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High inductive helical support provides a solution to controlling the alignment error of inner electrodes in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were performed to examine the current loss mechanism and the effects of structural parameters on electron flow in an MITL with a helical inductor. An empirical expression related to the ratio of electron current loss to anode current and the ratio of anode current to self-limited current was obtained. Electron current loss caused by helical inductor with different structures was displayed. The results indicate that the current loss in an MITL, near an inductive helical support, comprises both the inductor current and the electron current loss. The non-uniform structure and current of a helical inductor cause an abrupt change in the magnetic field near the helical support, which leads to anomalous behavior and current loss of electron flow. In addition, current loss in the inductive helical-supported MITL is negligible when the inductance of the support is sufficiently high. This work facilitates the estimation of electron current loss caused by the inductive helical support in MITLs.
There are multiple antidiabetic drugs available in China, which vary in their efficacy and safety. However, no study exists that compares all the classes of antidiabetic drugs simultaneously. This study aimed to estimate and compare the efficacy of alternative classes of antidiabetic drugs for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, either in a monotherapy regimen or combined with metformin.
A systematic literature review was conducted by searching various literature databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1990 to 2016. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of antidiabetic drug monotherapy and placebo or lifestyle interventions (i.e., diet and exercise), and antidiabetic drug plus metformin versus metformin alone, in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. An indirect comparison was used to estimate the efficacy of antidiabetic drug plus metformin versus placebo or lifestyle-intervention using metformin as the common comparator.
The database search identified 354 relevant studies. Compared with placebo or lifestyle interventions, combination therapies achieved greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (1.9% versus 0.9%), body mass index (BMI) (2.66 versus 0.98 kg/m2), and total cholesterol level (1.07 versus 0.35 mmol/L) than monotherapies. For monotherapies, the top three treatments for reducing HbA1c level were insulin, sulfonylurea, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. The top three monotherapies for reducing BMI level were metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and α-glycosidase inhibitor. The top three monotherapies for reducing total cholesterol level were metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. For combination therapies, the top three treatments for reducing HbA1c level were GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, insulin plus metformin, and glinide plus metformin. The top three combination therapies for reducing BMI level were glinide plus metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, and DPP-4 inhibitor plus metformin. The top three combination therapies for reducing total cholesterol level were insulin plus metformin, GLP-1 receptor agonist plus metformin, and α-glycosidase inhibitor plus metformin.
Pharmacological treatments had better efficacy than placebo or lifestyle interventions, while combination drug therapies were superior to monotherapies.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Relativistic collisionless shock charged particle acceleration is considered as a possible origin of high-energy cosmic rays. However, it is hard to explore the nature of relativistic collisionless shock due to its low occurring frequency and remote detecting distance. Recently, there are some works attempt to solve this problem by generating relativistic collisionless shock in laboratory conditions. In laboratory, the scheme of generation of relativistic collisionless shock is that two electron–positron pair plasmas knock each other. However, in laboratory, the appropriate pair plasmas have been not generated. The 10 PW laser pulse maybe generates the pair plasmas that satisfy the formation condition of relativistic collisionless shock due to its ultrahigh intensity and energy. In this paper, we study the positron production by ultraintense laser high Z target interaction using numerical simulations, which consider quantum electrodynamics effect. The simulation results show that the forward positron beam up to 1013/kJ can be generated by 10 PW laser pulse interacting with lead target. The estimation of relativistic collisionless shock formation shows that the positron yield satisfies formation condition and the positron divergence needs to be controlled. Our results indicate that the generation of relativistic collisionless shock by 10 PW laser facilities in laboratory is possible.
The effects of target density and laser intensity on ionization speed are studied in this paper by 1D3V particle-in-cell simulations, where the field ionization of single atom is involved basing Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model in the form of Penetrante and Bardsley. To consider the ionization speed, the evolution of plasma density for the helium target, particularly, the ion density change rate near the target front surface, are discussed. The results show that not only the laser intensity, but also the target density will affect field ionization and further affect the plasma formation. This work will be helpful for further understanding of plasma formation in intense laser pulse. Also, it may be benefit for the setup of initial parameters before the simulation of laser–plasma interaction.
