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High carbohydrate diet could achieve protein sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilization ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by high carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate metabolic syndrome caused by high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1.19 ± 0.01 g) were supplied with 35% carbohydrate (CON), 45% carbohydrate (HC) and 45% carbohydrate + 5g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for ten weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with HC group, HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin downregulated genes related to lipogenesis and upregulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0.05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in HCI group compared with HC group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin in high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
To evaluate the hypothesis that a perinatal educational dietary intervention focused on ‘eating for the gut microbiota’ improves diet quality of pregnant women pre- and postnatally.
The Healthy Parents, Healthy Kids study is a prospectively registered randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary intervention in altering the maternal and infant gut microbiota and improving perinatal diet quality. Eligible pregnant women were randomised to receive dietary advice from their healthcare provider or to additionally receive a three session dietary intervention. Dietary data were collected at gestation weeks 26, 31, 36 and postnatal week 4. Outcome measures were diet quality, dietary variety, prebiotic and probiotic food intakes, energy, fibre, saturated fat and discretionary food intakes. Between-group differential changes from baseline before and after birth in these dietary measures were assessed using generalised estimating equations.
Healthy pregnant women from gestation week 26.
Forty-five women were randomised (twenty-two control, twenty-three intervention). Compared with the control group, the intervention group improved diet quality prior to birth (5·66 (95 % CI 1·65, 9·67), Cohen’s d: 0·82 (se 0·33)). The intervention improved dietary variety (1·05 (95 % CI 0·17, 1·94), d: 0·66 (se 0·32)) and increased intakes of prebiotic (0·8 (95 % CI 0·27, 1·33), d: 0·91 (se 0·33)) and probiotic foods (1·05 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·53), d: 1·3(se 0·35)) over the whole study period compared with the control group.
A dietary intervention focused on ‘eating for the gut microbiota’ can improve aspects of perinatal diet quality during and after pregnancy.
The therapeutic value of specific fibres is partly dependent on their fermentation characteristics. Some fibres are rapidly degraded with generation of gases that induce symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), while more slowly- or non-fermentable fibres may be more suitable. More work is needed to profile a comprehensive range of fibre to determine suitability for IBS. Using a rapid in vitro fermentation model, gas production and metabolite profiles of a range of established and novel fibres were compared. Fibre substrates (n=15) were added to faecal slurries from 3 healthy donors for 4 hours with gas production measured using real-time headspace sampling. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia were analysed using gas chromatography and enzymatic assay respectively. Gas production followed 3 patterns: rapid (≥60 mL/g over 4 hours) for fructans, carrot fibre and corn-derived xylo-oligosaccharide; mild (30-60 mL/g) for partially hydrolysed guar gum, almond shell-derived xylo-oligosaccharide and one type of high-amylose resistant starch 2 (RS2); and minimal (no differences with blank controls) for methylcellulose, another high-amylose RS2, acetylated or butyrylated RS2, RS4, acacia gum and sugarcane bagasse. Gas production correlated positively with total SCFA (r=0.80, p<0.001) and negatively with ammonia concentrations (r=-0.68, p<0.001). Proportions of specific SCFA varied: fermentation of carrot fibre, xylo-oligosaccharides and acetylated RS2 favoured acetate while fructans favoured butyrate. Gas production and metabolite profiles differed between fibre types and within fibre classes over a physiologically relevant 4-hour time-course. Several fibres resisted rapid fermentation and may be candidates for clinical trials in IBS patients.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
For a wide range of insect species, the microbiota has potential roles in determining host developmental programme, immunity and reproductive biology. The tea geometrid moths Ectropis obliqua and E. grisescens are two closely related species that mainly feed on tea leaves. Although they can mate, infertile hybrids are produced. Therefore, these species provide a pair of model species for studying the molecular mechanisms of microbiotal involvement in host reproductive biology. In this study, we first identified and compared the compositions of microbiota between these sibling species, revealing higher microbiotal diversity for E. grisescens. The microbiota of E. obliqua mainly comprised the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, whereas that of E. grisescens was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the dominant microbiota of E. grisescens included Wolbachia, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas and that of E. obliqua included Melissococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. Furthermore, we verified the rate of Wolbachia to infect 80 samples from eight different geographical populations, and the results supported that only E. grisescens harboured Wolbachia. Taken together, our findings indicate significantly different microbiotal compositions for E. obliqua and E. grisescens, with Wolbachia possibly being a curial factor influencing the reproductive isolation of these species. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which endosymbiotic bacteria, particularly Wolbachia, interact with sibling species.
