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In dealing with global changes—including climate, sea levels, and ocean chemistry—traditional approaches to managing species and threats may be unsuccessful. Acting on anticipated changes can improve management effectiveness. Rapid responses may be needed for some threats, such as the effects of extreme weather events. Disruption of ecological relationships among species is a consequence of extinctions and shifting habitats. When functions such as pollination, food provision, or predation are lost, humans may need to take them over a to prevent additional extinctions. Successful planning will account for range shifts and for barriers that include ridges, watercourses, and changing land uses. Species differ in their adaptive capacity in the face of global changes; some may benefit from translocation if suitable receiving habitat is available. Management intervention to build genetic diversity can also be beneficial. Scenario modeling and niche and demographic models can help to anticipate effects of global changes on species of concern. Such modeling can help to prioritize conservation actions designed to prevent imperilment or extinction. Changing regulations that fail to fully acknowledge global changes and associated conservation reliance is essential.
Little is known about who would benefit from internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n=1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomized controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomized to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity, blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5% change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, physical activity, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants and women. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for “sticking to healthful foods” and who “felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily”. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and wellbeing. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. Older individuals, women and individuals with less healthy diets at baseline benefitted more from PN advice. The odds of benefiting did not differ by weight status, genetic risk or socio-economic position. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
Unglaciated coastal areas in East Antarctica provide records of past ice sheet and glacier fluctuations and subsequent environmental conditions. In this paper we review lithological, geochemical, diatom and radiocarbon data from sediment records from inland and epishelf lakes in Bunger Hills, East Antarctica. While some hilltops were unglaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum, till deposits in lake basins indicate infilling by glacier ice prior to the Holocene. Proglacial sedimentation occurred in lakes during the early Holocene. Around 9.6 ka bp, deposition of marine sapropel started under relatively warm climate conditions. Inland lakes were affected by high clastic input from meltwater runoff until c. 7.9 ka bp, when deposition became highly organic and biogenic proxies indicate a period of cooler conditions. Epishelf lakes experienced a decrease in water exchange with the ocean and increased freshwater input around 7.7 ± 0.2 ka bp and after 2.2 ka bp. This probably resulted from grounding line advances of the bounding glaciers, which could be either controlled by relative sea level (RSL) lowering and/or climate-driven glacier dynamics. The absence of marine sediments in the postglacial record of Algae Lake indicates that Holocene RSL probably reached a maximum at or below 10 m above present sea level.
What characteristics of firms give them the confidence to invest in settings rife with expropriation by local officials? Empirically, firms in the developing world often face the threat of expropriation from local agents of the state rather than a centralized autocrat. Because policing local officials is costly, the state cannot easily credibly commit to doing so. This has negative consequences for investment. We argue that one solution is to allow firms to approach the state directly to ask for intervention. Not all firms are equally able to successfully get the attention of the state, however, so this mechanism only works for some. We develop an argument about the firm-level characteristics – large-scale employment, political connections, foreign ownership, and business association membership – that should make the central state more attentive to calls for help. Because firm with these characteristics are more likely to secure intervention against predatory bureaucrats, the latter are less likely to try to expropriate them. These firms' investment decisions should be less sensitive to local expropriation than other firms. We test this argument using data on cases of decentralized expropriation across Russia's regions and firm-level data from a cross-regional, large scale survey of Russian firms.
Micropaleontological and geochemical data were applied to sediments from southeastern Brazil to study the hydrodynamics associated with the Holocene sea level rise. Sediment cores were taken around Vitória Bay, examined for dinoflagellate cysts and subjected to isotopic analysis. The cyst assemblage mainly dominated by autotrophic species most notably O. centrocarpum, L. machaerophorum and T. vancampoae. The influence of the marine transgression and subsequent regression observed during the Holocene along the coast of Brazil could have initially favored the establishment of an oligotrophic and higher energy environment. The inflow of continental water from tributaries combined with a higher inflow of saline water into the estuarine system could have favored the establishment and subsequent deposition of the dinocysts.
Chapter 3 draws on the historical basis laid out in the prior chapter to establish how the current national security arenas of each country came about and what it means for the local cases under scrutiny here. Going beyond the national level, decisions made by peacekeeping headquarters and mission contributors inform the actions of international actors and form a sort of international security arena. The described historical legacies, narratives, and capacities of actors on the national and international levels shape the corridor in which different ordering practices can be negotiated at the local level.
