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The initial spread of food production in eastern Africa is associated with livestock herding during the Pastoral Neolithic. Recent excavation at Luxmanda, Tanzania, a site dating to c. 3000 BP, revealed circular installations of lower grinding stones and numerous handstones. This discovery, unprecedented for this era, challenges previous ideas about pastoralist mobility and subsistence.
Recent studies of efforts to increase citizen engagement in local governance through information campaigns report mixed results. We consider whether low levels of self-efficacy beliefs limit engagement, especially among poor citizens in poor countries. Citizens may be caught in an “efficacy trap” which limits their realization of better public goods provision. We describe results from a series of experimental studies conducted with over 2,200 citizens in rural Tanzania, in which we compare the effects of standard information campaigns with Validated Participation (VP), an intervention designed to socially validate citizens’ participation. We implement a staged approach to experimental research, seeking to balance ethical and cost concerns about field experimentation. In our main analyses, we find that VP did not lead to increased levels of self-efficacy or more active citizen behaviors relative to standard informational treatments. Nonetheless, we find some promising evidence for VP in a follow-up qualitative study with teachers. We conclude by discussing lessons from this research and directions for future investigation of the possible role of self-efficacy traps in development.
Motifs featuring trios of figures have been discovered at a newly documented rock art site in the Swaga Swaga Game Reserve in Tanzania. These images find parallels in paintings from rockshelters at the nearby Kolo site, and raise the possibility that they represent anthropomorphic figures with stylised buffalo heads.
This chapter attempts to trace and connect the current economic structure, patterns of trade and the significance of the informal sector in Ghana and Tanzania to socio-economic and historical factors. The chapter then compares and contrasts both countries based on key economic indicators, arguing that colonization and the economic recovery programme (ERP) and the structural adjustment programme (SAP) are the two main factors that have defined the economic structures in both economies.
This Element provides a detailed analysis of official finances from China to Africa with special attention to the question of Africa's foreign finances policy. The findings reveal that Africa has an infrastructure gap and Chinese finances are largely used to fund infrastructure projects. However, the majority of the funds are loans, which are mortgaged on Africa's natural resources. In addition, Chinese firms are the ones implementing the projects, and much of the raw material and labor is imported from China. All these calls for Africa to institute a coherent foreign finances policy that ensures African countries fully benefit from these finances.
Using qualitative case study, and unique firm-level survey data in Ghana and Tanzania collected between 2013 and 2015, this chapter analyses the nature and the sources of innovation in both formal and informal sectors. Also, the chapter explores the learning processes underlying innovations as well the various institutional constraints underlying these innovations in Ghana and Tanzania. Our analyses reveal that innovation occurs just about anywhere in Ghana and Tanzania, and innovation is widespread across all sectors, including formal and informal sectors. Our results also show that firms engage in multiple incremental innovations at the same time, enabling firms to gain complementary effects. Knowledge spillover, imitation and adaptation were identified as the main mechanisms through which knowledge is transferred for innovation activities in Ghana and Tanzania.
Human–elephant coexistence remains a major conservation and livelihood challenge across elephant Loxodonta africana range in Africa. This study investigates the extent of elephant crop damage on 66 farms in the Selous–Niassa corridor (Tanzania), to search for potential management solutions to this problem. We found that the relative abundance of highly preferred crops (area covered by preferred crops divided by the total area of each farm) was by far the most important factor determining crop damage by elephants. Eighteen crop types were ranked according to their preference by elephants. Sweet potatoes, bananas, peanuts, onions, pumpkins and maize were the most preferred crops, with maize the most common crop among those highly preferred. On average elephants damaged 25.7% of the cultivated farmland they entered. A beta regression model suggests that a reduction in the cultivation of preferred crops from 75 to 25% of the farmland area decreases elephant crop damage by 64%. Water availability (distance to the nearest waterhole) and the presence of private investors (mostly hunting tourism companies) were of lower importance in determining elephant crop damage. Thus, damage by elephants increased with shorter distances to waterholes and decreased in areas with private investors. However, further studies are required, particularly of the perceived costs and benefits of elephants to local communities. Farm aggregation and the use of non-preferred crops that also require less water would potentially reduce elephant damage but would be a major lifestyle change for some local communities.
We report on the first population found in Tanzania of the Vulnerable African golden cat Caracal aurata, extending its documented range c. 200 km to the south and south-east. This is one of the least-known and truly forest-dependent felines in Africa, ranging across the Guinea–Congolian forest block. We recorded the new population in Minziro Nature Forest Reserve, north-west Tanzania, during a 3-month survey in 2018. We deployed 70 camera traps on a regular grid and obtained 33 detection events of the golden cat at 26% of sites, with a minimum of 10 individuals across 257 km2. We estimated occupancy and detection probability and modelled these in relation to the distance of sampling sites to the forest edge, which coincides with both the Reserve boundary and proximity to human settlements surrounding the Reserve. Mean estimated occupancy was 0.41 ± SE 0.12 (mean detectability = 0.13 ± SE 0.05), with occupancy increasing significantly with distance from the forest edge. Detectability did not vary significantly with distance from the forest edge, but was higher for camera models that had a shorter trigger time. Our findings add to the scant data available for this species. It appears threatened by human activity, which we recorded both outside and within the Reserve, and the presence of the species indicates Minziro Forest is an important site for its conservation.
