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Fabrication of simulated buccal mucosa could minimize sacrificing the animals (rabbits and pigs) to extract buccal mucosa for in vitro testing of buccal formulations. Novel artificial buccal mucosa was fabricated using eggshell membrane, extracted from poultry egg, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS)–based blended films were fabricated using solvent casting technique. Patches of equal dimensions were cut precisely from whole film. COS-based blended patches were analyzed for their physicochemical and mechanical properties. These patches, proposed to be used for buccal drug delivery, were tested for their mucoadhesion timing using the artificial mucosal membrane. The COS–PVA–blended patch displayed better mucoadhesion than chitosan oligosaccharide–alginate–blended film with the fabricated simulated buccal mucosa. Novel buccal mucosa mimetic–surface such as the one reported in this research article could prove to be a very useful tool in minimizing the use of excised animal buccal mucosa for mucoadhesion testing of buccal drug delivery formulations. Novel COS-blended films were fabricated as a proposed mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery vehicle.
Concha bullosa may be associated with paranasal sinus infections and nasal obstruction. Middle concha mucosa membranes have olfactory neurofibrils. This study investigated the impact of routinely used concha bullosa surgery techniques – crushing and lateral laminectomy – on nasal and olfactory functions.
Forty-three adult patients who had undergone surgery for a symptomatic concha bullosa completed the odour test, nasal obstruction visual analogue scale, 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test, and peak nasal inspiratory flow test, pre-operatively and three months post-operatively. The pre- and post-operative results within and between the two treatment groups were compared.
Intragroup comparison of mean pre- versus post-treatment changes revealed statistically significant findings for the nasal obstruction visual analogue scale, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test, peak nasal inspiratory flow and olfaction tests (all p < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant changes when comparing the scores between the groups (intergroup comparison).
Lateral laminectomy and crushing in concha bullosa surgery have no negative effects on olfactory function. Concha bullosa surgery provides positive outcomes regarding nasal complaints in symptomatic patients.
Microbial parasites adapted to thrive at mammalian mucosal surfaces have evolved multiple times from phylogenetically distant lineages into various extracellular and intracellular life styles. Their symbiotic relationships can range from commensalism to parasitism and more recently some host–parasites interactions are thought to have evolved into mutualistic associations too. It is increasingly appreciated that this diversity of symbiotic outcomes is the product of a complex network of parasites–microbiota–host interactions. Refinement and broader use of DNA based detection techniques are providing increasing evidence of how common some mucosal microbial parasites are and their host range, with some species being able to swap hosts, including from farm and pet animals to humans. A selection of examples will illustrate the zoonotic potential for a number of microbial parasites and how some species can be either disruptive or beneficial nodes in the complex networks of host–microbe interactions disrupting or maintaining mucosal homoeostasis. It will be argued that mucosal microbial parasitic diversity will represent an important resource to help us dissect through comparative studies the role of host–microbe interactions in both human health and disease.
The aim of this study was to examine whether melatonin is involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This study included 29 patients with nasal polyposis and undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. As a control group, 26 patients who had been operated on for a deviated nasal septum and concha bullosa were enrolled. Samples were taken from the nasal polyp tissue and from the resected middle concha bullosa mucosa of the control group. Serum samples were taken from all patients.
It was found that the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the nasal polyp group were significantly lower compared with the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the control group.
In nasal polyposis, the melatonin level in the serum and tissue is lower than in individuals without polyposis. This deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
The present study evaluated the effects of isovalerate supplementation on the development of the small intestinal mucosa in dairy calves. Forty-eight Chinese Holstein bull calves at 15 days of age and 45.1 ± 0.36 kg of body weight were assigned randomly to four groups. The treatments were control, low-isovalerate, moderate-isovalerate and high-isovalerate with 0, 3, 6 and 9 g isovalerate per calf per day, respectively. The study comprised 75 days with a 15-day adaptation period followed by a 60-day sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Six calves were chosen from each treatment at random and slaughtered at 30 and 90 days of age. The small intestine morphology and activities of amylase and trypsin improved significantly with increasing age. No interaction between treatments and age was observed. The small intestine length, mucosa layer thickness, villus height and crypt depth increased linearly with increasing isovalerate supplementation. However, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth was not affected by treatment. Activities of amylase and trypsin increased linearly. The lactase activity increased linearly during the 75-day period and for pre-weaned calves but was unaltered for post-weaned calves. The relative mRNA expressions of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and sodium-glucose co-transporter-1 in the small intestine mucosa increased linearly, and a similar pattern was observed for the expression of peptide transporter-1 in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The results suggested that small intestine development was promoted by isovalerate in a dose-dependent manner.
To investigate the effect of microRNA let-7a on OPN expression in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis.
