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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
We have explored the properties of triplet excited states in a series of platinum acetylide oligomers of the type [trans-Pt(PBu3)2(-CC-Ar)2], where Ar is a highly conjugated two-photon absorbing organic chromophore. Incorporation of two-photon absorbers into a pi-conjugated system produces short-lived excited states (fs/ps) with high efficiency. Platinum acetylide units introduce strong spin-orbit coupling into the pi-conjugated system to give rise to high yields of long-lived triplet excited states (ns/us) having large triplet-triplet absorption cross sections. Thus, a platinum acetylide having two-photon absorbers will, in principle, feature a strong non-linear absorption in broad time domain. The presentation will focus on (1) the synthesis and photophysical characterization under one- and two-photon excitation, (2) the effect of two-photon absorbing chromophores on nonlinear absorption properties of platinum acetylides and (3) the evidence for reverse saturable absorption.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Presented is the initial photophysical investigation of a series of transition metals complexed with an organic, two photon absorbing chromophore. This system is capable of a dual-mode nonlinear response. Upon two photon excitation, rapid intersystem crossing generates a long-lived and strongly absorbing triplet excited state capable of further nonlinear absorption via a reverse saturable absorption pathway.
For decades, fructose intake has been recognized as an environmental risk for metabolic syndromes and diseases. Here, we comprehensively examined effects of fructose intake on mice liver transcriptomes. Fructose supplemented water (34%; wt/vol) was fed to both male and female C57BL/6N mice at their free will for six weeks, followed by hepatic transcriptomics analysis. Based on our criteria, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected and subjected to further computational analyses to predict key pathways and upstream regulator(s). Subsequently, predicted genes and pathways from the transcriptomics dataset were validated via quantitative RT-PCR analyses. As results, we identified 89 down-regulated and 88 up-regulated mRNAs in fructose-fed mice livers. These DEGs were subjected to bioinformatic analysis tools in which DEGs were mainly enriched in xenobiotic metabolic processes; further, in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, it was suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an upstream regulator governing overall changes, while fructose suppresses the AhR signaling pathway. In our quantitative RT-PCR validation, we confirmed that fructose suppressed AhR signaling through modulating expressions of transcription factor (Arnt) and upstream regulators (Ncor2, and Rb1). Altogether, we demonstrated that ad libitum fructose intake suppresses the canonical AhR signaling pathway in C57BL/6N mice liver. Based on our current observations, further studies are warranted, especially with regard to the effects of co-exposure to fructose on 1) other types of carcinogens and 2) inflammation inducing agents (or even diets such as a high-fat diet), to find implications of fructose induced-AhR suppression.
Liquid films on wettable solid surfaces can be disturbed to dewet when low surface tension liquids or surfactants are added because the surface tension difference gives rise to stresses on the film interface. Here we consider an alcohol drop placed above a thin aqueous film, which punctures a hole in the film starting from underneath the alcohol drop. Such film dewetting is attributed to the Marangoni effects caused by the spatial gradient of alcohol vapour concentration. We measure the liquid–gas interfacial tension of aqueous liquids rapidly responding to the surrounding isopropyl alcohol vapour concentration, and observe evolution of the film morphology consisting of central hole, fringe film, thinning region and bulk. We construct scaling laws to predict the dewetting rates of the film by considering the Marangoni stress, viscous shear stress and evaporation. It is shown that our experiments are consistent with our theory.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern because of the high mortality rate of young people and a high proportion among the trauma. According to studies, patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with TBI comprise 1.4% of all ED patients.
The authors think that the characteristics of patients with TBI will vary according to the age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and social characteristics of patients with TBI visiting the ED by age group.
Trauma patients who conducted brain CT at the ED of Korean University Hospital (three hospitals) for 3 years from March 2013 to February 2016 were enrolled. Medical records were investigated retrospectively. The GCS scores were estimated at initial ED arrival. The primary outcome was to determine the characteristics of each age groups with gender, severity (by GSC score), trauma mechanism, and admission rate.
A total of 15,567 TBI patients received brain CT evaluation during the investigation period. Based on age, patients in their 50s were the most common (16.5%). Regarding the severity, the ratio of mild was higher in under patients under 9 (99.3%); the ratio of severe was higher for patients in their 20s (4.6%). In almost every age group, the male ratio of TBI was higher, except for females aged 70 or older. Under 19 years of age, the ambulance utilization rate was lower than any other age group. The most common injury mechanism was a collision, the next was a traffic accident, and in under 9, a fall was the most common. 70.1% of patients returned home after treatments.
