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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represent a state of cognitive function between normal aging and dementia and does not always progress to dementia. Neuroinflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Determining the associations of neuroinflammatory markers in the blood with clinical disease severity may be useful for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment and prediction of the development of severe dementia.
The aim of our study was to compare the serum concentration of a panel of inflammatory markers in patients with MCI and dementia as well as their associations with clinical symptoms.
Patients were evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scales (MoCA), Clinical Dementia rating (CDR) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). We determined the serum concentration of a panel of inflammatory markers (25 units) cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and several others on Mulliplex and prepared multivariate analysis to investigate associations between clinical features and serum concentration.
Patients with dementia had lower scores on scales than the control and MCI groups. MCI patients were equal to the control group, except for the MMSE scale. EGF, eotaxin-1, GRO-α, IP-10, IL-8, MIP-1β, sCD40L, TNF-α, MDC and MCP-1, VEGF were differ between groups. Multivariate analysis identified some neuroinflammatory parameters associated with the severity of the disease.
We identified some neuroinflammatory parameters associated with dementia and MCI. Many of them have been poor described and data is contradictory. It is necessary to investigate these parameters as potential biomarkers of neurodegeneration in further studies.
Cognitive impairments have a considerable impact on the functioning of patients, their socialization and level of disability. Cognitive deficits significantly deteriorate the quality of patients’ life. Currently, the possibilities of pharmacological correction of cognitive disorders in patients with epilepsy are limited.
Study of non-pharmacological program of cognitive disorder correction in patients with epilepsy and the assessment of its efficiency.
We have studied the features of clinical and psychopathological manifestations in patients suffering from epilepsy. The study included 146 patients with epilepsy (85 men and 61 women) who were receiving inpatient care. The following psychodiagnostic techniques were used: MOCA test, Mini Mult test, Münsterberg test, depression and Hamilton anxiety scale, quality of life scale. 63 patients received cognitive training online, of which 30 patients also used psychoeducation methods.
According to the MoCA findings, patients with epilepsy showed cognitive decline, the average score was 20.72, whereas healthy persons’ average score was 27.36. The Quality of Life Scale: the average rate among all examined persons was 69.45 out of 100, 78.60 were the results of healthy persons. In patients with PG1, who used cognitive training and psychoeducation the results of the MoCA test showed an improvement in cognitive functions (1.4, p <0.001) and increased subjective assessment of quality of life (2.77, p <0.05).
The study of the use of cognitive training and psychoeducation in patients with epilepsy for cognitive functions, quality of life resulted in a positive outcome. Cognitive online training is an encouraging area in the rehabilitation of patients with cognitive decline.
Impaired olfaction may be a biomarker for early Lewy body disease, but its value in mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) is unknown. We compared olfaction in MCI-LB with MCI due to Alzheimer’s disease (MCI-AD) and healthy older adults. We hypothesized that olfactory function would be worse in probable MCI-LB than in both MCI-AD and healthy comparison subjects (HC).
Cross-sectional study assessing olfaction using Sniffin’ Sticks 16 (SS-16) in MCI-LB, MCI-AD, and HC with longitudinal follow-up. Differences were adjusted for age, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used for discriminating MCI-LB from MCI-AD and HC.
Participants were recruited from Memory Services in the North East of England.
Thirty-eight probable MCI-LB, 33 MCI-AD, 19 possible MCI-LB, and 32HC.
Olfaction was assessed using SS-16 and a questionnaire.
Participants with probable MCI-LB had worse olfaction than both MCI-AD (age-adjusted mean difference (B) = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.62–3.49, p = 0.005) and HC (B = 3.96, 95% CI: 2.51–5.40, p < 0.001). The previously identified cutoff score for the SS-16 of ≤ 10 had 84% sensitivity for probable MCI-LB (95% CI: 69–94%), but 30% specificity versus MCI-AD. ROC analysis found a lower cutoff of ≤ 7 was better (63% sensitivity for MCI-LB, with 73% specificity vs MCI-AD and 97% vs HC). Asking about olfactory impairments was not useful in identifying them.
MCI-LB had worse olfaction than MCI-AD and normal aging. A lower cutoff score of ≤ 7 is required when using SS-16 in such patients. Olfactory testing may have value in identifying early LB disease in memory services.