For this research communication, 90 samples of a Brazilian dairy were combined into four groups (raw material, final product, food-contact and non-food contact surfaces) and analyzed by metataxonomics based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed high alpha-diversity indexes for final product and non-food contact surfaces but, overall, beta-diversity indexes were low. The samples were separated in two main clusters, and the core microbiota was composed by Macrococcus, Alkaliphilus, Vagococcus, Lactobacillus, Marinilactibacillus, Streptococcus, Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Halomonas, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Psychrobacter. These results highlight that rare taxa occur in dairies, and this may aid the development of strategies for food protection.
We critically review potential involvement of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a link between diet, the gut microbiota and CVD. Generated primarily from dietary choline and carnitine by gut bacteria and hepatic flavin-containing mono-oxygenase (FMO) activity, TMAO could promote cardiometabolic disease when chronically elevated. However, control of circulating TMAO is poorly understood, and diet, age, body mass, sex hormones, renal clearance, FMO3 expression and genetic background may explain as little as 25 % of TMAO variance. The basis of elevations with obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis or CHD is similarly ill-defined, although gut microbiota profiles/remodelling appear critical. Elevated TMAO could promote CVD via inflammation, oxidative stress, scavenger receptor up-regulation, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) inhibition, and cardiovascular dysfunction. However, concentrations influencing inflammation, scavenger receptors and RCT (≥100 µm) are only achieved in advanced heart failure or chronic kidney disease (CKD), and greatly exceed pathogenicity of <1–5 µm levels implied in some TMAO–CVD associations. There is also evidence that CVD risk is insensitive to TMAO variance beyond these levels in omnivores and vegetarians, and that major TMAO sources are cardioprotective. Assessing available evidence suggests that modest elevations in TMAO (≤10 µm) are a non-pathogenic consequence of diverse risk factors (ageing, obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance/diabetes, renal dysfunction), indirectly reflecting CVD risk without participating mechanistically. Nonetheless, TMAO may surpass a pathogenic threshold as a consequence of CVD/CKD, secondarily promoting disease progression. TMAO might thus reflect early CVD risk while providing a prognostic biomarker or secondary target in established disease, although mechanistic contributions to CVD await confirmation.
Coated copper sulphate (CCS) could be used as a Cu supplement in cows. To investigate the influences of copper sulphate (CS) and CCS on milk performance, nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, fifty Holstein dairy cows were arranged in a randomised block design to five groups: control, CS addition (7·5 mg Cu/kg DM from CS) or CCS addition (5, 7·5 and 10 mg Cu/kg DM from CCS, respectively). When comparing Cu source at equal inclusion rates (7·5 mg/kg DM), cows receiving CCS addition had higher yields of fat-corrected milk, milk fat and protein; digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF); ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration; activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase, pectinase and α-amylase; populations of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes; and liver Cu content than cows receiving CS addition. Increasing CCS addition, DM intake was unchanged, yields of milk, milk fat and protein; feed efficiency; digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and acid-detergent fibre; ruminal total VFA concentration; acetate:propionate ratio; activity of cellulolytic enzyme; populations of total bacteria, protozoa and dominant cellulolytic bacteria; and concentrations of Cu in serum and liver increased linearly, but ruminal propionate percentage, ammonia-N concentration, α-amylase activity and populations of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus decreased linearly. The results indicated that supplement of CS could be substituted with CCS and addition of CCS improved milk performance and nutrient digestion in dairy cows.
There is increasing evidence linking the gut microbiota to various aspects of human health. Nuts are a food rich in prebiotic fibre and polyphenols, food components which have been shown to have beneficial effects on the gut microbiota. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence regarding the effect of nut consumption on the human gut microbiota. A systematic search of the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and CINAHL was performed until 28 November 2019. Eligible studies were those that investigated the effects of nut consumption in humans (aged over 3 years old), utilising next-generation sequencing technology. Primary outcome measures were between-group differences in α- and β-diversity metrics and gut microbial composition. A total of eight studies were included in the review. Included studies assessed the effects of either almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts or pistachios on the gut microbiota. Overall, nut consumption had a modest impact on gut microbiota diversity, with two studies reporting a significant shift in α-diversity and four reporting a significant shift in β-diversity. Walnuts, in particular, appeared to more frequently explain shifts in β-diversity, which may be a result of their unique nutritional composition. Some shifts in bacterial composition (including an increase in genera capable of producing SCFA: Clostridium, Roseburia, Lachnospira and Dialister) were reported following the consumption of nuts. Nut intake may yield a modulatory effect on the gut microbiota; however, results were inconsistent across studies, which may be explained by variations in trial design, methodological limitations and inter-individual microbiota.
This trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary rapeseed cake (RSC) containing high glucosinolates (GLS) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and the rumen microbial community in steers. Eight growing steers and four rations containing RSC (GLS 226·1 μmol/g DM) at 0·00, 2·65, 5·35 and 8·00 % DM were assigned in a replicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. The results indicated that increasing RSC levels increased the ruminal concentration of thiocyanate (SCN) (P < 0·01), decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and the molar proportion of isovalerate (P < 0·05), did not affect the ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids (P > 0·05), decreased the crude protein (CP) digestibility (P < 0·05) and increased the ether extract (EE) digestibility (P < 0·01). Increasing RSC levels tended to decrease the abundances of ruminal Ruminobacter amylophilus (P = 0·055) and Ruminococcus albus (P = 0·086) but did not affect methanogens, protozoa, fungi and other bacteria (P > 0·05). Increasing RSC levels in the ration did not affect the ruminal bacterial diversity (P > 0·05), but it increased the operational taxonomic units and the bacterial richness (P < 0·05) and affected the relative abundances of some bacteria at the phylum level and genus level (P < 0·05). In conclusion, RSC decreased the ruminal concentration of NH3-N and the CP digestibility, increased the EE digestibility and partly affected the ruminal bacterial community. SCN, as the metabolite of GLS, could be a major factor affecting these indices.
While feed efficiency (FE) is a trait of great economic importance to the pig industry, the influence of the intestinal microbiome in determining FE is not well understood. The objective of this experiment was to determine the relative influence of FE and farm of birth on the pig colonic microbiome. Animals divergent in residual feed intake (RFI) were sourced from two geographically distinct locations (farms A + B) in Ireland. The 8 most efficient (low RFI (LRFI)) and 8 least efficient (high RFI, (HRFI)) pigs from farm A and 12 LRFI and 12 HRFI pigs from farm B were sacrificed. Colonic digesta was collected for microbial analysis using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and also for volatile fatty acid analysis. The α-diversity differed between the farms in this study, with pigs from farm A having greater diversity based on Shannon and InvSimpson measures compared to pigs from farm B (P < 0.05), with no difference identified in either Chao1 or observed measures of diversity (P > 0.05). In the analysis of β-diversity, pigs clustered based on farm of birth rather than RFI. Variation in the management of piglets, weight of the piglets, season of the year, sanitary status and dam dietary influence could potentially be causative factors in this large variation between farms. However, despite significant variation in the microbial profile between farms, consistent taxonomic differences were identified between RFI groups. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, the LRFI pigs had increased abundance of BS11 (P < 0.05) and a tendency toward increased Bacteroidaceae (P < 0.10) relative to the HRFI group. At genus level, the LRFI pigs had increased abundance of Colinsella (P < 0.05), a tendency toward increased Bacteroides and CF231 (P < 0.10). At species level, Ruminococcus flavefaciens had increased abundance in the LRFI compared to the HRFI animals. In conclusion, while farm of birth has a substantial influence on microbial diversity in the pig colon, a microbial signature indicative of FE status was apparent.
To investigate the effects of dietary fibre on follicular atresia in pigs fed a high-fat diet, we fed thirty-two prepubescent gilts a basal diet (CON) or a CON diet supplemented with 300 g/d dietary fibre (fibre), 240 g/d soya oil (SO) or both (fibre + SO). At the 19th day of the 4th oestrus cycle, gilts fed the SO diet showed 112 % more atretic follicles and greater expression of the apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and these effects were reversed by the fibre diet. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was decreased by the SO diet, but this effect was reversed by fibre treatment. Concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the serum and follicular fluid were increased by the fibre diet. Overall, dietary fibre protected against high fat feeding-induced follicular atresia at least partly via gut microbiota-related serotonin–melatonin synthesis. These results provide insight into preventing negative effects on fertility in humans consuming a high-energy diet.
