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The aim of this study was to examine whether melatonin is involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This study included 29 patients with nasal polyposis and undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. As a control group, 26 patients who had been operated on for a deviated nasal septum and concha bullosa were enrolled. Samples were taken from the nasal polyp tissue and from the resected middle concha bullosa mucosa of the control group. Serum samples were taken from all patients.
It was found that the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the nasal polyp group were significantly lower compared with the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the control group.
In nasal polyposis, the melatonin level in the serum and tissue is lower than in individuals without polyposis. This deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
Heat shock may disrupt oocyte function by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated the capacity of the antioxidant melatonin to protect oocytes using two models of oxidative stress – heat shock and the pro-oxidant menadione. Bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COC) were exposed in the presence or absence of 1 µM melatonin to the following treatments during maturation: 38.5°C, 41°C and 38.5°C+5 µM menadione. In the first experiment, COC were matured for 3 h with 5 µM CellROX® and analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy to quantify production of ROS. The intensity of ROS was greater for oocytes exposed to heat shock and menadione than for control oocytes. Melatonin reduced ROS intensity for heat-shocked oocytes and oocytes exposed to menadione, but not for control oocytes. In the second experiment, COC were matured for 22 h. After maturation, oocytes were fertilized and the embryos cultured for 7.5 days. The proportion of oocytes that cleaved after fertilization was lower for oocytes exposed to heat shock and menadione than for control oocytes. Melatonin increased cleavage for heat-shocked oocytes and oocytes exposed to menadione, but not for control oocytes. Melatonin tended to increase the developmental competence of embryos from heat-shocked oocytes but not for embryos from oocytes exposed to menadione or from control oocytes. In conclusion, melatonin reduced production of ROS of maturing oocytes and protected oocytes from deleterious effects of both stresses on competence of the oocyte to cleave after coincubation with sperm. These results suggest that excessive production of ROS compromises oocyte function.
Young people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Sleep problems may play a role in this risk but their prevalence, nature and links to psychopathology and cognitive function remain undescribed in this population.
Sleep problems, psychopathology, developmental coordination and cognitive function were assessed in 140 young people with 22q11.2DS (mean age = 10.1, s.d. = 2.46) and 65 unaffected sibling controls (mean age = 10.8, s.d.SD = 2.26). Primary carers completed questionnaires screening for the children's developmental coordination and autism spectrum disorder.
Sleep problems were identified in 60% of young people with 22q11.2DS compared to 23% of sibling controls (OR 5.00, p < 0.001). Two patterns best-described sleep problems in 22q11.2DS: restless sleep and insomnia. Restless sleep was linked to increased ADHD symptoms (OR 1.16, p < 0.001) and impaired executive function (OR 0.975, p = 0.013). Both patterns were associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety disorder (restless sleep: OR 1.10, p = 0.006 and insomnia: OR 1.07, p = 0.045) and developmental coordination disorder (OR 0.968, p = 0.0023, and OR 0.955, p = 0.009). The insomnia pattern was also linked to elevated conduct disorder symptoms (OR 1.53, p = 0.020).
Clinicians and carers should be aware that sleep problems are common in 22q11.2DS and index psychiatric risk, cognitive deficits and motor coordination problems. Future studies should explore the physiology of sleep and the links with the neurodevelopment in these young people.
The ultradian NREM-REM sleep cycle is embedded within the larger twenty-four- hour circadian cycle. The sleep cycle interacts with the circadian cycle, which in turn is controlled by the SCN master clock within the hypothalamus. The two-process model captures interactions between the circadian process and the sleep cycle. Disorders of biological rhythmicity such as delayed sleep phase syndrome and manic depression have significant but treatable effects on sleep.
Subjective reports of insomnia and hypersomnia are common in bipolar disorder (BD). It is unclear to what extent these relate to underlying circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD). In this study we aimed to objectively assess sleep and circadian rhythm in a cohort of patients with BD compared to matched controls.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls had comprehensive sleep/circadian rhythm assessment with respiratory sleep studies, prolonged accelerometry over 3 weeks, sleep questionnaires and diaries, melatonin levels, alongside mood, psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires.
Twenty-three (50%) patients with BD had abnormal sleep, of whom 12 (52%) had CRD and 29% had obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients with abnormal sleep had lower 24-h melatonin secretion compared to controls and patients with normal sleep. Abnormal sleep/CRD in BD was associated with impaired functioning and worse QoL.
