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The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Logic Programming is a Turing complete language. As a consequence, designing algorithms that decide termination and non-termination of programs or decide inductive/coinductive soundness of formulae is a challenging task. For example, the existing state-of-the-art algorithms can only semi-decide coinductive soundness of queries in logic programming for regular formulae. Another, less famous, but equally fundamental and important undecidable property is productivity. If a derivation is infinite and coinductively sound, we may ask whether the computed answer it determines actually computes an infinite formula. If it does, the infinite computation is productive. This intuition was first expressed under the name of computations at infinity in the 80s. In modern days of the Internet and stream processing, its importance lies in connection to infinite data structure processing. Recently, an algorithm was presented that semi-decides a weaker property – of productivity of logic programs. A logic program is productive if it can give rise to productive derivations. In this paper, we strengthen these recent results. We propose a method that semi-decides productivity of individual derivations for regular formulae. Thus, we at last give an algorithmic counterpart to the notion of productivity of derivations in logic programming. This is the first algorithmic solution to the problem since it was raised more than 30 years ago. We also present an implementation of this algorithm.
System architecture is important for the design of complex mechatronic systems because it acts as an intermediator between conceptual design and detail design. An explicit and exact system modeling language is imperative for successful architecture design. However, some deficiencies remain, such as the lack of geometry elements, hybrid behavior description, and specific association semantics for existing architecture modeling languages. In this study, a Systems Modeling Language extension for mechatronic system architecture modeling called ArchME is proposed. The requirements for the mechatronic System Modeling Language are analyzed, and the metamodels are defined. Then, the modeling elements are determined. Finally, the profiles based on the systems modeling language are defined to support the modeling of function, behavior, structure, and their association. This enables system designers to model the system architecture and facilitates communication between different stakeholders. A case study is provided to demonstrate the modeling capability of ArchME.
The warm white light emission from the MOS capacitor containing the Zr-doped HfO2 high-k thin film on a p-type Si wafer under various post deposition annealing temperatures has been investigated. The light intensity is affected by the annealing temperature and the magnitude of the stress voltage. The annealing temperature changes the defect density and the physical thickness of the high-k stack. The high stress voltage induces the strong light emission because of the passage of a large current through the conductive path. The broad band emission spectrum covers the visible and near IR wavelength range with a large color rendering index. This new light emission device has a very long lifetime of > 1,000 hours at the atmosphere without a protection layer. The device is made of the IC compatible material and fabrication process, which favors the application over a wide range of products.
We present a reconstructed lithologic column compiled from a series of lacustrine outcrops along a tributary of the Nyang River, a major tributary of the Yarlung-Tsangpo in southeast Tibet. The deposits were preserved between terraces at altitudes of 2950–3100 m asl. The stratigraphic record features at least two sets of coarsening-upward sequences depicting episodic aggradation and progradation of a glacially dammed lake related delta. Recognized facies changes illustrate the evolution cycles of depositional environments from pro-delta, delta front, to delta plain. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates reveal an aging-downward trend in stratigraphic order and provide an approximate timeline for the formation of glacially dammed lakes in late Pleistocene. This result reflects that the Zelunglung Glacier had progressively advanced to block the Yarlung-Tsangpo river and the dam materials had stepwise stacked up to an altitude of 3095 m asl during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 4 to 2.
The Chinese Astronomical Data Center (CAsDC) is a member of World Data System, hosted at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences(NAOC). The CAsDC keeps close collaboration with IVOA, WDS and CODATA. The whole set of LAMOST data, including raw data and data products, are hosted at the CAsDC. Data resources and services of the CAsDC are introduced.