The digestive microbiota plays a decisive role in shaping and preserving health throughout life. Rabbit younglings are born with a sterile digestive tract but then it gets progressively colonised by the microbiota of the nursing mother, by entering in contact with or ingesting the maternal droppings present in the nest. Here we posit that (i) offspring survival and (ii) lifespan of female rabbits are linked to how diverse their microbiota are. To test the hypothesis that maternal microbiota evolves in females having had different levels of offspring survival in their lifetime, we obtained 216 hard faecal samples from 75 female rabbits at ages 19.6, 31.6, 62.6 and 77.6 weeks. The annual mean offspring survival (MOS) at 64 days was calculated for each female then crossed against three alpha-diversity indexes (operational taxonomic units (OTUs), inverse Simpson index and Shannon index). Age was also analysed against these three parameters. The alpha-diversity indexes of the female faecal microbiota did not correlate with MOS, but they did decrease with age (e.g. from 712 OTUs at age 19.6 weeks to 444 OTUs at 77.6 weeks; P < 0.05). The age effect was also found in beta-diversity non-metric multidimensional scaling plots using the Bray–Curtis dissimilarity index and the unweighted UniFrac index but not for MOS. The ability of the microbiota composition from the faecal samples of young females (19.6 weeks old) to predict their lifespan was also evaluated. After subdividing the initial population into two classes (females that weaned a maximum of three litters and females living longer), we found no clear distinction between these two classes. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study to characterise the gut microbiota of adult female rabbits through their reproductive life, thus laying foundations for using the gut microbiota data and its influence in studies on adult rabbits.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
The gut microbiota is directly influenced by dietary components, and it plays critical roles in chronic diseases. Excessive consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with obesity induced by alterations in gut microbiota, but the links between obesity and gut microbiota remain unclear. Therefore, studies examining the impact of TFA on intestinal microflora are essential. In our study, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing on faecal samples from Sprague–Dawley rats fed a basal diet (control (CON) group), high-fat (HF) diet (diet-induced obesity (DIO) group) or TFA diets (1 % TFA group and 8 % TFA group) for 8 weeks to investigate the effects of TFA/HF diets on obesity and gut microbiota composition. We found that the TFA/HF diets significantly induced obesity and changes in blood and brain physiological parameters of the rats. The relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was inversely altered in the three test groups compared with the CON group. Proteobacteria increased slightly in the DIO, 1 % TFA and 8 % TFA groups. The genus Bacteroides increased in the DIO and 1 % TFA groups, but Muribaculaceae decreased in all experimental groups compared with the CON group. Moreover, significant differences were observed among clusters of orthologous group functional categories of the four dietary groups. Our observations suggested that the TFA/HF diets induced obesity and dysfunction of gut microbiota. Gut dysbiosis might mediate the obesity effects of TFA/HF diets.
Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) is clinically effective and a commonly utilised approach in the management of functional symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Despite this, the low FODMAP diet has a number of challenges: it can alter the gut microbiota; impact nutrient intake and diet quality; is complex to understand; requires the patient to be adequately supported to follow the diet accurately and safely; and lastly, not all patients respond to the diet. The current review highlights the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet, but focusses on the challenges associated with the diet to the patient, health professionals and the wider healthcare service. Finally, the review discusses research findings and practical guidance for how these challenges can be minimised and mitigated. The low FODMAP diet is a useful management strategy for irritable bowel syndrome, with data from clinical trials suggesting a 50–80% response rate, and when administered appropriately, the challenges to implementing the diet can be overcome so that these outcomes can be realised effectively and safely in clinical practice.
Bile acids (BA) have emerged as signalling molecules regulating intestinal physiology. The importance of intestinal microbiota in production of secondary BA, for example, lithocholic acid (LCA) which impairs enterocyte proliferation and permeability, triggered us to determine the effects of oral probiotics on intestinal BA metabolism. Piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and allocated into control (CON, n 14) or probiotic (PRO, n 14) group fed 50 mg of Lactobacillus plantarum daily, and gut microbiota and BA profile were determined. To test the potential interaction of LCA with bacteria endotoxins in inducing damage of enterocytes, IPEC-J2 cells were treated with LCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LCA + LPS and expressions of genes related to inflammation, antioxidant capacity and nutrient transport were determined. Compared with the CON group, the PRO group showed lower total LCA level in the ileum and higher relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in faeces. In contrast, the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcus_1, important bacteria genera in BA biotransformation, were all lower in the PRO than in the CON group. Moreover, PRO piglets had lower postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 level, while higher glucose level than CON piglets. Co-administration of LPS and LCA led to down-regulated expression of glucose and peptide transporter genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, oral L. plantarum altered BA profile probably by modulating relative abundances of gut microbial genera that play key roles in BA metabolism and might consequently impact glucose homoeostasis. The detrimental effect of LCA on nutrient transport in enterocytes might be aggravated under LPS challenge.
