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CHD are among the most common congenital defects. Due to the chronic nature of CHD, patients face various risk factors that threaten their mental health. However, a comprehensive understanding of the medical and social predictors of mental health issues in adults with CHD is lacking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in adults with CHD.
This cross-sectional descriptive study focused on adults with CHD in Kerman, Iran. The participants completed demographic information alongside two psychological assessment tools: the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)-21. The data were analyzed using SPSS 26.
The mean age of the participants was 29.94 ± 12.36 years, and 63.8% were female. According to the DASS, 73.4% did not have depression, 61% did not have anxiety, and 76.2% did not have stress. In total, 19% had mild stress, and 4.8% had moderate stress. According to the BAI, 27.6% did not have anxiety. Individual characteristics were not significantly associated with depression. However, gender, age, and type of surgery were significantly associated with anxiety. Cyanosis was significantly associated with stress.
The results show that mental disorders like depression, anxiety, and stress are highly prevalent in adults with CHD. The prevalence depends on individual factors such as age, gender, and disease severity. Therefore, it is recommended that mental disorders in this population be evaluated and treated accurately.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered a frontline treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) and is recommended as a preferred option in many Western healthcare settings. CBT has proven effective for clients from the majority population in Western countries, but to meet the needs of diverse clients it may require adaptation. The benefits of culturally adapted group CBT (CA-GCBT) for clients from diverse backgrounds remains uncertain. The objective of this review is to systematically identify, evaluate, and integrate the existing empirical literature on CA-GCBT for depressed clients from diverse backgrounds. A comprehensive search was conducted in April 2021 across various databases, including, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cinahl, Academic Search, and APA PsycArticle. Quantitative studies meeting the inclusion criteria resulted in a total of ten articles being included in the review. Results from the analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in depressive symptoms following CA–GCBT in nine out of the ten studies, with one study providing descriptive results. Additionally, improvements were observed in dysfunctional beliefs, functioning, and quality of life ratings. These findings suggest promising outcomes for racially minoritised clients in Western countries and racial majority clients in non-Western countries. Adaptations in CA-GCBT primarily focus on modifying the group delivery, therapy content, staffing, processes, and client-specific factors. Overall, CA-GCBT shows promise as a treatment for depressed clients from diverse backgrounds. However, further evaluation is necessary to establish its efficacy in clinical practice more robustly, to identify which adaptations are most effective for specific populations and to explore the experiences of implementing or attending such group interventions.
Key learning aims
(1) To explore the benefits of CA-GCBT for depressed clients from diverse backgrounds. Although CBT is a frontline treatment for MDD and often delivered in group format, it remains unclear whether CA-GCBT is beneficial.
(2) To summarise findings about the benefits of CA-GCBT for racially minoritised clients in Western countries and racial majority clients in non-Western countries.
(3) To outline the modifications made to common CBT group approaches to enhance cultural responsiveness for clients from diverse backgrounds.
(4) To provide support to therapists, healthcare services, and broader healthcare structures seeking to implement evidence-based knowledge when adapting group CBT for diverse cultural groups. This enables them to modify existing group CBT protocols or consider specific CA-GCBT interventions.
Natural disasters have a significant impact on the mental health of affected populations. The February 2023 earthquakes in Syria and Turkey caused widespread devastation.
To explore the mental health impact of the earthquakes in Syria on the population across areas differentially damaged by the disaster.
This cross-sectional study conducted in Syria included 1406 adults recruited via social media platforms 1 month after the February 2023 earthquakes. Demographic information, earthquake exposure questions, the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5: for probable post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9: for probable depression) and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7: for probable anxiety) were included to compare outcomes across areas severely, moderately and slightly damaged by the earthquakes.
