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This chapter traces the imperial history of racial and environmental medical research, the economic drivers behind public health initiatives, and the legacies of colonialism in medical research and public health interventions in Africa. Examining this history of African encounters with development interventions around health provides much-needed context for breaking down misconceptions about African resistance to or ignorance of Western biomedical aid. The development episteme has perpetuated the idea that Africa is a place of disease and that Africans are resistant to treatments and cures. The nineteenth-century ad hoc campaigns to protect Europeans and segregate the sick from the healthy grew into state-sponsored public health programs during the interwar period. By World War II colonial development discourses on African health had shifted from the “white man’s grave” to biopower as states harnessed healthy bodies for productive purposes. Medical studies on declining populations, outbreaks of sleeping sickness or tuberculosis, STIs, and maternity and childcare sought healthcare solutions that would increase the productivity of labor. New hospitals, maternity centers, child welfare centers, and dispensaries brought some people relief and others terror. Scientists and officials used public health interventions and biomedical research to bolster the norms of the development episteme.
This chapter surveys several entry points through which science becomes legally relevant in WTO law and in trade disputes. It reviews the elaborate techniques of WTO panels and the Appellate Body to engage with scientific evidence in cases involving environmental and health risks. The chapter addresses the WTO’s expert consultation system and discusses the changing canons of deference afforded to WTO members in adopting science-based SPS measures. It extensively analyses the epistemic nature and significance of the two-stage standard of review, under which WTO dispute settlement bodies scrutinize the coherence of the reasoning provided by the risk assessor. The chapter concludes with identifying argumentative techniques in the WTO jurisprudence justifying adjudicatory conclusions concerning scientific evidence and arguments. It distinguishes reasoning methods built on scientific, intuitive, and legal rationality. The chapter also identifies an additional particular reasoning style, which utilizes concepts that are labelled as 'hybrid' benchmarks.
This chapter examines the practice of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACtHRP) and that of the ECOWAS Court. The analysis centers on comparable cases from their jurisprudence, where human rights claims have been filed due to health injuries allegedly caused by toxic exposure. The chapter addresses inter alia the role of the precautionary principle as a framing technique, applicable causal inquiries, the evidentiary practice of these fora and their deferential standards of review. It extensively criticizes the causal inquiry of the ECtHR, where causal links between toxic emissions and health injuries are apparently assessed based on non-scientific, intuitive proxies. From IACtHR jurisprudence the Human Rights and the Environment Advisory Opinion will also be discussed with respect to the causality-based jurisdiction the court announced.
Many books that aspire to go beyond descriptions of motivational processes to address the question of how to motivate self and others adopt a tactical approach that is overly mechanical and often limited to a narrow range of change pathways and targets of intervention. To avoid these pitfalls, this chapter focuses on broad principles for enhancing optimal human functioning rather than offering simplistic “prescriptions” for motivating self and others. In doing so, we also explain why the uniqueness of individual motivational patterns – psychologically, developmentally, and contextually – makes it impossible to offer formulaic advice for motivating self and others. To engage the reader’s interest, we use a novel Q&A format after the initial presentation of overarching principles to illustrate how a “principled” approach to motivating self and others can be used to diagnosis motivational problems, identify multiple targets of intervention, and envision a variety of pathways to more optimal functioning.
The Thriving with Social Purpose (TSP) motivational pattern focuses on the powerful consequences of effectively “amplifying” each of the components within our motivational systems to promote optimal functioning, while also infusing goals focused on belonging, helping, equity, and social responsibility into our “home page” motivational orientation. This chapter thus explains, in scientific terms, what it means to thrive and how social purpose goals can elevate our life experience. Consistent with the idea that humans are “whole-person-in-context” living systems, this chapter also discusses ways to enhance motivation and optimal functioning by amplifying the nonmotivational components of human functioning (i.e., biology, knowledge and skills, and key features of the environment). This is the chapter that scholars can best use to generate a wide range of hypotheses for future research about motivation and optimal functioning and that professionals can best use to guide and catalyze their (intrinsically whole-person) intervention efforts.
Childhood obesity is of increasing concern in South Africa, and interventions to promote healthy behaviours related to obesity in children are needed. Young children in urban low-income settings are particularly at risk of excess adiposity. The current study aimed to describe how parents of preschool children in an urban South African township view children’s movement and dietary behaviours, and associated barriers and facilitators.
A contextualist qualitative design was utilised with in-depth interviews conducted in the home setting and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Field notes were used to contextualise findings.
Four neighbourhoods in a predominantly low-income urban township.
Sixteen parents (fourteen mothers, two fathers) of preschool-age children were recruited via preschools.