Post-abortion care (PAC) integrates elements of care that are vital for women’s survival after abortion complications with intervention components that aid women in controlling their fertility, and provides an optimal window of opportunity to help women meet their family planning goals. Yet, incorporating quality family planning services remains a shortcoming of PAC services, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents evidence from a mixed method study conducted in Tanzania that aimed at explaining factors that contribute to this challenge. Analysis of data obtained through client exit interviews quantified the level of unmet need for contraception among PAC clients and isolated the factors associated with post-abortion contraceptive uptake. Qualitative data analysis of interviews with a subset of these women explored the multi-level context in which post-abortion pregnancy intentions and contraceptive behaviours are formed. Approximately 30% of women interviewed (N=412) could recall receiving counselling on post-abortion family planning. Nearly two-thirds reported a desire to either space or limit childbearing. Of those who desired to space or limited childbearing, approximately 20% received a contraceptive method before discharge from PAC. The factors significantly associated with post-abortion contraceptive acceptance were completion of primary school, prior use of contraception, receipt of PAC at lower level facilities and recall of post-abortion family planning counselling. Qualitative analysis revealed different layers of contextual influences that shaped women’s fertility desires and contraceptive decision-making during PAC: individual (PAC client), spousal/partner-related, health service-related and societal. While results lend support to the concept that there are opportunities for services to address unmet need for post-abortion family planning, they also attest to the synergistic influences of individual, spousal, organizational and societal factors that influence whether they can be realized during PAC. Several strategies to do so emerged saliently from this analysis. These emphasize customized counselling to enable client–provider communication about fertility preferences, structural intervention aimed at empowering women to assert those objectives in family and health care settings, availability of information and services on post-abortion fertility and contraceptive eligibility in PAC settings and interventions to facilitate constructive spousal communication on family planning and contraceptive use, after abortion and in general.
Mawazo Nakadhilu is a former refugee born to a Namibian father and a Tanzanian mother near Kongwa, Tanzania, in 1972. Her biography illuminates how people have made homes in Southern African exile and post-exile contexts. Williams traces Mawazo’s story from her Tanzanian childhood through her forced removal to SWAPO’s Nyango camp to her “repatriation” to Namibia. In so doing, he highlights tensions that have not previously been addressed between exiled liberation movements and their members over family situations. Moreover, he stresses the value of biographical work focused on aspects of refugees’ lives that tend to be overlooked in nationalist discourse.
REDD+ (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) was introduced as a key policy measure to mitigate global climate change in tropical forests. REDD+ is framed as an incentive-driven payment for ecosystem services (PES) programmes for carbon sequestration and storage. REDD+ is also performance-based and demands substantial institutional change. Implementing REDD+ implies engaging and confronting several interests, creating complex and wicked problems for policy-makers. This chapter analyzes REDD+ in Kilosa, Tanzania; the ‘Bolsa Floresta’ project in the State of Amazonas, Brazil; and in the Bikoro, Equateur Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Forests are important to livelihoods in each of these contexts, but they vary in power structure and history. These variations aside, the three cases offer an opportunity to learn about the challenges REDD+ has encountered ‘on the ground’.
Taking as a starting point the observation that Tanzania has historically been a more effective nation-builder than Kenya, Gorham asks why that is the case, focusing on the construction of national narratives in state-run museum spaces to gain a better understanding of official nationalist pedagogy. State-run museums are spaces where states can articulate their vision of the nation, and by cataloging and analyzing the content of exhibits, one can better understand the different types of narratives constructed by states with diverging nation-building strategies. The narratives produced in museum sites in Tanzania and Kenya differ in terms of their consistency, clarity, and inclusivity.
There is an emerging debate about the growth of Anglicanism in sub-Saharan Africa. With this debate in mind, this paper uses four statistically representative surveys of sub-Saharan Africa to estimate the relative and absolute number who identify as Anglican in five countries: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. The results for Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania are broadly consistent with previous scholarly assessments. The findings on Nigeria and Uganda, the two largest provinces, are likely to be more controversial. The evidence from statistically representative surveys finds that the claims often made of the Church of Nigeria consisting of ‘over 18 million’ exceedingly unlikely; the best statistical estimate is that under 8 million Nigerians identify as Anglican. The evidence presented here shows that Uganda (rather than Nigeria) has the strongest claim to being the largest province in Africa in terms of those who identify as Anglican, and is larger than is usually assumed. Evidence from the Ugandan Census of Populations and Households, however, also suggests the proportion of Ugandans that identify as Anglican is in decline, even if absolute numbers have been growing, driven by population growth.