Probable PTSD and GAD rates were higher in the severely (57.9 and 57.3% respectively) and moderately damaged regions (55.4 and 56.3% respectively) than in the slightly damaged regions (44.6 and 48.3% respectively) (PTSD: P < 0.001, GAD: P = 0.005). More participants in severely damaged regions (60.6%) reported symptoms of depression compared with moderately (53.1%) and slightly damaged (50.8%) regions (P = 0.003). Poorer mental health outcomes were associated with being female, single, younger, having a damaged or destroyed house, seeing something tragic in person and hearing tragic stories. Seeing something tragic on social media was not statistically significant.
This study highlights the higher prevalence of probable mental disorders in areas with more severe earthquake damage, with over 50% of the population reporting probable PTSD, depression or anxiety. The study also suggests a significant cumulative effect of these earthquakes on an already trauma- and disaster-affected population.
Session 5 focuses on the sensations that comprise low-arousal emotions such as sadness, guilt, and boredom. The pit of dread in your gut when you have done something wrong (Ricky the Rock), the feeling of being weighted down with sand that can happen when one is sad (Bertha Blah), or when your mind and body feel like you are utterly empty but still eager for something to do (Empty Eliza) are some friends we meet this session. Seeing what happens to feelings of heaviness when you snuggle with someone or something and challenging an empty mind to come up with 50 things to do are some of the adventures in this session.
Facial expressions are a core component of emotions and nonverbal social communication. Therefore, hypomimia as secondary symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has adverse effects like social impairment, stigmatization, under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression, and a generally lower quality of life. Beside unspecific dopaminergic treatment, specific treatment options for hypomimia in PD are rarely investigated. This quasi-randomized controlled trial evaluated the short-term effects of facial electromyogram (EMG) based biofeedback to enhance facial expression and emotion recognition as nonverbal social communication skills in PD patients. Furthermore effects on affect are examined.
A sample of 34 in-patients with PD were allocated either to facial EMG-biofeedback as experimental group or non-facial exercises as control group. Facial expression during posing of emotions (measured via EMG), facial emotion recognition, and positive and negative affect were assessed before and after treatment. Stronger improvements were expected in the EMG-biofeedback in comparison to the control group.
The facial EMG-biofeedback group showed significantly greater improvements in overall facial expression, and especially for happiness and disgust. Also, overall facial emotion recognition abilities improved significantly stronger in the experimental group. Positive affect was significantly increased in both groups with no significant differences between them, while negative affect did not change within both groups.
The study provides promising evidence for facial EMG-biofeedback as a tool to improve facial expression and emotion recognition in PD. Embodiment theories are discussed as working mechanism.
Reward processing dysfunctions are considered a candidate mechanism underlying anhedonia and apathy in depression. Neuroimaging studies have documented that neurofunctional alterations in mesocorticolimbic circuits may neurally mediate these dysfunctions. However, common and distinct neurofunctional alterations during motivational and hedonic evaluation of monetary and natural rewards in depression have not been systematically examined. Here, we capitalized on pre-registered neuroimaging meta-analyses to (1) establish general reward-related neural alterations in depression, (2) determine common and distinct alterations during the receipt and anticipation of monetary v. natural rewards, and, (3) characterize the differences on the behavioral, network, and molecular level. The pre-registered meta-analysis (https://osf.io/ay3r9) included 633 depressed patients and 644 healthy controls and revealed generally decreased subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and striatal reactivity toward rewards in depression. Subsequent comparative analyses indicated that monetary rewards led to decreased hedonic reactivity in the right ventral caudate while natural rewards led to decreased reactivity in the bilateral putamen in depressed individuals. These regions exhibited distinguishable profiles on the behavioral, network, and molecular level. Further analyses demonstrated that the right thalamus and left putamen showed decreased activation during the anticipation of monetary reward. The present results indicate that distinguishable neurofunctional alterations may neurally mediate reward-processing alterations in depression, in particular, with respect to monetary and natural rewards. Given that natural rewards prevail in everyday life, our findings suggest that reward-type specific interventions are warranted and challenge the generalizability of experimental tasks employing monetary incentives to capture reward dysregulations in everyday life.
