for highly sensitive detection of L-Lactate. The fluorescence of these nanoflakes can be reversibly quenched in the presence of β-NAD.
Incorporation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer matrix has been used to enhance and control dissolution and release of drugs, for targeted drug delivery, as antimicrobial agents, localized heat sources, and for unique optoelectronic applications. Gold NPs in particular exhibit a plasmonic response that has been utilized for photothermal energy conversion. Because plasmonic nanoparticles typically exhibit a plasmon resonance frequency similar to the visible light spectrum, they present as good candidates for direct photothermal conversion with enhanced solar thermal efficiency in these wavelengths. In our work, we have incorporated ∼3-nm-diameter colloidal gold (Auc) NPs into electrospun polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers to utilize the nanoparticle plasmonic response for localized heating and melting of the polymer to release medical treatment. Auc and Auc in PEG (PEG+Auc) both exhibited a minimum reflectivity at 522 nm or approximately green wavelengths of light under ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. PEG+Auc ES fibers revealed a blue shift in minimum reflectivity at 504 nm. UV-Vis spectra were used to calculate the theoretical efficiency enhancement of PEG+Auc versus PEG alone, finding an approximate increase of 10 % under broad spectrum white light interrogation, and ∼14 % when illuminated with green light. Auc enhanced polymers were ES directly onto resistance temperature detectors and interrogated with green laser light so that temperature change could be recorded. Results showed a maximum increase of 8.9 °C. To further understand how gold nanomaterials effect the complex optical properties of our materials, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry and modeling with CompleteEASE® software, the complex optical constants of our materials were determined. The complex optical constant n (index of refraction) provided us with optical density properties related to light wavelength divided by velocity, and k (extinction coefficient) was used to show the absorptive properties of the materials.
BioEmbroidery for medical applications offers the potential of a directed fiber alignment, density and distribution and allows the production of properties that are customized to the needs. The adaption of the mechanical properties of biomaterials to the requirements of human tissues often results in substrates with space-resolved distribution of stress and thus highly anisotropic behavior. A demonstrative example for such a material would be a stress adapted hernia mesh showing a high stiffness in the area of the abdominal opening and a graduated transition in the marginal area discharging into the material properties of the surrounding tissue. For evaluating the influence of the reinforcement patterns a measuring method had to be established featured by the optical measuring system ARAMIS. This study was drafted to establish a method to analyze embroidered reinforcement structures by optical measurement. A feasible base material had to be identified showing a high and isotropic elasticity assuring no influence on the measuring outcomes. A proper procedure had to be established to gain suitable data and to define significant criterions. An embroidered reinforcement pattern could be applied on an isotropic polyurethane foil (Ellastolan soft 45, BASF Polyurethanes, Germany) and tested in a biaxial texting device successfully in uni- and equibiaxial direction. The images could be edited with ARAMIS software, the deformation visualized and local strains determined. An optimum tuning for the ARAMIS parameters facet size and grid point distance could be identified. By placing section lines parallel to the x- and y- axis during deformation a medium strain could be calculated, allowing the quantification of an anisotropy criterion. A higher anisotropy of the reinforced embroidered samples compared to the plain foils could be proved. The measuring set-up established a method to evaluate the influence of different embroidered reinforcement patterns on the anisotropy of the base material.
Here we present the results of the exciton states study in WSe2 and MoS2 monolayers. Thin WSe2 and MoS2 films obtained by CVD technique were studied by optical methods. The films two-dimensionality and homogeneity were confirmed by the methods of atomic force microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy. The second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy technique was used for the exciton states study at room temperature in the pump photon energy range of 0.8-1.05 eV. The sevenfold SHG intensity resonance amplification was found for the 1.62 eV and 1.87 eV SHG photon energy for the WSe2 and MoS2 films, respectively, that corresponds to the exciton transition energy. These resonance peaks belong to optical A excitons with 1s energy level.
Light trapping is one of the key challenges for next generation thin film solar cells. In this work, we have identified the distinct light trapping effects for short and long wavelength solar spectrum range, by investigating lighting trapping structures on both sides of Si thin film solar cells. The sub-wavelength photonic front surface by wet etching and multi-layer photonic crystal reflector on the bottom surface are studied in detail for its solar energy absorption characteristics. Our study reveals the drastic difference of the light trapping effects within the solar spectrum wavelength. This work may provide guidance for the efficiency enhancementfor next generation thin film photovoltaic cells.