Social cognition is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, its relationship to social functioning and perceived social support has yet to be explored. Here, we examine how theory of mind (ToM) relates to social functioning in MCI and dementia.
Older adults (cognitively normal = 1272; MCI = 132; dementia = 23) from the PATH Through Life project, a longitudinal, population-based study, were assessed on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), measures of social functioning, and social well-being. The associations between RMET performance, social functioning, and cognitive status were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for demographic variables.
Participants with MCI (b=−.52, 95% CI [−.70, −.33]) and dementia (b=−.78, 95% CI [−1.22, −.34]) showed poorer RMET performance than cognitively normal participants. Participants with MCI and dementia reported reduced social network size (b=−.21, 95% CI [−.40, −.02] and b=−.90, 95% CI [−1.38, −.42], respectively) and participants with dementia reported increased loneliness (b = .36, 95% CI [.06, .67]). In dementia, poorer RMET performance was associated with increased loneliness (b=−.07, 95% CI [−.14, −.00]) and a trend for negative interactions with partners (b=−.37, 95% CI [−.74, .00]), but no significant associations were found in MCI.
MCI and dementia were associated with poor self-reported social function. ToM deficits were related to poor social function in dementia but not MCI. Findings highlight the importance of interventions to address social cognitive deficits in persons with dementia and education of support networks to facilitate positive interactions and social well-being.
The Verbal Naming Test (VNT) is an auditory-based measure of naming or word finding. The current multisite study sought to evaluate the reliability and validity of the VNT in the detection of major and mild neurocognitive disorder (NCD).
This study analyzed clinical data from two outpatient neuropsychology clinics (N = 188 and N = 77) and a geriatric primary care clinic (N = 104). Cronbach’s alpha and Spearman correlations with other measures were calculated. ROC analyses were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power for the detection of major and mild NCD per DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) criteria.
The VNT was found to have strong reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = .90) and high convergent validity with a commonly used picture-naming task (NAB Naming, Spearman’s rho = .65, p < .001). The VNT showed good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of NCDs, particularly major NCD, with an area under the curve of .85, sensitivity of .80, and specificity of .75. A possible discontinue rule is also suggested for clinicians to use.
These findings provide compelling evidence for the use of the VNT to detect neurocognitive impairment in a clinical setting. The VNT provides a reliable alternative to picture-naming tasks, which may be advantageous when working with visually impaired patients or conducting evaluations over telehealth.
Recently published diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) include five neuropsychiatric supportive features (non-visual hallucinations, systematised delusions, apathy, anxiety and depression). We have previously demonstrated that the presence of two or more of these symptoms differentiates MCI-LB from MCI due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) with a likelihood ratio >4. The aim of this study was to replicate the findings in an independent cohort.
Participants ⩾60 years old with MCI were recruited. Each participant had a detailed clinical, cognitive and imaging assessment including FP-CIT SPECT and cardiac MIBG. The presence of neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms was determined using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Participants were classified as MCI-AD, possible MCI-LB and probable MCI-LB based on current diagnostic criteria. Participants with possible MCI-LB were excluded from further analysis.
Probable MCI-LB (n = 28) had higher NPI total and distress scores than MCI-AD (n = 30). In total, 59% of MCI-LB had two or more neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms compared with 9% of MCI-AD (likelihood ratio 6.5, p < 0.001). MCI-LB participants also had a significantly greater delayed recall and a lower Trails A:Trails B ratio than MCI-AD.
MCI-LB is associated with significantly greater neuropsychiatric symptoms than MCI-AD. The presence of two or more neuropsychiatric supportive symptoms as defined by MCI-LB diagnostic criteria is highly specific and moderately sensitive for a diagnosis of MCI-LB. The cognitive profile of MCI-LB differs from MCI-AD, with greater executive and lesser memory impairment, but these differences are not sufficient to differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) is a longitudinal behavioral genetic study with a primary focus on cognitive and brain aging in men, particularly early identification of risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It comprises a subset of over 1600 twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Twins live all over the USA. Assessments began when participants were in their 50s. Follow-ups were conducted every 5–6 years, and wave 3 has been completed as of this writing. The age range of participants is narrow (about 10 years). An extensive neurocognitive test battery has added precision in assessing differences in middle-aged adults, and predicting progression to MCI. Young adult cognitive test data (at an average age of 20 years) provide a means of disentangling aging effects from longstanding differences. Genome wide genotyping and plasma assays of AD biomarkers from waves 1 and 3 were conducted in wave 3. These features make the VETSA ideal for studying the heterogeneity of within-individual trajectories from midlife to old age, and for early detection of risk factors for cognitive decline.