Thirty-two mature female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups, with eight mice in each group: microRNA let-7a, microRNA control, OVA and phosphate-buffered saline groups. The microRNA let-7a, microRNA control and OVA groups were sensitised with OVA to establish a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Nose-scratching events were counted. Nasal mucosa was used to evaluate histological changes of goblet cell hyperplasia. Interleukins 5 and 13 were detected. Interferon-γ levels in the nasal lavage fluid were assayed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OPN expression was estimated with polymerase chain reaction.
Compared with microRNA control mice, microRNA let-7a treated mice had a significantly increased number of nose-scratching events, nasal mucosal eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia (p < 0.05), and significantly higher interleukins 5 and 13 in nasal mucosa (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in interferon-γ (p > 0.05). In addition, microRNA let-7a treated mice had significantly enhanced OPN expression in nasal mucosa (p < 0.05).
MicroRNA let-7a can promote allergic rhinitis development partly by regulating OPN expression.
The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks. Diploid and triploid siblings were run in parallel to examine ploidy effects. Growth performance, feed intake, nutrient utilisation and intestinal morphology were monitored. Fish initially given Diet Vstimulus (V-fish) showed 24 % higher growth rate and 23 % better feed efficiency compared with M-fish when later challenged with Diet Vchallenge. There was no difference in feed intake between nutritional histories, but increased nutrient retentions highlighted the improved utilisation of a V diet in V-fish. There were generally few significant effects of nutritional history or ploidy on enteritis scores in the distal intestine after the challenge phase as only V-triploids showed a significant increase (P<0·05) in total score. The data highlighted that the positive effects were most likely a result of nutritional programming and the ability to respond better when challenged later in life may be attributed to physiological and/or metabolic changes induced by the stimulus. This novel study showed the potential of nutritional programming to improve the use of plant raw material ingredients in feeds for Atlantic salmon.
Co-Phenylcaine Forte is a nasal spray routinely prescribed by otolaryngologists in Australia. The taste of Co-Phenylcaine Forte is typically described as unpleasant. This study sought to improve the overall patient experience associated with Co-Phenylcaine Forte by generating a Co-Phenylcaine Forte formulation, referred to as Co-Phenylcaine Zest, which contains an added vanilla flavour and masking agent.
Participants were randomised to receive two actuations of Co-Phenylcaine Forte in each nostril followed by two actuations of Co-Phenylcaine Zest, or vice versa. There was a 6–36-hour washout period between each treatment. After the administration of each spray, participants completed a questionnaire to rate various sensory attributes of each formulation on seven-point ordinal scales. Patients reported their overall formulation preference after receiving both treatments.
A total of 86 participants completed the trial. Seventy-four per cent of patients preferred Co-Phenylcaine Zest, 21 per cent preferred Co-Phenylcaine Forte and 5 per cent had no preference (p < 0.001). The satisfaction score associated with Co-Phenylcaine Zest was 1.22 points greater than with Co-Phenylcaine Forte (p < 0.001).
A novel formulation of Co-Phenylcaine Forte was created by adding a flavour and a masking agent; this formulation was preferred by most patients.
The purpose of this work was to determine whether the morphology of the oral mucosa epithelium (OME) of patients with xerostomia differ from patients without xerostomia. In total, 34 patients with dry eye disease (DED) with or without xerostomia were examined at The Norwegian Dry Eye Disease Clinic with in vivo confocal microscopy of the lower lip. In addition, age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were included. DED patients with xerostomia had a higher superficial to deep backscatter ratio compared with DED patients without xerostomia (p=0.002) and HC (p=0.001). Regression analysis demonstrated that this ratio was related to xerostomia independently of gender and age (p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of detecting xerostomia were 0.78 and 0.85, respectively, when using a superficial to deep backscatter ratio cut-off value of 0.995 (p=0.004). The mean nucleus to cytosol backscatter ratio in the superficial OME was lower in patients with xerostomia than in those without xerostomia (p=0.034). In vivo confocal microscopy is a potential tool for evaluating the oral cavity and to assess changes in the OME associated with xerostomia, objectively and quantitatively. The cause of the increased backscatter in the superficial OME in xerostomia, however, remains to be elucidated.
To establish Australian population-based incidence trends for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.
Cases between 1985 and 2009 were identified in the Australian Cancer Database. Age-standardised incidence trends were established, including subgroup stratification by sex and site.
A continuously progressive increase in incidence was evident in the 353 cases identified over the 25-year study period. This was particularly evident in sinonasal mucosal melanoma in men, despite the overall incidence remaining higher in women.
There is such paucity in published global incidence trends of head and neck mucosal melanoma. Comparisons of incidence patterns between countries can provide insight into aetiological factors of this rare disease.