BD is associated with high rates of abnormal sleep and CRD. The association between these disorders, mood and functioning, and the direction of causality, warrants further investigation.
Seasonal reproduction is one of the major biotechnical and economic constraints of sheep production in temperate latitudes. Treatments using extra light followed by melatonin implants have been used satisfactorily in open barns, farms and artificial insemination centres to produce out-of-season sexual activity in rams. The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of replacing melatonin implants with continuous light (LL), which was recently shown to increase LH secretion similar to melatonin and/or pinealectomy. Four experiments during 4 consecutive years were conducted in ‘Ile-de-France’ rams. In each study, one group was systematically exposed to permanent light after a first photoperiodic treatment of 60 long days (LD-LL) during the winter and compared with various other control groups subjected either to a natural photoperiod or the classical LD-melatonin treatment. As expected, blood nocturnal melatonin secretion was suppressed by LL. In all four experiments, LL treatment produced a highly significant and robust increase in ram testicular volume in the spring compared with the testicular volume of control rams or of that of treated rams at the end of the LD. For the two experiments in which fertility was tested, fertility after hand-mating was significantly higher in LD-LL rams than in control rams (76% v. 64%). Therefore, permanent light after an LD treatment may be an interesting alternative to LD-melatonin treatment to induce out-of-season sexual activity in rams.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide with universally accepted treatments still lacking. Oral supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) has been suggested to attenuate liver damage of various aetiologies. Our study aimed to further delineate mechanisms involved in the SoB-dependent hepatic protection using a mouse model of fructose-induced NAFLD and in in vitro models. C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a fructose-enriched liquid diet ±0·6 g/kg body weight per d SoB or standard chow for 6 weeks. Markers of liver damage, intestinal barrier function, glucose metabolism, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and melatonin signalling were determined in mice. Differentiated human carcinoma colon-2 (Caco-2) and J774A.1 cells were used to determine molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of SoB. Despite having no effects on markers of intestinal barrier function and glucose metabolism or body weight gain, SoB supplementation significantly attenuated fructose-induced hepatic TAG accumulation and inflammation. The protective effects of SoB were associated with significantly lower expression of markers of the TLR-4-dependent signalling cascade, concentrations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in liver. Treatment with SoB increased melatonin levels and expression of enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis in duodenal tissue and Caco-2 cells. Moreover, treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS and nitrate levels in J774A.1 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that the protective effects of SoB on the development of fructose-induced NAFLD in mice are associated with an increased duodenal melatonin synthesis and attenuation of iNOS induction in liver.
Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses had more (P<0.001) pancreatic insulin-positive area (relative to section of tissue) and a greater percent of small, large and giant insulin-containing cell clusters (P⩽0.02). Larger insulin-containing clusters were observed in fetuses (P<0.001) compared with ewes. In summary, the maternal pancreas responded to nutrient restriction by decreasing pancreatic weight and activity of digestive enzymes while melatonin supplementation increased α-amylase content. Nutrient restriction decreased the number of pancreatic insulin-containing clusters in fetuses while melatonin supplementation did not influence insulin concentration. This indicated using melatonin as a therapeutic agent to mitigate reduced pancreatic function in the fetus due to maternal nutrient restriction may not be beneficial.
The intestine is the only gate for the entry of Ca to the body in humans and mammals. The entrance of Ca occurs via paracellular and intracellular pathways. All steps of the latter pathway are regulated by calcitriol and by other hormones. Dietary and pharmacological compounds also modulate the intestinal Ca absorption process. Among them, dietary Ca and P are known to alter the lipid and protein composition of the brush-border and basolateral membranes and, consequently, Ca transport. Ca intakes are below the requirements recommended by health professionals in most countries, triggering important health problems. Chronic low Ca intake has been related to illness conditions such as osteoporosis, hypertension, renal lithiasis and incidences of human cancer. Carbohydrates, mainly lactose, and prebiotics have been described as positive modulators of intestinal Ca absorption. Apparently, high meat proteins increase intestinal Ca absorption while the effect of dietary lipids remains unclear. Pharmacological compounds such as menadione, dl-butionine-S,R-sulfoximine and ursodeoxycholic acid also modify intestinal Ca absorption as a consequence of altering the redox state of the epithelial cells. The paracellular pathway of intestinal Ca absorption is poorly known and is under present study in some laboratories. Another field that needs to be explored more intensively is the influence of the gene × diet interaction on intestinal Ca absorption. Health professionals should be aware of this knowledge in order to develop nutritional or medical strategies to stimulate the efficiency of intestinal Ca absorption and to prevent diseases.