Four themes were developed: children’s autonomy and the limits of parental control; balancing trust and fears; the appeal of screens; and aspirations and pressures of parenthood. Barriers to healthy behaviours included children’s food preferences, aspirations and pressures to consume unhealthy foods, other adults giving children snacks, lack of safe places to play, unhealthy food environments and underlying structural factors. Facilitators included set routines, the preschool environment, safe places to play and availability of healthy foods.
Low-income families in Soweto face many structural challenges that cannot easily be addressed through public health interventions, but there may be opportunities for behavioural interventions targeting interpersonal and organisational aspects, such as bedtime routines and preschool snacks, to achieve positive changes. More research on preschoolers’ movement and dietary behaviours, and related interventions, is needed in South Africa.
A growing number of older men are living alone. They are often referred to as an at-risk group in health-care systems. The purpose of this article is to establish an overview of these men's health and health-care utilisation. We do so by drawing on three sources: an online survey with health-care professionals, data from a national self-report health study and register-based data on health-care utilisation. The results show that older men living alone generally have lower health scores than older men co-habiting and that, among older men living alone, lower educational level is associated with lower health scores but also a greater use of free-of-charge health-care services. Health-care professionals conducting preventive home visits consider older men's social needs the most pronounced problem for the men's wellbeing and call for new services to be custom made for them. In this article, we discuss differences between older men living in rural and urban areas and between those who are single, divorced or widowed. We conclude that health and social care systems must differentiate between sub-groups of older men living alone when developing new services and that free-of-charge services, such as general practitioners and home care, should be considered as vehicles for addressing health inequities.
Identify dietary patterns and examine differences in anthropometric measures, blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional knowledge of six and ten year old children at baseline and following a nutrition and physical activity intervention, with respect to dietary pattern and treatment group.
Longitudinal study. Food Diary, nutritional knowledge questionnaire and 550m walk/run test measured dietary intake, nutritional knowledge and cardiorespiratory fitness, respectively. Blood pressure (BP), weight, height and waist circumference were also measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) were derived. All measurements were performed at baseline and following intervention.
Two primary schools (one intervention and one control school), Cork, Ireland.
Six (n=39, age 5.9 ± 0.6 years) and ten (n=49, age 9.8 ± 0.5 years) year olds.
Two dietary patterns were identified, using k-means cluster analysis, for both six (unhealthy and nutrient dense) and ten year olds (processed and Western diet) at baseline. Dietary patterns derived post-intervention were 1) plant based and 2) processed foods for six year olds and 1) nutrient dense and 2) unhealthy for ten year olds. There was no statistically significant difference in dietary patterns for six and ten year olds at baseline and post-intervention (p > 0.05). Following the intervention, a MANOVA showed there were no statistically significant differences in nutritional knowledge, BMI, WHtR, cardiorespiratory fitness and BP based on dietary pattern and intervention/control group for both six and ten year olds (p > 0.05).
Three out of four dietary patterns identified for six and ten year olds were unfavourable. While no statistically significant evidence of intervention impact was found on dietary patterns, a positive trend was emerging amongst ten year olds in the current study.
Climate change poses a profound challenge to human well-being and the very foundation of social justice and human rights. This chapter applies a psychological lens to understand the impacts of and responses to climate change at individual and societal levels. We describe the dire mental health implications of climate change impacts, which cause trauma and uproot lives, destabilize socioeconomic and governance institutions, exacerbate inequality by disproportionately impacting vulnerable communities, and spur conflict through resource scarcity and uncertainty. We examine group identity and belonging dynamics driving societal conflict, including competition over resources; scapegoating, hate crimes, and exclusionary politics; ethnic and political strife surrounding immigration; and political polarization and the rise of far-right parties – and consider their human rights implications. We then explore the psychology of climate inaction. Our moral judgment system is unable to grapple with a psychologically distant threat whose cause is endemic to the foundation of society. Motivated reasoning processes, including identity-protective cognition and system justification, contribute to moral disengagement and resistance to direly needed systemic changes. We offer psychologically informed approaches for overcoming inaction through communication, solution design, and empowerment. Finally, we overview international climate efforts, with a focus on the UN 2030 Global Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Human rights are a pillar of the United Nations that emerged as a formative principle of that body in 1945 and that are evident in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted in 1948) and other subsequent major international instruments affirming the dignity and equality of all. While the United Nations is primarily a stage for member governments to make agreements, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), including those comprised of psychologists, can be accredited by two bodies, namely the Economic and Social Council and the Department of Global Communications, to advocate on behalf of their issues. This chapter presents a historical narrative of more than seventy years of engagement by psychologists who represent such NGOs on issues of human rights and social justice. Five sections cover individual psychologists who pioneered interactions with the United Nations; the varied activities and contexts in which psychologists interact with UN bodies; contributions of selected psychology organizations at the United Nations that have been active in the protection and advancement of human rights; new ways psychologists are collaborating in human rights efforts at the United Nations; and challenges and the way forward for such professionals in their contributions to human rights on the world stage.