The coconut crab Birgus latro, the largest terrestrial decapod, is under threat in most parts of its geographical range. Its life cycle involves two biomes (restricted terrestrial habitats near the coast, and salt water currents of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans). Its dependence on coastal habitat means it is highly vulnerable to the habitat destruction that typically accompanies human population expansion along coastlines. Additionally, it has a slow reproductive rate and can reach large adult body sizes that, together with its slow movement when on land, make it highly susceptible to overharvesting. We studied the distribution and population changes of coconut crabs at 15 island sites in coastal Tanzania on the western edge of the species' geographical range. Our aim was to provide the data required for reassessment of the extinction risk status of this species, which, despite indications of sharp declines in many places, is currently categorized on the IUCN Red List as Data Deficient. Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in Tanzania, is an important refuge for B. latro but subpopulations are fragmented and exploited by children and fishers. We discovered that larger subpopulations are found in the presence of crops and farther away from people, whereas the largest adult coconut crabs are found on more remote island reserves and where crabs are not exploited. Remoteness and protection still offer hope for this species but there are also opportunities for protection through local communities capitalizing on tourist revenue, a conservation solution that could be applied more generally across the species' range.
Conservation scientists continue to debate the strengths and weaknesses of REDD+ as an instrument to slow greenhouse gas emissions in the developing world. We propose that general positions on this debate are less helpful than drawing lessons from specific investigations into the features of individual projects that make them successful or not. Here, focusing on a site-specific REDD+ intervention in Pemba, Zanzibar (Tanzania), we examine the circumstances under which REDD+ has a chance of success, teasing out specific features of both REDD+ interventions and the socio-economic and institutional contexts that render REDD+ a potentially valuable complement to community forestry. Additionally, we highlight some unanticipated positive outcomes associated with the design features of REDD+ projects. Our broader goal is to move away from ideologically-driven debate to empirically-based identification of general conditions where REDD+ could work, and to provide policy recommendations.
We draw lessons about research design and implementation that informs conservation interventions in Developing World contexts using case studies on the relationships between local communities and their natural resources. Research on Bengal floricans in Cambodia explores how indirect questioning methods can be used to gather information in a way that doesn't incriminate respondents, and a programme on bushmeat hunting in Tanzania shows how combining this approach with qualitative understanding and ecological data provides a deeper understanding of motivations and preferences. Using the example of a small local NGO in Tanzania, we show the power of participatory theories of change to guide intervention design and clarify assumptions and research needs. Finally, we use research on Indonesian shark fishers to test common assumptions about people's livelihood choices. The finding that alternative livelihoods were not a realistic option for these fishers changed the intervention approach. These examples show the role research can play in facilitating positive interactions between conservation managers and local people, and the benefits of intertwining research and practice.
Indigenous Standpoint Theory (IST) is yet to be widely applied in guiding the conduct of research that involves Indigenous people in Africa. In reference to Tanzania, this approach is new. There has been no study in the context of Tanzania which has used IST, despite the presence of many Indigenous people in the country. IST is widely used in Australia, New Zealand and Canada to guide the conduct of research when studying Indigenous people. In this paper, I show how I developed nine ethical protocols for conducting culturally, respectful and safe research with the Sukuma people in Tanzania and how I used those protocols within a research project on girls and secondary education in rural Tanzania. By developing these protocols, a significant new contribution to the area of IST in Tanzania and Africa in general has been established. These protocols may serve as a starting reference point for other future researchers in Tanzania if they apply IST in their research such that the voices of Indigenous people may be heard, and the community has a greater degree of control and input in the planning and designing of the project, as well as the analysis and dissemination of the information.
Stone tools are the least familiar objects that archaeologists recover from their excavations, and predictably, they struggle to understand them. Eastern Africa alone boasts a 3.4 million-year-long archaeological record but its stone tool evidence still remains disorganized, unsynthesized, and all-but-impenetrable to non-experts, and especially so to students from Eastern African countries. In this book, John J. Shea offers a simple, straightforward, and richly illustrated introduction in how to read stone tools. An experienced stone tool analyst and an expert stoneworker, he synthesizes the Eastern African stone tool evidence for the first time. Shea presents the EAST Typology, a new framework for describing stone tools specifically designed to allow archaeologists to do what they currently cannot: compare stone tool evidence across the full sweep of Eastern African prehistory. He also includes a series of short, fictional, and humorous vignettes set on an Eastern African archaeological excavation, which illustrate the major issues and controversies in research about stone tools.