Protein is important for growth, maintenance and protection of the body. Both adequacy of protein quantity and protein quality in the diet are important to guarantee obtaining all the essential amino acids. Protein–energy malnutrition is widely present in developing countries such as Nigeria and might result in stunting and wasting. Needs for protein differ depending on age and physiological status and are higher during growth, pregnancy and lactation. The present review assessed protein quantity and quality in diets of Nigerian infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women. Literature reviews and calculations were performed to assess adequacy of Nigerian protein intake and to examine the Nigerian diet. The digestible indispensable amino acid score was used to calculate protein quality of nine Nigerian staple foods and of a mixture of foods. The Nigerian population had mostly adequate protein intake when compared with the most recent protein recommendations by the FAO (2013) and WHO/FAO/UNU (2007). An important exception was the protein intake of adolescent girls and pregnant and lactating women. Most of the assessed Nigerian plant-based staple foods were of low protein quality and predominantly lacked the amino acid lysine. The addition of animal-source foods can bridge the protein quality gap created by predominance of plant-based foods in the Nigerian diet. The methodology of this review can be applied to other low- and middle-income countries where diets are often plant-based and lack variety, which might influence protein intake adequacy.
Forming a line of linkage and transition between national orders and the international order, regional structures influence, and are influenced by, these orders. Regional structures that accommodate sub-components of geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-cultural lines are sometimes unifying, sometimes divisive, but always dynamic in terms of their order-forming mission. While this dynamism plays a seminal role in the formation of order when appraised with an inclusive approach, it can also lay the ground for regional chaos in conditions of exclusionary polarization.
The seventh chapter of the book discusses the possibility and conditions of an inclusive regional governance under the light of lessons from recent regional initiatives of Turkey (Platform for Neighbors of Iraq, Syria-Israeli Peace talks and Tehran Agreement) and recommends the following principles of stability: shared destiny/common security, high level political dialogue, economic interdependence and cultural pluralism and co-existence.
Research on state-level suffrage associations points to women's greater participation in the public sphere—higher education, the professions, and civic organizations—as a significant predictor of a state's suffrage association succeeding in securing woman suffrage prior to passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. This finding raises the question of how women gained access to those areas of public life that had formal barriers to entry—higher education and the professions. Specifically, did women's participation in civic organizations play a role in helping women gain access to these areas of the public realm? Using event history analysis, this study explores the role of the Literary Club movement and the Suffrage movement in influencing a state's policy regarding women's right to practice law. I employ the concept of institutional logics to argue that Clubwomen and Suffragists exploited contradictions in the logics of traditional gender roles and of the American political system to press for expanded opportunities for women in the public realm. Their success in these efforts, however, was influenced by their organizations’ deference to the dictates of traditional gender roles.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a main cause of death and disabilities in young adults. Although learning and memory impairments are a major clinical manifestation of TBI, the consequences of TBI on the hippocampus are still not well understood. In particular, how lesions to the sensorimotor cortex damage the hippocampus, to which it is not directly connected, is still elusive. Here, we study the effects of sensorimotor cortex ablation (SCA) on the hippocampal dentate gyrus, by applying a highly sensitive gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis. Using GLCM analysis of granule neurons, we discovered, in our TBI paradigm, subtle changes in granule cell (GC) morphology, including textual uniformity, contrast, and variance, which is not detected by conventional microscopy. We conclude that sensorimotor cortex trauma leads to specific changes in the hippocampus that advance our understanding of the cellular underpinnings of cognitive impairments in TBI. Moreover, we identified GLCM analysis as a highly sensitive method to detect subtle changes in the GC layers that is expected to significantly improve further studies investigating the impact of TBI on hippocampal neuropathology.
The present study was carried out to unveil interactive relevance among consecutive and alternate members of a tritrophic system comprised of sugar beet genotypes, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and its parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) using demographic parameters. To do so, H. hebetor was reared on S. exigua fed on 10 sugar beet genotypes, including SB26; SB27; SB29; SB33; SB34; (7112*SB36)*Sh-1-HSF-5; FC220; FC301; SBSI006; and HM 1339RZ in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 (L: D) h photoperiod. The data was analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Our results revealed high variation in duration of different life stages of H. hebetor on S. exigua reared on different sugar beet genotypes examined. The shortest (10.605 days) and longest (13.721 days) pre-adult period of H. hebetor was on S. exigua reared on SB26 and SB34, respectively. The longest (17.2 days) and shortest adult longevity (7.5 days) was on S. exigua reared on SB26 and SB27, respectively. The highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) (0.209 day−1) and finite rate of increase (λ) (1.233 day−1) were observed on S. exigua reared on SB34 and their lowest values (0.159 and 1.172 day−1, respectively) were recorded on SB27. Resistant and susceptible genotypes to S. exigua, FC301 and (7112*SB36)*Sh-1-HSF-5, respectively, were only genotypes on which H. hebetor had greater and approximately equal r compared with S. exigua. This finding indicates high capability of H. hebetor to be successfully employed against S. exigua on sugar beet genotypes which are extremely different in resistance to this pest.