In this work, we succeeded in synthesis of spinel LiMn2O4 via a facile self-template method. The product displays a micro-/nanohybrid structure. Nanoparticles/plates act as the primary nanoblocks to build the secondary microarchitecture. There is the open space between the nanoblocks and the void space between the secondary structures. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior rate capability and high-rate cycleability when contrasted with its solid counterpart. The initial discharge capacity is 126 mAh/g at 0.1 C, 110 mAh/g at 10 C, and 84 mAh/g at 20 C. The discharge capacity retention of about 80% is obtained after 800 cycles at 10 C. The high capacity and excellent cycling life of the material shows its potential for application as high-power batteries. The improved rate capability and cycleability can be attributed to its secondary structure that can facilitate fast Li-insertion/extraction and buffer the volume expansion/contraction upon cycling.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
A two-step replication strategy to two-dimensional ordered polymer hollow sphere and convex structure arrays is presented based on polystyrene colloidal monolayer and inverse opal made of FeO(OH). We can control formation of a small hole on top of the hollow spheres by the concentration of polymer precursors, which could be of importance in selective permeability, nutrient and drug deliver, biotechnology, and even study of black-body irradiation in micro or nano space. In addition, the fabrication strategy is suitable for the most soluble polymer materials, which can solidify when they are concentrated.
A cDNA library was constructed from the heading leaf in the early phase of the heading stage of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). By sequencing the randomly selected clones, 1363 sequences longer than 200 bp were found, with better trace data. After removing the poly(A) and contamination sequences, 1162 ESTs longer than 150 bp were obtained, of which 1102 shared significant similarity with known sequences in protein and nucleotide databases of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) as revealed by searches using the BLASTX and BLASTN engines. Functional assignment of the ESTs was based on the method used in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome-sequencing project. About 77% of the putative protein sequences with known biological functions best matched with those of A. thaliana deposited in the non-redundant database of NCBI. These data suggest that Chinese cabbage is closely related to A. thaliana. This result is different from that reported in other Brassica species. At nucleotide level, however, 51% of the ESTs were homologous to those deposited for A. thaliana when all ESTs were searched against the est-others database. In addition, 60 ESTs had no homology with any of the plant gene sequences deposited in GenBank. These ESTs are very important for understanding the unique developmental process of Chinesecabbage and elaborating its genetic mapping. Among the genes with assigned functions, the most abundant representatives were those involved in protein synthesis and energy metabolism. With the 1162 ESTs, 895 non-redundant contigs were generated after being aligned using the Seqman II module of DNAStar software at the threshold of more than 80% homology over a minimum of 40 base pairs. Of these, 723 were singletons containing only one EST sequence, indicating that many kinds of such genes are expressed in the heading leaf of Chinese cabbage. An expression profile of Chinese cabbage heading leaf with the 1162 ESTs was therefore acquired in this work. This could be very useful for uncovering the mechanism of the heading process, which is the most obvious characteristic of Chinese cabbage and perhaps other related species, such as Brassica oleracea. This work could accelerate the finding and characterization of genes specifically expressed in the heading stage of Chinese cabbage.
Two-dimensional multi-timescale fully electromagnetic relativistic
particle simulation is used to investigate relativistic electron heating in laser-produced
plasmas. When laser pulses with peak intensities 1019 W cm−2 and
different durations (e.g. 118 fs and 442 fs) are incident on overdense plasma slabs with step-like density profiles, the dynamics of plasmas and Fourier frequency spectra from
our particle simulations demonstrate distinctly different properties in hot-electron
temperatures, absorption, relativistic electron heating, and so on. The particular
motions of the critical surfaces are discussed. From the two examples simulated in
this paper, it is concluded that the interactions between plasmas and laser pulses
with the same intensities and different durations are dominated by different mechanisms, which can lead to
dissimilar dynamics of plasmas, relativistic heating, and so on.
We have fabricated superconducting composites composed of Y1Ba2Cu3O7–δ, copper oxide, and metallic silver. Sharp superconducting transitions were observed well above the liquid nitrogen temperature. The normal state resistivity of these composites was much lower than that of the pure ceramic Y1Ba2Cu3O7–δ. The critical current density was measured and it was comparable to that of ceramic superconductors. A substantial improvement of the mechanical properties has been achieved over those of the ceramic Y1Ba2Cu3O7–δ material.
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