The present study investigated the ability of the Multilingual Naming Test (MINT), a picture naming test recently added to the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s (NACC) Uniform Data Set neuropsychological test battery, to detect naming impairment (i.e., dysnomia) across stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Data from the initial administration of the MINT were obtained on NACC participants who were cognitively normal (N = 3,981) or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (N = 852) or dementia (N = 1,148) with presumed etiology of AD. Dementia severity was rated using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale.
Cross-sectional multiple regression analyses revealed significant effects of diagnostic group, sex, education, age, and race on naming scores. Planned comparisons collapsing across age and education groups revealed significant group differences in naming scores across levels of dementia severity. ROC curve analyses showed good diagnostic accuracy of MINT scores for distinguishing cognitively normal controls from AD dementia, but not from MCI. Within the cognitively normal group, there was a robust interaction between age and education such that naming scores exhibited the most precipitous drop across age groups for the least educated participants. Additionally, education effects were stronger in African-Americans than in Whites (a race-by-education interaction), and race effects were stronger in older than in younger age groups (a race-by-age interaction).
The MINT successfully detects naming deficits at different levels of cognitive impairment in patients with MCI or AD dementia, but comparison to age, sex, race, and education-corrected norms to determine impairment is essential.
Objectives: Maintaining two active languages may increase cognitive and brain reserve among bilingual individuals. We explored whether such a neuroprotective effect was manifested in the performance of memory tests for participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: We compared 42 bilinguals to 25 monolinguals on verbal and nonverbal memory tests. We used: (a) the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scales for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test that taps into proactive, retroactive, and recovery from proactive semantic interference (verbal memory), and (b) the Benson Figure delayed recall (nonverbal memory). A subsample had volumetric MRI scans. Results: The bilingual group significantly outperformed the monolingual group on two LASSI-L cued recall measures (Cued A2 and Cued B2). A measure of maximum learning (Cued A2) showed a correlation with the volume of the left hippocampus in the bilingual group only. Cued B2 recall (sensitive to recovery from proactive semantic interference) was correlated with the volume of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex of both cerebral hemispheres in the bilingual group, as well as with the left and right hippocampus in the monolingual group. The memory advantage in bilinguals on these measures was associated with higher inhibitory control as measured by the Stroop Color-Word test. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a superior performance of aMCI bilinguals over aMCI monolinguals on selected verbal memory tasks. This advantage was not observed in nonverbal memory. Superior memory performance of bilinguals over monolinguals suggests that bilinguals develop a different and perhaps more efficient semantic association system that influences verbal recall. (JINS, 2019, 25, 15–28)
The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has the potential to change the way medical incident commanders (ICs) respond to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) in triaging victims. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in triaging casualties at an MCI.
A randomized comparison study was conducted with 40 paramedic students from the Holland College Paramedicine Program (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada). Using a simulated motor vehicle collision (MVC) with moulaged casualties, iterations of 20 students were used for both a day and a night trial. Students were randomized to a UAV or a SP group. After a brief narrative, participants either entered the study environment or used UAV technology where total time to triage completion, GREEN casualty evacuation, time on scene, triage order, and accuracy were recorded.
A statistical difference in the time to completion of 3.63 minutes (95% CI, 2.45 min-4.85 min; P=.002) during the day iteration and a difference of 3.49 minutes (95% CI, 2.08 min-6.06 min; P=.002) for the night trial with UAV groups was noted. There was no difference found in time to GREEN casualty evacuation, time on scene, or triage order. One-hundred-percent accuracy was noted between both groups.
This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a UAV at an MCI. A non-clinical significant difference was noted in total time to completion between both groups. There was no increase in time on scene by using the UAV while demonstrating the feasibility of remotely triaging GREEN casualties prior to first responder arrival.