This study was designed to determine the effect of melatonin on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus (DOs). DOs were cultured alone (DOs) or with 10−9 M melatonin (DOs + MT), cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured without melatonin as the control. After IVM, meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptotic rates and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression of ATP synthase F0 Subunit 6 and 8 (ATP6 and ATP8), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) mRNA in MII oocytes and IFN-tau (IFN-τ), Na+/K+-ATPase, catenin-beta like 1 (CTNNBL1) and AQP3 mRNA in parthenogenetic blastocysts were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that: (1) melatonin significantly increased the MII rate of DOs (65.67 ± 3.59 % vs. 82.29 ± 3.92%; P < 0.05), decreased the ROS level (4.83 ± 0.42 counts per second (c.p.s) vs. 3.78 ± 0.29 c.p.s; P < 0.05) and apoptotic rate (36.99 ± 3.62 % vs. 21.88 ± 2.08 %; P < 0.05) and moderated the reduction of relative mRNA levels of ATP6, ATP8, BMP-15 and GDF-9 caused by oocyte denudation; (2) melatonin significantly increased the developmental rate (24.17 ± 3.54 % vs. 35.26 ± 4.87%; P < 0.05), and expression levels of IFN-τ, Na+/K+-ATPase, CTNNBL1 and AQP3 mRNA of blastocyst. These results indicated that melatonin significantly improved the IVM quality of DOs, leading to an increased parthenogenetic blastocyst formation rate and quality.
Although not all individuals who work outside of standard daytime hours develop physical and psychiatric issues, there is a substantial portion of shift workers who develop shift work disorder. Shift work disorder is due to a misalignment between an individual's endogenous circadian rhythms and environmental stimuli, and can have potentially serious consequences to an individual's health and quality of life. This article reviews the neurobiological and genetic underpinnings of shift work disorder, and describes how desynchronization of the molecular clock may lead to both physical and psychiatric illnesses. Diagnostic tools and treatment guidelines to address the circadian misalignment, excessive sleepiness, and insomnia experienced by patients with shift work disorder are also discussed.
The beneficial effect of supplementing culture medium with melatonin has been reported during in vitro embryo development of species such as mouse, bovine and porcine. However, the effect of melatonin on mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of various concentrations of melatonin (10−6 to 10−12 M) on the in vitro development of mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos for 96 h. Embryos cultured without melatonin were used as control. There was no significant difference in cleavage rates between the groups supplemented with melatonin, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and the control. The rate of development to blastocyst stage was significantly higher in the group supplemented with 10−12 M melatonin compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Thus, our data demonstrated that adding melatonin to pre-implantation mouse nuclear-transferred embryos can accelerate blastocyst formation.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin supplementation at different levels in culture medium on embryo development in rabbits. Embryos of 2–4 cells, 8–16 cells and morula stages were recovered from nulliparous Red Baladi rabbit does by laparotomy technique 24, 48 and 72 h post-insemination, respectively. Normal embryos from each stage were cultured to hatched blastocyst stages in either control culture medium (TCM-199 + 20% fetal bovine serum) or control supplemented with melatonin at 10−3 M, 10−6 M or 10−9 M. No effect of melatonin was found on development of embryos recovered at 24 h post-insemination. The high level of melatonin at 10−3 M adversely affected the in vitro development rates of embryos recovered at 48 h post-insemination (52 versus 86, 87 and 80% blastocyst rate; 28 versus 66, 78 and 59% hatchability rate for 10−3 M versus 10−9 M, 10−6 M and control, respectively, P< 0.05). At the morula stage, melatonin at 10−3 M significantly increased the in vitro development of embryos (92% for 10−3 M versus 76% for control, P < 0.05), while the hatchability rate of these embryos was not improved by melatonin (16–30% versus 52% for melatonin groups versus control, P < 0.05). Results show that a moderate level of melatonin (10−6 M) may improve the development and hatchability rates of preimplantation rabbit embryos. The addition of melatonin at a 10−3 M concentration enhances the development of rabbit morulae but may negatively affect the development of earlier embryos. More studies are needed to optimize the use of melatonin in in vitro embryo culture in rabbits.