This study sought to investigate the determinants of current use of modern contraceptives beyond the individual level in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland). Previous studies have overlooked the role of community characteristics such as socioeconomic development, women’s empowerment and fertility norms in shaping contraceptive use. Hierarchical structured subsample data of 4112 sexually experienced women from the 2007 Eswatini Demographic Health Survey were analysed using multilevel logistic regression to identify factors contributing to community/cluster variations in women’s current use of modern contraceptives. Less than half (44.2%) of the sexually active women were using modern contraceptive methods in 2007. At the community level, the odds of contraceptive use decreased for rural women (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68–0.98) and among women residing in communities with high-fertility norms (AOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.66–0.89). After adjusting for both individual- and community-level factors, no community-level variables considered for the study were significantly associated with contraceptive use. The findings highlight in all four models, from the empty to full model, that there is a small and decreasing significant variation in women’s contraceptive use across communities (MOR, 1.37–1.17). In 2007, the findings suggest individual rather than community factors account for some contextual variability in contraceptive use. The study proposes the use of ethnographic techniques to unravel community factors that promote modern contraceptive use in Eswatini.
Little information is known about the influence of altitude on child growth in Ethiopia, where most people live in highlands. We investigated the relation of residential altitude with growth faltering (stunting) of infants and young children in Ethiopia. We also examined whether the altitude–growth relationship was independent of the influence of the dietary and non-dietary determinants of growth. We used the data of 26 976 under-5-year-old children included in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted from 2005 to 2016. The samples were recruited following a two-stage cluster sampling strategy. Stunting was defined by height-for-age <−2 z-scores. The relationship between residential altitude and stunting was examined by running multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling the effect of covariate dietary and non-dietary variables. The residential altitude of the study participants ranged from −116 to 4500 m above sea level (masl). There was a significant and progressive increase in the prevalence and odds of stunting with increasing altitude (P < 0·001), irrespective of the dietary and non-dietary predictors of stunting. The prevalence of stunting was lowest in lowlands (39 %) and highest in highlands (47 %). Compared with altitude <1000 masl, the odds of stunting was 1·41 times higher at altitude ≥2500 masl (OR 1·41, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·71) and 1·29 times higher at altitude 2000–2499 masl (OR 1·29, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·49). Children living in highlands might be at a higher risk of poor growth. Further studies are warranted to understand the mechanism behind the observed altitude–stunting link and identify strategies to compensate for the growth-faltering effect of living in highlands.
To help characterise the palaeogeographic and lacustrine environmental changes that resulted from the Holocene transgression and residual subsidence in the eastern Kanto Plain of central Japan, we analysed four drill cores and reviewed other core data from the southern part of the Lake Inba area. Fossil diatom assemblages yielded evidence of centennial-scale palaeogeographic and salinity responses to sea-level changes since the late Pleistocene. We determined that the seawater incursion into the Lake Inba area during the Holocene transgression occurred at approximately 9000 yr. We also recognised a late Holocene regression event corresponding to the Yayoi regression, considered to have occurred from ca. 3000 to ca. 2000 yr, and a subsequent transgression. Our data clarify some of the palaeogeographic changes that occurred in the Lake Inba area and document an overall trend toward lower salinity in the lake during the regression. In particular, the environment in Lake Inba changed from brackish to freshwater no later than 1000 yr. From the detailed palaeogeographic and palaeo-sea-level reconstruction, we recognised that residual subsidence occurred during the Holocene in this area. Thus, comparison of sea-level reconstructions based on modelling and fossil diatom assemblages is effective in interpreting Holocene long-term subsidence.
This article examines party sorting, elite cue and ideological polarization accounts of polarization dynamics. The study tests their differing expectations about trends in redistributive ideological polarization and partisan polarization in the British case using repeated cross-section and panel data. The authors reject party sorting accounts, which require ideology to be stable and changes in party support to drive partisan polarization, because they find that ideology trends with elite polarization and that ideological change causes partisan polarization. The authors reject elite cue accounts, which maintain that it is mainly partisans’ ideology that follows elite polarization, because they find virtually identical trends for initially ideologically similar non-partisans too. The study thus finds support for an ideological polarization account in which changes in elite polarization are associated with general changes in citizen redistributive ideology.
The nutritional intake of Tibetan sheep on the harsh Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is often under maintenance requirements, especially during the long, cold winter. However, they have adapted well and even thrive under these conditions. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into how the rumen epithelium of Tibetan sheep has adapted to the consumption of low-energy-level diets. For this purpose, we compared Tibetan and small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed, all wethers and 1·5 years of age), which were divided randomly into one of four groups and offered ad libitum diets of different digestible energy (DE) densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ DE/kg DM. The Tibetan sheep had higher rumen concentrations of total SCFA, acetate, butyrate and iso-acids but lower concentrations of propionate than small-tailed Han sheep. The Tibetan sheep had higher absorption capability of SCFA due to the greater absorption surface area and higher mRNA expression of the SCFA absorption relative genes than small-tailed Han sheep. For the metabolism of SCFA in the rumen epithelium, the small-tailed Han sheep showed higher utilisation of the ketogenesis pathway than Tibetan sheep; however, Tibetan sheep had greater regulation capacity in SCFA metabolism pathways. These differences between breeds allowed the Tibetan sheep to have greater capability of absorbing SCFA and better capacity to regulate the metabolism of SCFA, which would allow them to cope with low energy intake better than small-tailed Han sheep.