The glabellar region of the face harbors the so called grief muscles (corrugator and procerus muscles). Combined contraction of the corrugator muscle and the medial part of the frontalis muscle account for facial features of emotional distress like the ’omega melancholicum’ or Veraguth’s folds and can be observed frequently in patients suffering from mental disorders including depression.
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, the facial expression of emotions generates proprioceptive feedback signals that can maintain and reinforce the expressed emotions. Relaxation of glabellar muscles by means of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections may not only give the face a less negative and more positive expression, but may also interrupt the described feedback loop and thereby lead to a less negative and more positive emotional state.
This chapter summarizes the studies showing the effect of BoNT treatment on depression, illustrates the pertinent facial expressions and the underlying muscles that produce grief expression and shows the recommended injection sites along with dose recommendations.
Evidence suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be a helpful approach for older adults experiencing anxiety and depression. Some research has suggested this is also the case for those caring for a family member with dementia. Little research has been conducted into the impact of CBT for older adults juggling the demands of caring for multiple family members with dementia.
This case study aimed to evaluate the application of CBT to ‘Mrs P’, a 68-year-old client experiencing anxiety and depression whilst caring for two family members with dementia.
A single case experimental design study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of CBT formulation and intervention, including cognitive restructuring of unhelpful thoughts about caregiving and increasing engagement in pleasurable activities.
Mrs P’s depression and anxiety scores improved significantly throughout treatment, and she met her goal of being able to manage when caregiving activities go wrong during daily life.
CBT may be a helpful approach to reducing anxiety and depression in dementia family caregivers.
Identifying youths most at risk to COVID-19-related mental illness is essential for the development of effective targeted interventions.
To compare trajectories of mental health throughout the pandemic in youth with and without prior mental illness and identify those most at risk of COVID-19-related mental illness.
Data were collected from individuals aged 18–26 years (N = 669) from two existing cohorts: IMAGEN, a population-based cohort; and ESTRA/STRATIFY, clinical cohorts of individuals with pre-existing diagnoses of mental disorders. Repeated COVID-19 surveys and standardised mental health assessments were used to compare trajectories of mental health symptoms from before the pandemic through to the second lockdown.
Mental health trajectories differed significantly between cohorts. In the population cohort, depression and eating disorder symptoms increased by 33.9% (95% CI 31.78–36.57) and 15.6% (95% CI 15.39–15.68) during the pandemic, respectively. By contrast, these remained high over time in the clinical cohort. Conversely, trajectories of alcohol misuse were similar in both cohorts, decreasing continuously (a 15.2% decrease) during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic symptom severity predicted the observed mental health trajectories in the population cohort. Surprisingly, being relatively healthy predicted increases in depression and eating disorder symptoms and in body mass index. By contrast, those initially at higher risk for depression or eating disorders reported a lasting decrease.
Healthier young people may be at greater risk of developing depressive or eating disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted mental health interventions considering prior diagnostic risk may be warranted to help young people cope with the challenges of psychosocial stress and reduce the associated healthcare burden.
Depression is a highly recurrent disorder, with more than 50% of those affected experiencing a subsequent episode. Although there is relatively little stability in symptoms across episodes, some evidence indicates that suicidal ideation may be an exception. However, these findings warrant replication, especially over longer periods and across multiple episodes.
To assess the relative stability of suicidal ideation in comparison with other non-core depressive symptoms across episodes.
We examined 490 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline and at least one subsequent episode during 9-year follow-up within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was used to assess DSM-5 non-core MDD symptoms (fatigue, appetite/weight change, sleep disturbance, psychomotor disturbance, concentration difficulties, worthlessness/guilt, suicidal ideation) at baseline and 2-, 4-, 6- and 9-year follow-up. We examined consistency in symptom presentation (i.e. whether the symptom met the diagnostic threshold, based on a binary categorisation of the IDS) using kappa (κ) and percentage agreement, and stability in symptom severity using Spearman correlation, based on the continuous IDS scores.