The aim of the present paper is to review the effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on immunity, focusing on their microbiota-independent mechanisms of action, as well as to explore their potential beneficial role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). IBD are chronic, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with IBD have an aberrant immune response to commensal microbiota, resulting in extensive mucosal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability. NDO are prebiotic fibres well known for their role in supporting intestinal health through modulation of the gut microbiota. NDO reach the colon intact and are fermented by commensal bacteria, resulting in the production of SCFA with immunomodulatory properties. In disease states characterised by increased gut permeability, prebiotics may also bypass the gut barrier and directly interact with intestinal and systemic immune cells, as demonstrated in patients with IBD and in infants with an immature gut. In vitro models show that fructooligosaccharides, inulin and galactooligosaccharides exert microbiota-independent effects on immunity by binding to toll-like receptors on monocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells and by modulating cytokine production and immune cell maturation. Moreover, animal models and human supplementation studies demonstrate that some prebiotics, including inulin and lactulose, might reduce intestinal inflammation and IBD symptoms. Although there are convincing preliminary data to support NDO as immunomodulators in the management of IBD, their mechanisms of action are still unclear and larger standardised studies need to be performed using a wider range of prebiotics.
Dietary fibre fermentation in humans and monogastric animals is considered to occur in the hindgut, but it may also occur in the lower small intestine. This study aimed to compare ileal and hindgut fermentation in the growing pig fed a human-type diet using a combined in vivo/in vitro methodology. Five pigs (23 (sd 1·6) kg body weight) were fed a human-type diet. On day 15, pigs were euthanised. Digesta from terminal jejunum and terminal ileum were collected as substrates for fermentation. Ileal and caecal digesta were collected for preparing microbial inocula. Terminal jejunal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled ileal digesta inoculum for 2 h, whereas terminal ileal digesta were fermented in vitro with a pooled caecal digesta inoculum for 24 h. The ileal organic matter fermentability (28 %) was not different from hindgut fermentation (35 %). However, the organic matter fermented was 66 % greater for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation (P = 0·04). Total numbers of bacteria in ileal and caecal digesta did not differ (P = 0·09). Differences (P < 0·05) were observed in the taxonomic composition. For instance, ileal digesta contained 32-fold greater number of the genus Enterococcus, whereas caecal digesta had a 227-fold greater number of the genus Ruminococcus. Acetate synthesis and iso-valerate synthesis were greater (P < 0·05) for ileal fermentation than hindgut fermentation, but propionate, butyrate and valerate synthesis was lower. SCFA were absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract location where they were synthesised. In conclusion, a quantitatively important degree of fermentation occurs in the ileum of the growing pig fed a human-type diet.
Infant colic is a condition of unknown cause which can result in carer distress and attachment difficulties. Recent studies have implicated the gut microbiota in infant colic, and certain probiotics have demonstrated possible efficacy. We aim to investigate whether the intestinal microbiota composition in infants with colic is associated with cry/fuss time at baseline, persistence of cry/fuss at 4-week follow-up, or child behavior at 2 years of age. Fecal samples from infants with colic (n = 118, 53% male) were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. After examining the alpha and beta diversity of the clinical samples, we performed a differential abundance analysis of the 16S data to look for taxa that associate with baseline and future behavior, while adjusting for potential confounding variables. In addition, we used random forest classifiers to evaluate how well baseline gut microbiota can predict future crying time. Alpha diversity of the fecal microbiota was strongly influenced by birth mode, feed type, and child gender, but did not significantly associate with crying or behavioral outcomes. Several taxa within the microbiota (including Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Klebsiella) associate with colic severity, and the baseline microbiota composition can predict further crying at 4 weeks with up to 65% accuracy. The combination of machine learning findings with associative relationships demonstrates the potential prognostic utility of the infant fecal microbiota in predicting subsequent infant crying problems.