In this paper, we study two PDEs that generalize the urban crime model proposed by Short et al. (2008 Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci.18, 1249–1267). Our modifications are made under assumption of the spatial heterogeneity of both the near-repeat victimization effect and the dispersal strategy of criminal agents. We investigate pattern formations in the reaction–advection–diffusion systems with non-linear diffusion over multi-dimensional bounded domains subject to homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. It is shown that the positive homogeneous steady state loses its stability as the intrinsic near-repeat victimization rate ε decreases and spatially inhomogeneous steady states emerge through bifurcation. Moreover, we find the wavemode selection mechanism through rigorous stability analysis of these non-trivial spatial patterns, which shows that the only stable pattern must have a wavenumber that maximizes the bifurcation value. Based on this wavemode selection mechanism, we will be able to predict the formation of stable aggregates of the house attractiveness and criminal population density, at least when the diffusion rate ε is around the principal bifurcation value. Our theoretical results also suggest that large domains support more stable aggregates than small domains. Finally, we perform extensive numerical simulations over 1D intervals and 2D squares to illustrate and verify our theoretical findings. Our numerics also demonstrate the formation of other interesting patterns in these models such as the merging of two interior spikes and the emerging of new spikes, etc. These non-trivial solutions can model the well-observed phenomenon of aggregation in urban criminal activities.
Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curved
-quartz (10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and 17–100 keV, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.
Fast magnetic field annihilation in a collisionless plasma is induced by using TEM(1,0) laser pulse. The magnetic quadrupole structure formation, expansion and annihilation stages are demonstrated with 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The magnetic field energy is converted to the electric field and accelerate the particles inside the annihilation plane. A bunch of high energy electrons moving backwards is detected in the current sheet. The strong displacement current is the dominant contribution which induces the longitudinal inductive electric field.
The prevalence and factors associated with delays in help seeking for people with dementia in China are unknown.
Within 1,010 consecutively registered participants in the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study (NCT01779310), 576 persons with dementia (PWDs) and their informants reported the estimated time from symptom onset to first medical visit seeking diagnosis. Univariate analysis of general linear model was used to examine the potential factors associated with the delayed diagnosis seeking.
The median duration from the first noticeable symptom to the first visit seeking diagnosis or treatment was 1.77 years. Individuals with a positive family history of dementia had longer duration (p = 0.05). Compared with other types of dementia, people with vascular dementia (VaD) were referred for diagnosis earliest, and the sequence for such delays was: VaD < Alzheimer's disease (AD) < frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (p < 0.001). Subtypes of dementia (p < 0.001), family history (p = 0.01), and education level (p = 0.03) were associated with the increased delay in help seeking.
In China, seeking diagnosis for PWDs is delayed for approximately 2 years, even in well-established memory clinics. Clinical features, family history, and less education may impede help seeking in dementia care.
Abundant kiddcreekite grains were identified in the Zijinshan Cu-Au epithermal deposit in Fujian Province, China. The mineral occurs as polycrystalline grains, 5–300 μm in size, associated with colusite, enargite, stannoidite, mawsonite, vinciennite, hemusite, tennantite and wolframite in a predominantly covellite ore. Based on electron microprobe analysis, the empirical formula of the kiddcreekite is Cu6.2Sn0.97W0.95S7.83, without significant Se or Te contents. The crystal structure of kiddcreekite was solved using the direct-space method (EPCryst) from laboratory micro X-ray diffraction (μXRD) data and refined by the Rietveld method. The R values of the final Rietveld refinement were Rp = 9.06%, Rwp = 8.31%, RB = 3.16 and RF = 2.17%. Kiddcreekite has a cubic structure, space group F4̄3m and lattice parameter a = 10.8178(3) Å (Z = 4, V = 1265.95(6) Å3). In the unit cell, W, Sn and Cu atoms occupy the 4a, 4c and 24f Wyckoff positions, respectively, and S atoms occupy two sets of 16e Wyckoff positions. The structure of kiddcreekite consists of stacked double MeS4 layers (giving a W–Sn–Cu tier and a Cu–vacancy tier) as in the sphalerite substructure. This study also demonstrates the possibility of using laboratory µXRD data coupled with the direct-space method to solve inorganic structures in cases where samples are too small for conventional powder and single-crystal diffraction.