Out of all non-core depressive symptoms, insomnia appeared the most stable across episodes (r = 0.55–0.69, κ = 0.31–0.47) and weight decrease the least stable (r = 0.03–0.33, κ = 0.06–0.19). For suicidal ideation, correlations across episodes ranged from r = 0.36 to r = 0.55 and consistency ranged from κ = 0.28 to κ = 0.49.
Suicidal ideation is moderately stable in recurrent depression over 9 years. Contrary to prior reports, however, it does not exhibit substantially more stability than most other non-core symptoms of depression.
Cold-water immersion (e.g. adapted cold showers, partial or whole-body immersion, cold swimming) are nowadays increasingly being used as an adjunctive procedure to enhance the effects of primary treatment of various clinical conditions, including depressive and anxiety disorders. This brief article reviews the evidence regarding the beneficial effects of cold-water immersion on clinical depression and anxiety and outlines potential therapeutic mechanisms underlying the intervention. Promising avenues for future research and best practice recommendations are also discussed to improve the clinical effectiveness of cold-water immersion.
We aimed to answer the questions of whether early-life (perinatal and/or juvenile) exercise can induce antidepressant-like effects in a validated rodent model of depression, and whether such early-life intervention could prevent or reverse the adverse effects of early-life stress in their offspring.
Male and female Flinders sensitive line rats born to a dam that exercised during gestation, or not, were either maternally separated between PND02 and 16 and weaned on PND17 or not. Half of these animals then underwent a fourteen-day low-intensity exercise regimen from PND22. Baseline depressive-like behaviour was assessed on PND21 and then reassessed on PND36, whereafter hippocampal monoamine levels, redox state markers and metabolic markers relevant to mitochondrial function were measured.
Pre-pubertal exercise was identified as the largest contributing factor to the observed effects, where it decreased immobility time in the FST by 6%, increased time spent in the open arms of the EPM by 9%. Hippocampal serotonin and norepinephrine levels were also increased by 35% and 26%, respectively, whilst nicotinic acid was significantly decreased.
These findings suggest that pre-pubertal low-intensity exercise induces beneficial biological alterations that could translate into antidepressant behaviour in genetically susceptible individuals.
Women who experience pregnancy loss are at increased risk of psychological distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Despite the substantial evidence base for trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for PTSD, there is limited research on this specific type of trauma, as well as a dearth of research exploring treatment for co-morbid PTSD and depression. This study used a single case experimental design to assess the efficacy of sequential CBT for treating PTSD and depression in a primary care setting in the United Kingdom. Results demonstrate a reduction in scores on the PCL-5 following trauma-focused CBT, but not a clinically significant reduction in depression scores. This write-up reflects on the effectiveness of sequential treatment and suggests alternative approaches. Future directions for research are also given.
Dedication: The authors dedicate this paper to all parents who have experienced pregnancy or baby loss.
Key learning aims
(1) To gain an understanding of some of the challenges in delivering CBT for trauma related to pregnancy loss.
(2) To reflect on treatment of co-morbid PTSD and depression through flexible use of evidence-based treatment, and consider alternative approaches to sequential treatment.
(3) To consider the impact of grief in formulation and treatment.
To describe levels of pain over time during disease progression in individual patients and for a total sample of patients with motor neuron disease (MND), respectively, and to examine associations between pain, disease severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and depression.
A prospective cohort study was conducted on 68 patients with MND, including data collected on five occasions over a period of 2 years. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form. Depression was assessed using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-Depression-Inventory (ADI-12). Disability progression was measured using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale – Revised Version (ALSFRS-R). HRQOL was assessed using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-5).
Participants reported great individual variation over time. The median level of pain was 4 (min 0 and max 10). Higher levels of pain during the last 24 h were associated with higher depression scores (ADI-12), poorer quality of life (ALSAQ-5), and lower reporting of fine and gross motor skills (ALSFRS-R). Baseline pain levels did not predict future values of depression and function. Individuals reporting average pain >3 experienced more hopelessness toward the future and reported higher depression scores compared with participants reporting average pain <3.