The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological profile of HPV oropharyngeal infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. A total of 135 subjects were enrolled at the L. Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) to evaluate their HPV oropharyngeal infection status at baseline and at a follow-up visit at least 12 months later. HPV DNA was detected from oropharyngeal swabs using an in-house nested PCR that amplifies a segment of the L1 gene. The PCR products were then sequenced and genotyped. A greater percentage of high-risk genotypes was identified compared to low-risk genotypes (13·7% vs. 6·9%, P < 0·05), and two uncommon alpha-HPV genotypes were detected, i.e. HPV-102 and HPV-114. HPV infection prevalence was 24·4% and the cumulative incidence was 24·1%. During the follow-up period, one case of HPV infection (HPV-33) persisted, while the overall rate of infection clearance was 58·3%. HPV oropharyngeal infection was widespread in the cohort examined, and most of the infections were transient and cleared within 12 months. These results may help to clarify the role of HPV in the oropharynx and may also improve our understanding of the need to implement preventive strategies in at-risk populations.
To investigate nasal mucociliary clearance in patients with Behçet's disease.
Thirty patients with Behçet's disease, diagnosed on the basis of criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease, and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. In both groups, individuals with conditions that could affect nasal mucociliary clearance were excluded. Nasal mucociliary clearance time was evaluated using saccharin tests. The time between placement of a saccharin tablet and the tasting of the saccharin was measured and recorded as the saccharin clearance time.
The mean nasal mucociliary clearance time was significantly longer in the Behçet's disease patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between Behçet's disease duration and nasal mucociliary clearance time (p < 0.001, r = 0.882).
The results suggest that nasal mucociliary clearance time is longer in Behçet's disease patients than in control subjects, and is positively correlated with disease duration.
This study aimed to describe the results of a retrospective analysis of a specific cohort of patients with benign lip lesions encountered in the last 15 years in the School of Medicine at Karadeniz Technical University.
A total of 312 patients were managed for lip lesions during the period 2000–2014. Data from 160 samples of benign lip biopsies were retrieved from the pathology laboratory records.
The study group included 20 different histopathological types of lesions, with mucocele being the most frequent lesion (43.13 per cent). The other frequent lesions were chronic inflammatory infiltrate (11.25 per cent), intradermal naevus (5.63 per cent), pyogenic granuloma (5.63 per cent), fibroma (5 per cent) and papilloma (5 per cent). Mucocele was significantly more common in younger patients (p < 0.001).
Knowledge of the epidemiology and distribution of oral mucosal lesions is essential to promote early diagnosis and treatment. Further epidemiological studies exploring the causal relationships and risk factors for lip lesions are necessary for a better understanding of lip diseases.
This paper presents an efficient and ergonomic system for performing rigid endoscopic examination in the out-patient clinic setting. The set-up encourages user comfort, and facilitates clear images of the nasal mucosa, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
This consisted of anti-fog solution, a 5 ml syringe, a cardboard receiver and gauze.
By using disposable equipment we encourage good infection control practices. We recommend that users of rigid endoscopes in the out-patient setting consider setting up for each patient in this manner.
Ca plays an essential role in bone development; however, little is known about its effect on intestinal gene expression in juvenile animals. In the present study, thirty-two weaned pigs (9·5 (sem 0·11) kg) were assigned to four diets that differed in Ca concentration (adequate v. high) and cereal composition (wheat–barley v. maize) to assess the jejunal and colonic gene expression of nutrient transporters, tight junction proteins, cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrient digestibility, Ca balance and serum acute-phase response. To estimate the impact of mucosal bacteria on colonic gene expression, Spearman's correlations between colonic gene expression and bacterial abundance were computed. Faecal Ca excretion indicated that more Ca was available along the intestinal tract of the pigs fed high Ca diets as compared to the pigs fed adequate Ca diets (P< 0·05). High Ca diets decreased jejunal zonula occludens 1 (ZO1) and occludin (OCLN) expression, up-regulated jejunal expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and down-regulated colonic GLUT2 expression as compared to the adequate Ca diets (P< 0·05). Dietary cereal composition up-regulated jejunal TLR2 expression and interacted (P= 0·021) with dietary Ca on colonic IL1B expression; high Ca concentration up-regulated IL1B expression with wheat–barley diets and down-regulated it with maize diets. Spearman's correlations (r>0·35; P< 0·05) indicated an association between operational taxonomic units assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and bacterial metabolites and mucosal gene expression in the colon. The present results indicate that high Ca diets have the potential to modify the jejunal and colonic mucosal gene expression response which, in turn, interacts with the composition of the basal diet and mucosa-associated bacteria in weaned pigs.