Background: Patients with the postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) subtype of Parkinson disease (PD) are at a higher risk of dysfunction and are less responsive to dopamine replacement therapy. The PIGD subtype was found to largely associate with white matter lesions, but details of the diffusion changes within these lesions have not been fully investigated. Voxel-based analysis for diffusion tensor imaging data is one of the preferred measures to compare diffusion changes in each voxel in any part of the brain. Methods: PD patients with the PIGD (n=12) and non-PIGD subtypes (n=12) were recruited to compare diffusion differences in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity with voxel-based analysis. Results: Significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral anterior corona radiata, and the left genu of the corpus callosum were shown in the PIGD subtype compared with the non-PIGD subtype. Increased radial diffusivity in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was found in the PIGD subtype with no statistical differences in axial diffusivity found. Conclusions: Our study confirms previous findings that white matter abnormalities were greater in the PIGD subtype than in the non-PIGD subtype. Additionally, our findings suggested: (1) compared with the non-PIGD subtype, loss of white matter integrity was greater in the PIGD subtype; (2) bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus may play a critical role in microstructural white matter abnormalities in the PIGD subtype; and (3) reduced white matter integrity in the PIGD subtype could be mainly attributed to demyelination rather than axonal loss.
This paper describes the results of a protocol study exploring problem–solution coevolution in a parametric design environment (PDE). The study involved eight participants who completed a defined architectural design task using Rhino and Grasshopper software: a typical PDE. The method of protocol analysis was employed to study the cognitive behaviors that occurred while these designers were working in the PDE. By analyzing the way in which the designers shifted between “problem” and “solution” spaces in the PDE, characteristics of the coevolutionary design process are identified and discussed. Results of this research include two potentially significant observations. First, the coevolution process occurs frequently within the design knowledge level (i.e., when using Rhino) and within the rule algorithm level (i.e., when using Grasshopper) of the parametric design process. Second, the designers’ coevolution process was focused on the design knowledge level at the beginning of the design session, while they focused more on the rule algorithm level toward the end of the design session. These results support an improved understanding of the design process that occurs in PDEs.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
We investigate the influence of the initial size of the proton layer on proton acceleration in the interaction of high intensity laser pulses with double-layer targets by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. We discuss the influence of proton layer initial sizes on the cut-off energy, energy spread, and divergence angle of proton beam. It is found that Coulomb explosion plays an important role on the proton cut-off energy. This causes the cut-off energy to increase for increasing proton layer thickness, at the expense of energy spread. The proton divergence angle reaches a peak value and then falls again with increasing the width. Proton divergence angle grows with target thickness. It is found that there is an optimal thickness to obtain the narrowest energy spread, which may provide an effective method (change the size of proton layer) to obtain high quality proton beams. This work may serve to improve the understanding of sheath field proton acceleration.
In fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, hot electron beam is considered to be an appropriate energy source for ignition. However, hot electrons are divergent as they are transporting in over-dense plasma. So collimating the hot electrons becomes one of the most important issues in fast ignition. A method to collimate hot electron beam by external magnetic field is proposed in this paper. The external field can be generated by compressing a seed magnetic field at the stage of laser-driven implosion. This method is confirmed by particle-in-cell simulations. The results show that hot electrons are well collimated by external magnetic field from magnetic-flux compression.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
High-order interpolation algorithms for charge conservation in Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations are presented. The methods are valid for the case that a particle trajectory is a zigzag line. The second-order and third-order algorithms which can be applied to any even-order and odd-order are discussed in this paper, respectively. Several test simulations are performed to demonstrate their validity in two-dimensional PIC code. Compared with the simulation results of one-order, high-order algorithms have advantages in computation precision and enlarging the grid scales which reduces the CPU time.