Jain T, Sibley A, Stryhn H, Hubloue I.Comparison of unmanned aerial vehicle technologyassisted triage versus standard practice in triaging casualties by paramedic students in a mass-casualty incident scenario. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):375–380
Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage.
We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging. FP-CIT scans were blindly rated by a consensus panel and classified as normal or abnormal.
The sensitivity of visually rated FP-CIT imaging to detect combined possible or probable MCI-LB was 54.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.2–68.6], with a specificity of 89.0% (95% CI 70.8–97.6) and a likelihood ratio for MCI-LB of 4.9, indicating that FP-CIT may be a clinically important test in MCI where any characteristic symptoms of Lewy body (LB) disease are present. The sensitivity in probable MCI-LB was 61.0% (95% CI 42.5–77.4) and in possible MCI-LB was 40.0% (95% CI 16.4–67.7).
Dopaminergic imaging had high specificity at the pre-dementia stage and gave a clinically important increase in diagnostic confidence and so should be considered in all patients with MCI who have any of the diagnostic symptoms of DLB. As expected, the sensitivity was lower in MCI-LB than in established DLB, although over 50% still had an abnormal scan. Accurate diagnosis of LB disease is important to enable early optimal treatment for LB symptoms.
Despite recent interest in community-based screening programs to detect undiagnosed cognitive disorder, little is known about whether screening leads to further diagnostic evaluation, or the effects of such programs in terms of actual changes in patient or caregiver behavior. This study followed up informants of older adults (i.e. caregivers of patients who completed informant-based screening regarding the patient) following participation in a study screening for undiagnosed memory problems, to explore uptake of further diagnostic evaluation or treatment, advance planning or preparations, lifestyle changes, medication adherence, and use of support services.
A total of 140 informants of older adult patients were surveyed four to fifteen months following participation in a cognitive screening study. The informants were interviewed with a study-specific survey about cognitive assessment, advance planning, lifestyle changes, and use of support services and general medication adherence.
A minority of patients and informants had engaged in advance planning or made relevant lifestyle changes following cognitive screening. Those assessed as being at higher risk of memory problems were more likely to have attended a full diagnostic evaluation, engaged in support services and experienced medication adherence difficulties.
Only a small proportion of patients participating in cognitive screening subsequently engaged in diagnostic evaluation, advance planning, or lifestyle changes. However, those with higher risk of cognitive impairment were generally more likely to take some action following cognitive screening. Those at higher risk were also more vulnerable due to greater difficulties with medication adherence.
Memory deficits are dominant in dementia and are positively correlated with electroencephalographic (EEG) beta power. EEG beta power can predict the progression of Alzheimer´s (AD) as early as at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and could possibly be used as surrogate marker for memory impairment. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between frontal and parietal EEG beta power and memory-test outcome. Frontal and parietal beta power is analyzed for a resting state and an eyes-closed backward counting condition and related to memory impairment parameters.
A total of 28 right-handed female geriatric patients (mean age = 80.6) participated voluntarily in this study. Beta 1 (12.9–19.2 Hz) and beta 2 (19.2–32.4 Hz) EEG power at F3, F4, Fz, P3, P4, and Pz are correlated with immediate wordlist recall, delayed wordlist recall, recognition of learned words, and delayed figure recall. For classification between impaired and intact memory, we calculated a binary logistic regression model with memory impairment as a dependent variable and beta 2 power as an independent variable.
We found significant positive correlations between frontal and parietal beta power and delayed memory recall. A significant correlation (Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05) was found at F4 beta 2 during backward counting. The binary logistic regression model with F4 beta 2 power during the counting condition as a predictor yielded a sensitivity of 76.9% (95% CI) and a specificity of 73.3% (95% CI) for classifying patients into “verbal-memory impaired” and “intact.”
EEG beta 2 power recorded during a backward counting condition with eyes closed can be used as surrogate marker for verbal memory impairment in geriatric patients. Antidepressant treatment was correlated with EEG data in resting state but not in counting condition. Further studies are necessary to verify the results of this pilot study.