This study compared the results of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage and nasal cytology in men with and without a moustache.
The study group comprised 118 adult men with a moustache, and the control group consisted of 123 adult men without a moustache. Samples were taken from the participants' right nasal cavity for cytology and from the left nasal cavity for microbiology.
The results for S aureus were positive in 19.5 per cent (n = 23) of participants with a moustache and in 20.3 per cent (n = 25) of men without a moustache. This difference was not significant (p > 0.05). However, nasal cytology revealed rich eosinophil clusters in participants with a moustache.
The presence or absence of a moustache had no effect on nasal S aureus colonisation. However, further research is needed to understand whether the presence of a moustache increases the risk of allergic or non-allergic rhinitis.
The use of cold nasal packs on the nose and nape of the neck is currently recommended for patients with epistaxis as this is thought to induce reflex nasal vasoconstriction, which decreases the bleeding. There have been a few investigations on the effect of cold compress application to the nose, but none of these focused specifically on nasal cooling of the skin of the nose.
Acoustic rhinometry was performed to obtain baseline measurements. Nasal dorsal skin was then cooled with two ice packs that were held on the left and right side of the nose for a total of 10 minutes by the subjects. The rhinometry measurements were taken at the time of initial application (baseline), and after 5 and 10 minutes of ice pack application.
Comparisons of the first and second minimal cross-sectional area values, and total nasal cavity volume measurements revealed no statistical differences.
The results of this study indicate that one should be sceptical about the efficiency of cold compress application, which is frequently used in clinical practice in cases with epistaxis.
The present study aimed to investigate nasal mucosal changes in response to passive exposure to cigarette smoke.
The study included 20 women aged 35–51 years who were scheduled for non-rhinological surgical procedures, and who had at least 10 years' prolonged passive exposure to household cigarette smoke. During surgery, two 1-mm3 biopsies of nasal mucosa were taken from the lower border of the inferior turbinate. Specimens were processed and examined with light and transmission electron microscopy.
Examination of the nasal mucosa showed several histopathological changes. The severity of structural changes increased with duration of smoke exposure. No allergic or neoplastic changes were seen.
Passive exposure to cigarette smoke has a deleterious effect on the nasal respiratory mucosa. Prolonged passive smoke exposure may also induce other, significant changes not detected in the present study.
We have observed a stiffening of the gastric wall in mice following oral administration of viscous methyl cellulose (MC) solution as a vehicle for food chemicals, an effect which has not previously been reported. To further investigate this effect, young male ICR mice (n 48) were divided into four groups (one control and three experimental groups) of twelve mice each. Experimental groups I, II and III were administered 0·2 ml of 0·5 % (w/v) MC viscous solution/d via a stomach tube for 2, 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. Stomachs were collected following 12 h fasting. The weight of the stomach and mucosa of seven mice per group was measured, and the mucosa was used for the measurement of 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Stomach tissue slices from the remaining five mice per group were stained with haematoxylin and eosin to measure mucosal thickness, and were immunostained with an HIK1083 antibody to determine the number of gastric gland mucous cells. The mucosal thickness of the groups administered the MC solution for 3 and 4 weeks, and the size of the HIK1083-immunostained area of the groups administered the MC solution for 2, 3 and 4 weeks were significantly increased (P< 0·01) compared with those of the control group. The amount of 8-oxodG was not significantly affected. These results indicate that oral administration of viscous MC solution leads to the thickening of the gastric mucosa, which may be related to an increase in the number of gland mucous cells.
Gut mucosal surfaces separate the external environment from the internal sterile environment and so represent a first line of defence system. This barrier faces environments rich in pathogens that have developed effective mechanisms for colonisation of epithelial surfaces and invasion of mucosal tissues, but also harmless antigens such as food, airborne antigens or commensal bacterial flora. The latter represent the vast majority of the encountered antigens and require an appropriate response characterised by either ignorance or active suppression. However, for the former, a robust immune response is needed. Mucosae have developed a complex immune system that is capable of mounting an immune response against pathogenic antigens, while maintaining the required ignorance or active suppression against non-pathogenic antigens. Taking advantage of this knowledge, strategies have been devised to induce oral tolerance to antigens involved in experimental autoimmune disease or human conditions. It is now known that oral tolerance induces the up-regulation and activation of T cells with regulatory properties, a subtype of CD4+ T cells whose function is to regulate functions of other T lymphocytes to avoid excessive immune activation. Amongst them, the Th3 cells (cells that express the latency-associated peptide on the surface and secrete transforming growth factor β, a cytokine with immunoregulatory properties) are especially relevant in the induction of oral tolerance. Orally fed antigens seek to generate these types of cells in the treatment of autoimmune diseases in experimental animals or human subjects.