This chapter explains why environmental health issues carry profound implications for China’s future and how they threaten to severely weaken the nation’s economic growth, undermine its sociopolitical stability, and complicate China’s foreign relations. Environmental health issues not only exact a significant economic toll but also have profound sociopolitical implications. With the growing public attention on air quality, pollution has increasingly become a political issue that tests the Chinese government’s ruling capacity. The environmental health problems, in conjunction with other mounting domestic challenges, will constrain Chinese leaders’ ability to mobilize the resources and internal support necessary for China to play a global leadership role.
The introduction proposes environmental health challenges as an obstacle to China’s global leadership. Following a discussion of the unique features of environmental health problems in China, it explains why social response to the crisis is embedded in a political milieu dramatically different from the Mao era. It also touches upon issues of state response, including the challenges of policy implementation. Furthermore, it explains why the discussion fits squarely within the debate over Chinese state’s capacity to revamp itself and the prospect for China’s global leadership. It ends with a discussion of the analytical framework and organization of the book.
Reproductive justice refers to three primary principles: the right not to have a child, the right to have a child, and the right to parent children in safe and healthy environments. It depends upon the adoption and enactment of a human rights framework, including both negative rights (e.g., governments must not interfere with people’s autonomy) and positive rights (e.g., governments must ensure that people can exercise their rights and freedom and live with dignity). The term is preferred by many because it merges support for reproductive rights with broader movements for social justice. Lack of control over one’s body and an inability to make decisions about one’s destiny can have lasting impacts on women’s physical and mental health and well-being, and have been associated with shame, depression, anxiety, anger, trauma, poor body image, low self-esteem, and low self-worth. Reproductive injustice increases women’s morbidity and mortality risks, and it makes it difficult for them to provide a safe, healthy, and loving environment for their children. This chapter explores four themes based on psychological theory and research – poverty, access to education, access to health care services and supplies, culture – that impact reproductive health (e.g., preconception health, maternal care, maternal and infant mortality, abortion).
Humanitarian crises such as armed conflicts and natural disasters frequently unfold in countries that are already struggling with underlying economic difficulties, political instability, social marginalization, and poor overall health indicators. Persons with mental health conditions are at increased risk for human rights violations during humanitarian crises. Exposure to human rights violations is rampant during humanitarian emergencies, which, in turn, negatively impacts mental health. This chapter describes key human rights instruments and guidelines on mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings. Specific challenges and approaches for promoting and protecting the human rights of persons with mental health conditions living in communities and institutions in countries affected by conflict and crises are discussed. These include barriers to accessing basic needs, insufficient availability of appropriate mental health services and supports, and limited access to social and economic opportunities. Recommendations include promoting a human rights framework as part of programs and services, increasing access to mental health services at the community level (including for severe mental disorders), protecting persons with severe mental disorders in communities and institutions, and providing comprehensive social and community interventions that promote full inclusion and participation.
Applying normative and practice-based approaches, this chapter clarifies the evolving application of human rights to mental health through the normative expansion of the right to health and the rights of persons with disabilities and the emerging psychosocial approaches to mental health services and policy. It examines the challenges mental disability poses for the full enjoyment of human rights, and the responses of the human rights framework, as well as the integration of a normative and practice-based approach to human rights and mental health. Comparing the rights defined in the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and for the Improvement of Mental Health Care (MI Principles) and those in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), it demonstrates that the enumeration of rights defined in these two essential documents on mental health and human rights underscores that the mental health–specific provisions of the MI Principles add to the normative content of the corresponding articles of the CRPD and the latter provide legally binding force to the corresponding nonbinding pronouncements of the MI Principles. The conclusion proposes some guidelines for mental health practice and the application of human rights norms to mental health.