Identifying the characteristics of patients with TBI visiting ED is fundamental. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously collect basic data on TBI among patients visiting the ED.
Seoul is the third most densely populated area in the world except for the city-state. However, a national disaster plan has not yet been established.
From September 2017, representatives of seven regional emergency medical centers in Seoul met monthly and decided to investigate basic data for the future establishment of surge capacity planning.
Staff, supply, space, and systems for surge capacity were surveyed in seven hospitals. The additional surveyed data were as follows: hospital incident command system and actual operational experience; performance of disaster drill; safety and security plan; estimation of surge capacity in normal operating conditions and extreme operating conditions; alternative therapeutic spaces; back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff; decontamination equipment; contingency plan for stuff shortage; etc.
All the hospitals reported they have hospital incident command systems and held disaster drills every year, however, the two hospitals (28.5%) had no real experience of hospital incident command system activation. Five hospitals (71.4%) did not have a safety and security plan. They replied they can treat average 7.7 emergency patients (Korean Triage and Acute scale (KTAS) ≤ 3), 10 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 0.9 surgical patients and 0.7 unstable patients simultaneously in normal operating conditions. In extreme operating conditions, they replied they can treat average 26.4 emergency patients (KTAS ≤ 3), 54.3 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 37 surgical patients and 2.3 unstable patients simultaneously. The two hospitals (28.5%) had no alternative therapeutic spaces, no back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff and no contingency plan for stuff shortage. Three hospitals (42.9%) did not have decontamination equipment.
The survey revealed the basic data for surge capacity planning in Seoul. Data from hospitals other than regional emergency medical centers should be collected for the completion of disaster plans.
We introduce the notion of Lie invariant structure Jacobi operators for real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric
. The existence of invariant structure Jacobi operators implies that the unit normal vector field
-isotropic. Then, according to each case, we give a complete classification of real hypersurfaces in
with Lie invariant structure Jacobi operators.
Treatment of liver fibrosis is very limited as there is currently no effective anti-fibrotic therapy. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue-green alga that is widely supplemented in healthy foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether SP supplementation can prevent obesity-induced liver fibrosis in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a low-fat or a high-fat (HF)/high-sucrose/high-cholesterol diet or an HF diet supplemented with 2·5 % SP (w/w) (HF/SP) for 16 or 20 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight, activity, energy expenditure, serum lipids or glucose tolerance between mice on HF and HF/SP diets. However, plasma alanine aminotransferase level was significantly reduced by SP at 16 weeks. Expression of fibrotic markers and trichrome stains showed no differences between HF and HF/SP. Splenocytes isolated from HF/SP fed mice had lower inflammatory gene expression and cytokine secretion compared with splenocytes from HF-fed mice. SP supplementation did not attenuate HF-induced liver fibrosis. However, the expression and secretion of inflammatory genes in splenocytes were significantly reduced by SP supplementation, demonstrating the anti-inflammatory effects of SP in vivo. Although SP did not show appreciable effect on the prevention of liver fibrosis in this mouse model, it may be beneficial for other inflammatory conditions.
This study investigates Spanish heritage speakers' perception and production of Spanish lexical stress. Stress minimal pairs in various prosodic contexts were used to examine whether heritage speakers successfully identify the stress location despite varying suprasegmental cues (Experiment 1) and whether they use these cues in their production (Experiment 2). Heritage speakers' performance was compared to that of Spanish monolinguals and English L2 learners. In Experiment 1, the heritage speakers showed a clear advantage over the L2 learners and their performance was comparable to that of the monolinguals. In Experiment 2, both the heritage speakers and the L2 learners showed deviating patterns from the monolinguals; they produced a large overlap between paroxytones and oxytones, especially in duration. The discrepancy between heritage speakers' perception and production suggests that, while early exposure to heritage language is beneficial for the perception of heritage language speech sounds, this factor alone does not guarantee target-like production.