Optical isolators and circulators are important elements in many photonic systems. These nonreciprocal devices are typically made of bulk optical components and are difficult to integrate with other elements of photonic integrated circuits. This article discusses the best performance for waveguide isolators and circulators achieved with heterogeneous bonding. By virtue of the bonding technology, the devices can make use of a large magneto-optical effect provided by a high-quality single-crystalline garnet grown in a separate process on a lattice-matched substrate. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer contributes to the large penetration of the optical field into a magneto-optical garnet used as an upper-cladding layer. This enhances the magneto-optical phase shift and contributes greatly to reducing the device footprint and the optical loss. Several versions of silicon waveguide optical isolators and circulators, both based on the magneto-optical phase shift, are demonstrated with an optical isolation ratio of ≥30 dB in a wavelength band of 1550 nm. Furthermore, the isolation wavelength can be effectively tuned over several tens of nanometers.
Synthetic photonic materials created by engineering the profile of refractive index or gain/loss distribution, such as negative-index metamaterials or parity-time-symmetric structures, can exhibit electric and magnetic properties that cannot be found in natural materials, allowing for photonic devices with unprecedented functionalities. In this article, we discuss two directions along this line—non-Hermitian photonics and topological photonics—and their applications in nonreciprocal light transport when nonlinearities are introduced. Both types of synthetic structures have been demonstrated in systems involving judicious arrangement of optical elements, such as optical waveguides and resonators. They can exhibit a transition between different phases by adjusting certain parameters, such as the distribution of refractive index, loss, or gain. The unique features of such synthetic structures help realize nonreciprocal optical devices with high contrast, low operation threshold, and broad bandwidth. They provide promising opportunities to realize nonreciprocal structures for wave transport.
Increasing the density of data storage is crucial to the future of inexpensive digital technology. The large majority of storage in the “Cloud” consists of magnetic hard-disk drives. The continued evolution of this USD$30 billion industry depends on the commercial introduction of heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR). This technology uses heat from a laser beam confined well below the diffraction limit, <50-nm wide, to write to media near 450°C with high magnetic anisotropy that would normally be unwriteable under available magnetic fields. This high anisotropy guarantees thermal stability even for grain sizes around 5-nm diameter, which are necessary for major increases in storage density. In this article and in the articles in this issue, we introduce HAMR requirements and discuss its numerous interdisciplinary materials challenges, including high-temperature/efficient plasmonic materials, low-loss optical materials, highly ordered/thermally anisotropic nanoscale magnetic grains, block copolymers for directed assembly below 10 nm, high-temperature nanometer-thick coatings/lubricants, materials/interfaces to control heat flow at nanometer length scales, and advanced spintronic materials.
Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is the next-generation technology that is required to deliver areal densities in excess of 2 terabit/in2 for high-capacity, low-cost hard drives.The recording process relies on spatially and temporally localized heating of the media surface to lower its coercivity during the magnetic writing process. This scheme drives substantial changes to the recording head write element architecture, combining the conventional electromagnet structure with integrated optical light delivery layers, focusing optics, and plasmonic nanostructures to generate subwavelength optical spots. Power losses associated with the strong optical fields required for heating the media can cause local temperatures in excess of 400°C at the recording head surface. Coupled with high pressures, an oxidative/corrosive air-bearing environment, and a sub-3 nm head-media spacing, this introduces new challenges for the functional materials in recording heads required to balance performance and long-term reliability demands. Here, we briefly review specific challenges associated with HAMR heads, highlighting the major requirements, failure modes, and needed innovations for the near-field transducer and optical-waveguide subsystems.
Mechanical properties of neurons represent a key factor that determines the functionality of neuronal cells and the formation of neural networks. The main source of mechanical stability for the cell is a biopolymer network of microtubules and actin filaments that form the main components of the cellular cytoskeleton. This biopolymer network is responsible for the growth of neuronal cells as they extend neurites to connect with other neurons, forming the nervous system. Here we present experimental results that combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy to produce systematic, high-resolution elasticity and fluorescence maps of cortical neurons. This approach allows us to apply external forces to neurons, and to monitor the dynamics of the cell cytoskeleton. We measure how the elastic modulus of neurons changes upon changing the ambient temperature, and identify the cytoskeletal components responsible for these changes. These results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the effect of ambient temperature when measuring the mechanical properties of cells.