Objectives: Within the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)’s mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cohort, we previously identified MCI subtypes as well as participants initially diagnosed with MCI but found to have normal neuropsychological, biomarker, and neuroimaging profiles. We investigated the functional change over time in these empirically derived MCI subgroups. Methods: ADNI MCI participants (n=654) were classified using cluster analysis as Amnestic MCI (single-domain memory impairment), Dysnomic MCI (memory+language impairments), Dysexecutive/Mixed MCI (memory+language+attention/executive impairments), or Cluster-Derived Normal (CDN). Robust normal control participants (NCs; n=284) were also examined. The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) was administered at baseline through 48-month follow-up. Multilevel modeling examined FAQ trajectories by cognitive subgroup. Results: The Dysexecutive/Mixed group demonstrated the fastest rate of decline across all groups. Amnestic and Dysnomic groups showed steeper rates of decline than CDNs. While CDNs had more functional difficulty than NCs across visits, both groups’ mean FAQ scores remained below its suggested cutoff at all visits. Conclusions: Results (a) show the importance of executive dysfunction in the context of other impaired cognitive domains when predicting functional decline in at-risk elders, and (b) support our previous work demonstrating that ADNI’s MCI criteria may have resulted in false-positive MCI diagnoses, given the CDN’s better FAQ trajectory than those of the cognitively impaired MCI groups. (JINS, 2017, 23, 521–527)
The Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (MACE) is a new brief cognitive screening instrument for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Historical data suggest that MACE may be comparable to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a well-established cognitive screening instrument, in secondary care settings, but no head-to-head study has been reported hitherto.
A pragmatic diagnostic accuracy study of MACE and MoCA was undertaken in consecutive patients referred over the course of one year to a neurology-led Cognitive Function Clinic, comparing their performance for the diagnosis of dementia and MCI using various test metrics.
In a cohort of 260 patients with dementia and MCI prevalence of 17% and 29%, respectively, both MACE and MoCA were quick and easy to use and acceptable to patients. Both tests had high sensitivity (>0.9) and large effect sizes (Cohen's d) for diagnosis of both dementia and MCI but low specificity and positive predictive values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was excellent for dementia diagnosis (both >0.9) but less good for MCI (MoCA good and MACE fair). In contrast, weighted comparison suggested test equivalence for dementia diagnosis but with a slight net benefit for MACE for MCI diagnosis.
MACE is an acceptable and accurate test for the assessment of cognitive problems, with performance comparable to MoCA. MACE appears to be a viable alternative to MoCA for testing patients with cognitive complaints in a secondary care setting.
There are relatively small but observable changes in functional ability in those without Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. The present study seeks to understand whether these individuals go on to develop MCI or dementia by assessing the association between baseline Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and conversion independent and after adjustment for cognitive tests.
The NACC database was used to conduct the analysis of which 7,625 participants were initially identified as having more than one visit and who were cognitively normal at their first visit. Cox proportional hazards were used to fit three models that controlled for executive and non-executive cognitive domains. A similar model was used to assess the effect of FAQ subcategories on conversion.
Of these individuals, 1,328 converted to either MCI or dementia by visit 10. Converters had a total visit 1 FAQ score significantly higher than non-converters indicating more functional impairment at baseline. After adjustment for cognitive tests, the association between visit 1 FAQ and subsequent conversion was not attenuated. Doing taxes, remembering dates, and traveling were individually identified as significant predictors of conversion.
The FAQ can be used as an indirect measure of functional ability and is associated with conversion to MCI or dementia. There is a selective and significant association between changes in financial ability and conversion that is in accordance with other research of financial capacity.
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid beta is now
clinically available in several countries including the United States and
the United Kingdom, but not Canada. It has become an established technique
in the field of neuroimaging of aging and dementia, with data incorporated
in the new consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and
predementia Alzheimer’s disease–related conditions. At this point, there are
three US Food and Drug Administration– and European Union–approved tracers.
Guided by appropriate use criteria developed in 2013 by the Alzheimer’s
Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the
utility of amyloid imaging in medical practice is now supported by a growing
body of research. In this paper, we aimed to provide an update on the 2012
Canadian consensus guidelines to dementia care practitioners on proper use
of amyloid imaging. We also wished to generate momentum for the industry to
submit a new drug proposal to Health Canada. A group of local, national, and
international dementia experts and imaging specialists met to discuss
scenarios in which amyloid PET could be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed
and published literature between January 2004 and May 2015 was searched.