We have developed new flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising organic dye (JH-1), cobalt redox electrolyte and hierarchically structured TiO2 (HS-TiO2) photoelectrode prepared using an electrostatic spray method. The performance of JH-1 sensitized flexible DSSC with a cobalt redox electrolyte was compared with those of N719-based DSSC and DSSC with I-/ I3- redox electrolyte. As a result, JH-1 sensitized flexible DSSC with [Co(Ⅲ/Ⅱ)(bpy-pz)3](PF6)3/2 redox system exhibited a high photocurrent density of 9.17 mA cm-2, an open circuit voltage of 0.953 V, a fill factor of 0.70, and a power conversion efficiency of 6.12% under 1 sun illumination (100 mW cm-2). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency was measured to explain the photocurrent generation difference by different dyes and electrolytes. The electron recombination lifetime of cells was measured by intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy. Mass transport in DSSCs employing cobalt redox electrolytes was also investigated by the photocurrent transient measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis.
Refugees commonly experience difficulties with emotional processing, such as alexithymia, due to stressful or traumatic experiences. However, the functional connectivity of the amygdala, which is central to emotional processing, has yet to be assessed in refugees. Thus, the present study investigated the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with emotional processing in North Korean (NK) refugees.
This study included 45 NK refugees and 40 native South Koreans (SK). All participants were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and differences between NK refugees and native SK in terms of resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala were assessed. Additionally, the association between the strength of amygdala connectivity and the TAS score was examined.
Resting-state connectivity values from the left amygdala to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were higher in NK refugees than in native SK. Additionally, the strength of connectivity between the left amygdala and right dlPFC was positively associated with TAS score after controlling for the number of traumatic experiences and BDI and CAPS scores.
The present study found that NK refugees exhibited heightened frontal–amygdala connectivity, and that this connectivity was correlated with alexithymia. The present results suggest that increased frontal–amygdala connectivity in refugees may represent frontal down-regulation of the amygdala, which in turn may produce alexithymia.
Residual stress is generally evaluated using indentation by comparing the indentation curves of stressed and stress-free states. Here, we suggest a new method that can evaluate surface residual stress without indentation testing on stress-free specimen using stress-independent indentation parameters and an analysis of indentation contact morphology for the stress-free state. We found that several indentation parameters are independent of the stress by Vickers indentation testing on various stress states. The indentation contact morphology can be represented by indentation parameters including stress-independent ones, and by applying the stress-independent parameters obtained from the stressed state to the indentation contact depth function, we can estimate an indentation curve for stress-free state. The estimated curve matches well with the experimental stress-free indentation curve, and it was also confirmed that the applied stress values evaluated by comparing the estimated curve with the stressed indentation curve agree well with the reference values obtained from strain gauge.
Rising costs and the rapidly increasing volume of findings from research in health care are driving the demand for comprehensive information to inform the allocation of resources. Health technology assessment (HTA) applies rigorous processes to provide high-quality synthesized information to policymakers and healthcare payers. HTA involves combining large amounts of research publications to systematically evaluate the properties, effects, and impacts on a topic of interest.
The time and resources required to complete a full HTA are often demanding. There is an opportunity to apply high-performance computing (inclusive of artificial intelligence and machine learning disciplines) to HTA. This project applied high-computing technology to create a research synthesis tool to support HTA and then developed a service that integrates as much relevant data as possible to strengthen HTA. This was a joint project that combined expertise from the areas of health technology, machine learning, information technology, and innovation.
The information gathered for this phased project from HTA subject matter experts and other stakeholders was collated to inform a research synthesis tool and a broader concept of the project.
The results of this study will inform the design of a research synthesis tool that covers the entire HTA process (literature search, screening titles and abstracts, data extraction, quality assessment, and analysis). The collaborators included Alberta Innovates, the Alberta Machine Intelligence Institute, the University of Alberta, Cybera, and PolicyWise. Alberta Innovates, which is an accelerator and innovator of research in the province of Alberta, Canada, was the primary source of funding for this project.
This paper aims to test two types of legislative shirking in a new democracy, South Korea. Using the lame-duck sessions of the Korean National Assembly, we test whether a legislator shirks in voting participation and in voting decisions. We weave two competing motivations of legislative shirking in voting participation – that to secure more leisure time and that to utilize the last, valuable voting opportunity – into a synthetic hypothesis and test it with two-part hurdle models. To test a shirking in voting participation hypothesis, we analyze legislators’ choices on bills that are supposedly related to the interests of constituents or political parties. Empirical results strongly support our shirking in voting participation claims, while only partial evidence is found on shirking in voting decisions. The findings suggest that, besides the trade-off between labor and leisure, some legislators deem the lame-duck sessions an opportunity to express their own preferences unconstrained.