Point-of-care systems require highly sensitive, quantitative and selective detection platforms for the real-time multiplexed monitoring of target analytes. To ensure facile development of a sensor, it is preferable for the detection assay to have minimal chemical complexity, contain no wash steps and provide a wide and easily adaptable detection range for multiple targets. Current studies involve label-free detection strategy for relevant clinical molecules such as heme using G-quadruplex based self-assembly. We have explored the measurement of binding and kinetic parameters of various G-quadruplex/heme complexes which are able to self-associate to form a DNAzyme with peroxidase mimicking capabilities and are critical to nucleic acid research. The detection strategy includes immobilizing the G-quadruplex sequences within a polymer matrix to provide a self-assembly based detection approach for heme that could be translated towards other clinically relevant targets.
The lead free double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 is an upcoming alternative to lead based perovskites as absorber material in perovskite solar cells. So far, the majority of investigations on this interesting material have focused on polycrystalline powders and single crystals. We present vapor and solution based approaches for the preparation of Cs2AgBiBr6 thin films. Sequential vapor deposition processes starting from different precursors are shown and their weaknesses are discussed. Single source evaporation of Cs2AgBiBr6 and sequential deposition of Cs3Bi2Br9 and AgBr result in the formation of the double perovskite phase. Additionally, we show the possibility of the preparation of planar Cs2AgBiBr6 thin films by spin coating.
Super-black carbon aerogel sleeves (CAS) with different reflectivities and a clear aperture had been made, by the sol–gel polycondensation of resorcinol (R) and formaldehyde (F) under the catalysis of sodium carbonate (C), and was used to eliminate stray light. We explained that the subwavelength structure is the main factor that leads to the low reflectivity of CA and constructed a simple optical system to measure the exit power from CAS in different directions. We proved that different CASs have different matting effects, and all of these CASs have better matting effects than that of monolithic graphite that has higher reflectivity. To show the fine angular resolution ability of CAS, we measured the faculae from the reflected light of a compact disc and found that the CAS with a clear aperture of 1.0 mm is the best. The super-black CAS could be used in precision optical instruments and to eliminate stray light in the optical.
Peanut (Arachis Hypogea) is one of the few major agronomic crops for which a yield monitor is not commercially available. This paper describes an ongoing project whose long-term goal is to adapt an optical sensor originally developed for cotton yield monitoring for use as a peanut yield monitor (PYM). The immediate objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the PYM under harvest conditions typical in southern Georgia, USA. The PYM consists of two mass-flow sensors, a data acquisition system, and a DGPS receiver. The PYM was evaluated on three fields totaling 29 ha during the 2016 harvest season. Percent error between the scale load and calculated load was 2% or better for the first field tested, but increased greatly for subsequent fields that were tested, most likely caused by damage to the sensor lens from the impact of pebbles.
Diamond features a unique combination of outstanding physical properties perfect for numerous x-ray optics applications, where traditional materials such as silicon fail to perform. In the last two decades, impressive progress has been achieved in synthesizing diamond with high crystalline perfection, in manufacturing efficient, resilient, high-resolution, wavefront-preserving diamond optical components, and in implementing them in cutting-edge x-ray instruments. Diamond optics are essential for tailoring x-rays to the most challenging needs of x-ray research. They are becoming vital for the generation of fully coherent hard x-rays by seeded x-ray free-electron lasers. In this article, we review progress in manufacturing flawless diamond crystal components and their applications in diverse x-ray optical devices, such as x-ray monochromators, beam splitters, high-reflectance backscattering mirrors, lenses, phase plates, diffraction gratings, bent-crystal spectrographs, and windows.
Single-stranded DNA molecules capable of molecular recognition and catalysis can now be routinely generated via the technique of in vitro selection. When coupled with adequate signal transduction modes, these synthetic functional DNA species represent a potential paradigm shift in the research and development of biosensors to meet the challenges of our rapidly changing world. Coupling functional DNA molecules with graphene materials for the design of optical biosensors has become an exciting research area in recent years, mostly because graphene materials are not only excellent quenchers of fluorescence, but they also display considerably different affinities for free and ligand-bound functional DNA molecules. We will discuss notable progress in this area in this mini-review by highlighting representative studies.