Dietary melatonin supplementation during mid- to late-gestation increased umbilical artery blood flow and caused disproportionate fetal growth. This melatonin-induced increase in umbilical artery blood flow may alter nutrient availability to the fetus, which may lead to alterations in fetal size. The objectives of the current experiment were to determine amino acid (AA) and glucose concentrations as well as AA and glucose flux across the uteroplacenta using a mid- to late-gestation model of intrauterine growth restriction supplemented with dietary melatonin as a 2 × 2 factorial design. At day 50 of gestation, 32 ewes were supplemented with 5 mg of melatonin (MEL) or no melatonin (CON) and were allocated to receive 100% (adequate; ADQ) or 60% (restricted; RES) of nutrient requirements. On day 130 of gestation, uterine and umbilical blood flows were determined via Doppler ultrasonography during a non-survival surgery. Blood samples were collected under general anesthesia from the maternal saphenous artery, gravid uterine vein, umbilical artery, and umbilical vein for AA analysis and glucose. Total α-AA concentrations in maternal artery and gravid uterine vein were decreased (P < 0.05) in RES v. ADQ fed ewes. Maternal arterial − venous difference in total α-AA was increased (P ⩽ 0.01) in RES v. ADQ fed ewes, while total uterine α-AA flux was not different (P > 0.40) across all treatment groups. Fetal venous − arterial difference in total α-AA as well as uteroplacental flux of total α-AA were decreased (P < 0.05) in CON-RES v. CON-ADQ, and similar (P > 0.20) in MEL-RES v. CON-ADQ. Maternal concentrations and uterine flux of branched-chain AA (BCAA) were not different across all treatment groups; however, fetal uptake of BCAA was decreased (P < 0.05) in CON-RES v. CON-ADQ, and similar (P > 0.20) in MEL-RES v. CON-ADQ. Uterine uptake of glucose was not different (P ⩾ 0.08) across all treatment groups, while uteroplacental uptake of glucose was increased (P ⩽ 0.05) in RES v. ADQ ewes. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction increased maternal arterial − venous difference in total α-AA, while total uterine α-AA flux was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Melatonin supplementation did not impact maternal serum concentrations or uterine flux of glucose or AA; however, melatonin did improve fetal BCAA uptake during maternal nutrient restriction.
Melatonin secreted from the mammalian pineal gland is a free-radical scavenger that protects tissues from cell damage. The present study examined the effects of addition of melatonin to the culture medium on the developmental potential of parthenogenetic and somatic cell nuclear-transferred (SCNT) porcine oocytes. Supplementation of the maturation medium with melatonin did not increase the maturation rate, the proportion of oocytes that cleaved and developed into blastocysts after parthenogenetic activation, or the blastocyst cell number compared to controls. When 10−7 M melatonin was added to the culture medium, the proportion of parthenogenetic oocytes that developed to the 2-cell and 4-cell stages was significantly higher than that of controls. The potential of melatonin-treated oocytes to develop into blastocysts was high but not significantly different from that of controls. The addition of 10−7 M melatonin to the culture medium did not increase the preimplantation development of SCNT oocytes. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species in 4-cell parthenogenetic and SCNT embryos, but did not reduce the proportion of apoptotic cells in parthenogenetic and SCNT blastocysts. Although the results indicated that parthenogenetic and SCNT melatonin -treated embryos had significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species than controls, the potential of melatonin-treated embryos to develop into blastocysts was not significantly higher than that of controls, in contrast to previous reports. The beneficial effects of melatonin on the developmental potential of oocytes might depend on the culture conditions.
One experiment was conducted to determine whether the treatment with artificial long days and exogenous melatonin can induce reproductive activity during spring (seasonal anoestrus) in Mediterranean goats that are in daily contact with bucks and whether this treatment causes a variation in the reactivation of the reproductive activity in the normal breeding season. The experiment started on 4 November 2005 and finished on 27 October 2006. Thirty-four adult and barren does were used, distributed into two groups balanced according to their live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Seventeen females were exposed to long days (16 h of light/day) from 14 November 2005 to 20 February 2006. On 20 February, they received one s.c. melatonin implant (LD-M group) and were exposed to natural photoperiodic changes in an open shed. The other females during the experiment were placed in an open shed under natural photoperiod and remained as the control group (C group). The C and LD-M groups were keeping in contact with males during the whole experiment. During the experiment, the LW, BCS and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured weekly, oestrous activity was tested daily using entire aproned bucks, and ovulation rate was evaluated by laparoscopy 7 days after positive identification of the oestrus. A clear treatment–time interaction was observed for plasma progesterone concentrations (P < 0.001), with a period of high progesterone concentrations during the natural seasonal anoestrus in the LD-M group. Although 94.1% of females in the LD-M group presented ovarian activity during this period, no female in group C did. Resumption of ovarian activity in the subsequent natural breeding season was 2 weeks later in the LD-M group in comparison with group C (P < 0.05). We can conclude that in Mediterranean goat breeding systems, when females are in daily contact with bucks, the treatment with 3 months of long days and melatonin implant at the end of the light photoperiodic treatment can induce ovarian and oestrous activity during the seasonal anoestrus. Finally, this treatment causes a short delay in the subsequent reactivation of ovarian activity in the natural breeding season.