We assessed the effects of increased Ca consumption from fat-free milk in an energy-restricted diet and educational activities in the metabolic control of overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Fourteen subjects with T2DM (BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d)) were included in this randomised, crossover clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: drink containing 700 mg of Ca (DAIR) or drink containing 0 mg of Ca (CONT) for ninety consecutive days each. Energy-restricted diets (–500 kcal/d; –2092 kJ/d), containing 800 mg of Ca from dietary sources/d, were prescribed for both groups. Questionnaires were applied at baseline and at the end of the study to assess the subjects’ knowledge on the disease and on self-care, biochemical variables and physical activity. Blood pressure, food intake, body composition and anthropometry were assessed at baseline, days 45 and 90. There was a higher reduction of body fat %, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, waist:hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter, diastolic/systolic blood pressure and an increase in fat-free mass % in DAIR than in CONT. Uric acid, fasting glucose, Hb1Ac, parathyroid hormone and alanine aminotransferase concentrations reduced and vitamin D concentration increased after 90 d in DAIR compared with CONT. The consumption of energy-restricted diet containing 1200 mg Ca/d seems to favour metabolic control in subjects with T2DM. The educational activities increased the knowledge on the disease care.
Business ethics research has long been interested in understanding the conditions under which ethical consumption is consistent versus context-dependent. Extant research suggests that many consumers fail to make consistent ethical consumption decisions and tend to engage in ethical decisions associated with ingroup (vs. outgroup) identity cues. To fill this gap, four experiments examine how construal levels moderate the influence of ingroup versus outgroup identity cues in ethical consumption. The studies support the contention that when consumers use concrete construal to process information, they will focus on ingroup cues and make ethical consumption decisions that are aligned with ingroup biases. However, when consumers use abstract construal, they will act more consistently with their inner goals rather than focusing on ingroup and outgroup cues. Social goodwill, which indicates desires to give back to society, is identified as mediating the effects. The findings have important implications for ethical consumption and social influence literature.
We investigated whether non-digestible saccharide fermentation-derived hydrogen molecules (H2) in rat colon could improve the in vivo reduction–oxidation (redox) balance via regeneration of α-tocopherol, by assessing their effect on hydroxyl radicals, the α-tocopherol concentration and the redox balance. In Expt 1, a Fenton reaction with phenylalanine (0 or 1·37 mmol/l of H2) was conducted. In Expt 2, rats received intraperitoneally maize oil containing phorone (400 mg/kg) 7 d after drinking ad libitum water containing 0 or 4 % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) (groups CP and FP, respectively). In Expt 3, rats unable to synthesise ascorbic acid drank ad libitum for 14 d water with 240 mg ascorbic acid/l (group AC), 20 mg of ascorbic acid/l (group DC) or 20 mg of ascorbic acid/l and 4 % FOS (group DCF). In the Fenton reaction, H2 reduced tyrosine produced from phenylalanine to 72 % when platinum was added and to 92 % when platinum was excluded. In Expt 2, liver glutathione was depleted by administration of phorone to rats. However, compared with CP, no change in the m-tyrosine concentration in the liver of FP was detected. In Expt 3, net H2 excretion was higher in DCF than in the other rats after 3 d of the experiment. Furthermore, the concentrations of H2 and α-tocopherol and the redox glutathione ratio in perirenal adipose tissue of rats were significantly higher in DCF than in DC. To summarise, in rat colon, fermentation-derived H2 further shifted the redox balance towards a more reducing status in perirenal adipose tissue through increased regeneration of α-tocopherol.
How do political economic institutions and different types of institutional complementarity in particular influence firm behavior? Existing studies do not offer much help in answering this question. In this research, we systematically connect institutional complementarity and its two distinct logics (the logic of reinforcement and the logic of compensation) to firm performance. Using a sample of more than fourteen thousand firms from twenty advanced industrial democracies, our empirical analysis finds that institutional complementarity is related to firm performance in a distinct way. That is, the different logics of institutional complementarity apply only to specific segments of the economy. While the logic of reinforcement works for small firms and labor-intensive firms, the logic of compensation favors large firms and capital-intensive firms. The empirical novelty of our research lies in offering a cross-national, firm-level and large-n analysis of institutional complementarity. Theoretically, our finding of firm heterogeneity helps in establishing the boundary conditions of institutional complementarity and hence advances the general understanding of the subject.