Significance of results
Great within-individual variation of pain intensity was reported. Pain intensity was associated with depression, function and HRQOL cross-sectionally, but it did not have a strong prognostic value for future depression, function, or HRQOL. Patients with MND should be offered frequent assessment of pain and depressive symptoms in person-centered care, allowing for individualization of treatment.
Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and the majority of suicide deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.
To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who have presented to health services following self-harm in Pakistan.
This study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of participants from a large multicentre randomised controlled trial of self-harm prevention in Pakistan. A total of 901 participants with a history of self-harm were recruited from primary care clinics, emergency departments and general hospitals in five major cities in Pakistan. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and Suicide Attempt Self Injury Interview assessment scales were completed.
Most participants recruited were females (n = 544, 60.4%) in their 20s. Compared with males, females had lower educational attainment and higher unemployment rates and reported higher severity scores on BSI, BDI and BHS. Interpersonal conflict was the most frequently cited antecedent to self-harm, followed by financial difficulties in both community and hospital settings. Suicide was the most frequently reported motive of self-harm (N = 776, 86.1%). Suicidal intent was proportionally higher in community-presenting patients (community: N = 318, 96.9% v. hospital: N = 458, 79.9%; P < 0.001). The most frequently reported methods of self-harm were ingestion of pesticides and toxic chemicals.
Young females are the dominant demographic group in this population and are more likely to attend community settings to seek help. Suicidal intent as the motivator of self-harm and use of potentially lethal methods may suggest that this population is at high risk of suicide.
There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
Although seasonality has been documented for mental disorders, it is unknown whether similar patterns can be observed in employee sickness absence from work due to a wide range of mental disorders with different severity level, and to what extent the rate of change in light exposure plays a role. To address these limitations, we used daily based sickness absence records to examine seasonal patterns in employee sickness absence due to mental disorders.
We used nationwide diagnosis-specific psychiatric sickness absence claims data from 2006 to 2017 for adult individuals aged 16–67 (n = 636,543 sickness absence episodes) in Finland, a high-latitude country with a profound variation in daylength. The smoothed time-series of the ratio of observed and expected (O/E) daily counts of episodes were estimated, adjusted for variation in all-cause sickness absence rates during the year.
Unipolar depressive disorders peaked in October–November and dipped in July, with similar associations in all forms of depression. Also, anxiety and non-organic sleep disorders peaked in October–November. Anxiety disorders dipped in January–February and in July–August, while non-organic sleep disorders dipped in April–August. Manic episodes reached a peak from March to July and dipped in September–November and in January–February. Seasonality was not dependent on the severity of the depressive disorder.
These results suggest a seasonal variation in sickness absence due to common mental disorders and bipolar disorder, with high peaks in depressive, anxiety and sleep disorders towards the end of the year and a peak in manic episodes starting in spring. Rapid changes in light exposure may contribute to sickness absence due to bipolar disorder. The findings can help clinicians and workplaces prepare for seasonal variations in healthcare needs.
Adolescents often experience heightened socioemotional sensitivity warranting their use of regulatory strategies. Yet, little is known about how key socializing agents help regulate teens’ negative emotions in daily life and implications for long-term adjustment. We examined adolescent girls’ interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) with parents and peers in response to negative social interactions, defined as parent and peer involvement in the teen’s enactment of emotion regulation strategies. We also tested associations between rates of daily parental and peer IER and depressive symptoms, concurrently and one year later. Adolescent girls (N = 112; Mage = 12.39) at temperamental risk for depressive disorders completed a 16-day ecological momentary assessment protocol measuring reactivity to negative social interactions, parental and peer IER, and current negative affect. Results indicated that adolescents used more adaptive strategies with peers and more maladaptive strategies with parents in daily life. Both parental and peer IER down-regulated negative affect, reflected by girls’ decreased likelihood of experiencing continued negative affect. Higher proportions of parental adaptive IER predicted reduced depressive symptoms one year later. Findings suggest that both parents and peers effectively help adolescent girls down-regulate everyday negative emotions; however, parents may offer more enduring benefits for long-term adjustment.