Technical and regulatory considerations pertaining to Canada were
considered. The results of a survey of current practices in Canadian
dementia centers were considered. A set of specific clinical and research
guidelines was agreed on that defines the types of patients and clinical
circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used in Canada. Future research
directions were also outlined, notably the importance of studies that would
assess the pharmaco-economics of amyloid imaging.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) preparedness and availability of essential medications are important to reduce morbidity and mortality from mass-casualty incidents (MCIs).
This study describes prehospital medication administration during MCIs by different EMS service levels.
The US National EMS Public-Release Research Dataset maintained by the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) was used to carry out the study. Emergency Medical Services activations coded as MCI at dispatch, or by EMS personnel, were included. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) service level was used for the level of service provided. A descriptive analysis of medication administration by EMS service level was carried out.
Among the 19,831,189 EMS activations, 53,334 activations had an MCI code, of which 26,110 activations were included. There were 8,179 (31.3%) Advanced Life Support (ALS), 5,811 (22.3%) Basic Life Support (BLS), 399 (1.5%) Air Medical Transport (AMT; fixed or rotary), and 38 (0.2%) Specialty Care Transport (SCT) activations. More than 80 different medications from 18 groups were reported. Seven thousand twenty-one activations (26.9%) had at least one medication administered. Oxygen was most common (16.3%), followed by crystalloids (6.9%), unknown (5.2%), analgesics (3.2%) mainly narcotics, antiemetics (1.5%), cardiac/vasopressors/inotropes (0.9%), bronchodilators (0.9%), sedatives (0.8%), and vasodilators/antihypertensives (0.7%). Overall, medication administration rates and frequencies of medications groups significantly varied between EMS service levels (P<.01) except for “Analgesia (other)” (P=.40) and “Pain medications (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NSAID)” (P=.07).
Medications are administered frequently in MCIs, mainly Oxygen, crystalloids, and narcotic pain medications. Emergency Medical Services systems can use the findings of this study to better prepare their stockpiles for MCIs.
El SayedM, TamimH, MannNC. Description of Medication Administration by Emergency Medical Services during Mass-casualty Incidents in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(2):141–149.
A high influx of patients during a mass-casualty incident (MCI) may disrupt patient flow in an already overcrowded emergency department (ED) that is functioning beyond its operating capacity. This pilot study examined the impact of a two-step ED triage model using Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) for pre-triage, followed by triage with the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), on patient flow during a MCI simulation exercise.
It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in time intervals nor patient volumes at each patient-flow milestone.
Physicians and nurses participated in a computer-based tabletop disaster simulation exercise. Physicians were randomized into the intervention group using START, then CTAS, or the control group using START alone. Patient-flow milestones including time intervals and patient volumes from ED arrival to triage, ED arrival to bed assignment, ED arrival to physician assessment, and ED arrival to disposition decision were compared. Triage accuracy was compared for secondary purposes.
There were no significant differences in the time interval from ED arrival to triage (mean difference 108 seconds; 95% CI, -353 to 596 seconds; P=1.0), ED arrival to bed assignment (mean difference 362 seconds; 95% CI, -1,269 to 545 seconds; P=1.0), ED arrival to physician assessment (mean difference 31 seconds; 95% CI, -1,104 to 348 seconds; P=0.92), and ED arrival to disposition decision (mean difference 175 seconds; 95% CI, -1,650 to 1,300 seconds; P=1.0) between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the volume of patients to be triaged (32% vs 34%; 95% CI for the difference -16% to 21%; P=1.0), assigned a bed (16% vs 21%; 95% CI for the difference -11% to 20%; P=1.0), assessed by a physician (20% vs 22%; 95% CI for the difference -14% to 19%; P=1.0), and with a disposition decision (20% vs 9%; 95% CI for the difference -25% to 4%; P=.34) between the two groups. The accuracy of triage was similar in both groups (57% vs 70%; 95% CI for the difference -15% to 41%; P=.46).
Experienced triage nurses were able to apply CTAS effectively during a MCI simulation exercise. A two-step ED triage model using START, then CTAS, had similar patient flow and triage accuracy when compared to START alone.
LeeJS, FrancJM. Impact of a Two-step Emergency Department Triage Model with START, then CTAS, on Patient Flow During a Simulated Mass-casualty Incident. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(4):1–7.
Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17–86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–14)