Metaphor involves the perception of similarities or correspondences between unlike entities and processes, so that one can experience, think and communicate about one thing in terms of another – lives as journeys, minds as machines, emotions as external forces, and so on. A consistent thread in the history of the study of metaphor concerns the potential of different metaphor choices to reflect and facilitate different ways of viewing topics or phenomena – a function of metaphor that is itself metaphorically captured by the notion of “framing.” The related phenomenon of metonymy, although less well studied in these terms, also facilitates framing in discourse. In this chapter, we review research on the framing power of metaphor and metonymy, with a particular focus on studies that are relevant to or directly concerned with the use of metaphor in discourse, broadly conceived. We begin with an overview of rhetorical approaches to metaphor as a tool for persuasion and of cognitive approaches to metaphor as a tool for thinking, including both theoretical and empirical studies. We review a variety of studies that have investigated the framing function of metaphor, and, to a lesser extent, metonymy, in authentic language use from a range of sources (e.g. politics, science and education) and using different qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Focusing on metaphor, where the evidence is most robust, we critically examine the relationship between, broadly speaking, cognitive and discourse-based approaches to metaphor. We go on to provide a concrete example of the framing function of metaphor in healthcare discourse, and show how cognitive and discourse perspectives can be usefully combined into a multilevel analytical framework that can, among other things, be used to make recommendations for professional practice and training.
This chapter’s purpose is to summarize and analyze current states of the rights of persons with disabilities and the nexus of these rights with mental health and psychosocial well-being, particularly focusing on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It describes the key rights in CRPD and analyzes the interrelationship between CRPD and SDGs. The chapter also presents the history of global efforts to protect and promote the rights of persons with disabilities as well as recent and current developments. Persons with disabilities, including persons with mental health conditions and psychosocial disabilities, have faced numerous barriers and violations of human rights for a long time. The adoption of CRPD, coupled with SDGs and other key global agreements, provides great momentum for realizing their rights. The chapter concludes that respecting diversity, eliminating social barriers (including attitudinal ones), being attentive to the silent majority and minorities and reaching out to unheard voices, enabling supportive environment where individuals support each other based on needs instead of their attributes, and establishing and incorporating indicators pertaining to mental health and well-being into the monitoring efforts of sustainable development, peace and security, and overall human rights together with mental health perspectives are critical.
Given that smoking results in poor physical and mental health, reducing tobacco harm is of high importance. Recommendations published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence to reduce smoking harms included provision of support, use of nicotine containing products and commissioning of smoking cessation services.
This report explores the difficulties in obtaining such support, as observed in a recently conducted randomised controlled trial in patients with severe mental ill health, and outlines suggestions to improve facilitation of provision.
Data collected during the Smoking Cessation Intervention for Severe Mental Ill Health Trial (SCIMITAR+) (trial Registration ISRCTN72955454), was reviewed to identify the difficulties experienced, across the trial, with regards to access and provision of nicotine replacements therapy (NRT). Actions taken to facilitate access and provision of NRT were collated to outline how provision could be better facilitated.
Access to NRT varied across study settings and in some instances proved impossible for patients to access. Difficulty in access was irrespective of a diagnosis of severe mental ill health. Where NRT was provided, this was not always provided in accordance with NICE guidelines.
Availability of smoking cessation support, and NRT provision would benefit from being made clearer, simpler and more easily accessible so as to enhance smoking cessation rates.
We can take people out of wars, but we cannot take wars out of people. When individuals are the victims of political traumas and human rights violations, they not only endure difficult journeys to get to safety, but they are also often received with hostility in the host countries.
As per Ignacio Martin-Baro, the role of a psychologist is to enhance the human condition. We base this chapter on idea and describe a model for psychologists’ roles in the resettlement of refugees, where the individual is supported in moving from refugee status to immigrant status. Psychologists have various roles in different phases, from providing basic information and guidance about resources in the first phase of preparation to empowering, motivating, and advocating for refugees in the second phase of transition, followed by assessing refugees’ needs and being part of community interventions in the third arrival phase and ending with clinical care for those with adjustment problems in the settlement phase.
Finally, the chapter ends with a discussion about evidence-based practice, a review of the intersection between social justice and psychologists’ work, and a brief history of how the American Psychological Association has embodied that in recent years.
Perceived stigma may be an unintended consequence of tobacco denormalization policies among remaining smokers. Little is known about the role of perceived stigmatization in cessation behaviours.
To test if perceived public smoker stigma is associated with recent attempts to cease smoking and future cessation plans among adult daily smokers.
Using merged data from the biennial national survey Norwegian Monitor 2011 and 2013 (N daily smokers = 1,029), we performed multinomial and ordinal regression analyses to study the impact of perceived public stigma (measured as social devaluation and personal devaluation) on recent quit attempts, short-term intention to quit and long-term intention to quit, controlling for confounders. One additional analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between stigma and intention to quit on quit attempts.
A significant association between perceived social devaluation and recent quit attempts was found (OR 1.76). Perceived stigma was not associated with future quit plans. Personal devaluation was not associated with any cessation outcome. The role of perceived social devaluation on quit attempts was mainly found among smokers with intentions to quit.
These findings indicate that stigma measured as social devaluation of smokers is associated with recent quit attempts, but not with future quit plans.