Goat breeds from subtropical latitudes show different annual reproductive cycles. Some of them display large seasonal variations in their annual breeding season, while others display a moderate seasonality or sexual activity all year round. This reproductive seasonality causes seasonality of milk, cheese and meat productions and, as a consequence, induces wide variation in producer incomes. To solve this problem and provide methods allowing producers to breed animals during the anestrous period and stabilize production all year round, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of their annual sexual activity and to identify the environmental factors controlling the timing of the annual reproductive cycle. Then, it is possible to build on these knowledge sustainable breeding techniques adapted to the environmental, economic and social characteristics of the local breeding system. In this review, I will illustrate this strategy through the example of our experiments in subtropical goats. First, we determined the characteristics of the annual breeding season in both male and female goats. Second, we identified the photoperiod as the major environmental factor controlling the timing of this annual breeding season. Third, we used the photoperiod to stimulate indirectly the sexual behavior of does. Indeed, we used photoperiodic treatments to stimulate the sexual activity of bucks during the non-breeding season. These sexually active male goats were then used to induce and synchronize the estrous behavior and ovulatory activity of anestrous females in confined or grazing conditions by using the ‘male effect’. Under subtropical conditions, these results constitute an original manner to control the reproductive activity of local goats using the photoperiod combined with the ‘male effect.’
Circulating melatonin is metabolized primarily in the liver, and secondarily in the kidney. Melatonin has been used successfully in the treatment of insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Several studies show that melatonin levels are lower in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared to age-matched control subjects. If the expectation of melatonin activity in AD is to be neuroprotective, the treatment must be initiated at the earliest possible stage of the disease. There is substantial evidence that fragmented sleep, advanced sleep phase syndrome, insomnia, and impaired daytime alertness seen in advanced age are the result of brain dysfunction that is closely linked to disruptions in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The aging process is multifactorial, and no single factor seems to be of basic importance. An example of the effect melatonin has on aging is that in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients.
Symptoms of abnormally early sleep are common in the elderly. Aging is associated with earlier habitual bedtimes and earlier morning wake-up times. Intrinsic disorders, are those in which the endogenous circadian regulation of sleep is itself abnormal. These intrinsic disorders include irregular sleep-wake rhythm, free-running disorder, and delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), as well as advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS). Amplitudes of other circadian rhythms, including core body temperature, are also reduced with age, and post-mortem brain studies have revealed reductions in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) volume, cell number, and neuropeptide rhythms, suggesting an age-related clock defect. Treatments recommended for ASPS include chronotherapy, timed melatonin administration, and timed light exposure. These treatments are all directed towards the primary goal in treating ASPS: to correct the abnormally early timing of sleep by delaying the circadian clock.
Among potential endophenotypes proposed for bipolar affective disorder focusing on circadian abnormalities associated with the illness has particularly high face validity. Melatonin sensitivity to light is one circadian endophenotype proposed as useful in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin sensitivity to light over a range of light intensities in order to compare and contrast responses in bipolar I patients with those of healthy adult volunteers.
The study included seven patients (4 females, 3 males) with bipolar I disorder and 34 control participants (22 females, 12 males) with no personal or family history of affective illness. Melatonin sensitivity to light was determined in all patients and participants across a range of light intensities (0, 200, 500 and 1000 lux).
The results indicated that patients showed melatonin super-sensitivity to light in comparison with controls, a response that was consistent across the entire light intensity range investigated.
The study provides further evidence for a super sensitive response in bipolar I patients and suggests that its potential usefulness as an endophenotypic marker of the illness is deserving of further research.