To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Obsession and delusion are theoretically distinct from each other in terms of reality testing. Despite such phenomenological distinction, no extant studies have examined the identification of common and distinct neural correlates of obsession and delusion by employing biologically grounded methods. Here, we investigated dimensional effects of obsession and delusion spanning across the traditional diagnostic boundaries reflected upon the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using connectome-wide association studies (CWAS).
Our study sample comprised of 96 patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder, 75 patients with schizophrenia, and 65 healthy controls. A connectome-wide analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between obsession and delusion severity and RFSC using multivariate distance-based matrix regression.
Obsession was associated with the supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule, while delusion was associated with the precuneus. Follow-up seed-based RSFC and modularity analyses revealed that obsession was related to aberrant inter-network connectivity strength. Additional inter-network analyses demonstrated the association between obsession severity and inter-network connectivity between the frontoparietal control network and the dorsal attention network.
Our CWAS study based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides novel evidence for the circuit-level functional dysconnectivity associated with obsession and delusion severity across diagnostic boundaries. Further refinement and accumulation of biomarkers from studies embedded within the RDoC framework would provide useful information in treating individuals who have some obsession or delusion symptoms but cannot be identified by the category of clinical symptoms alone.
The tensile yield strength of high-density polyethylene using instrumented indentation tests with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter was evaluated. The variation in the field expressed by stress and strain beneath the flat-ended cylindrical indenter is investigated using a new expanding cavity model to study the relation between tension and indentation. This model starts from the separation of forces into the compressive force on the material and the frictional one, which is generated during indentation on the sides of indenter. The authors propose a method to correct the frictional force based on the saturation of indentation hardening and obtain load–depth curve with compressive component only. For conversion of indentation force and displacement, our new representation model is applied. By modifying Johnson's model, the new assumption of conservation of indentation plastic volume is suggested. This model proves and supports conventional relations of the strain rates between indentation and tension theoretically. These are verified through the experiments: instrumented indentation and uniaxial tensile test. The authors find a good agreement between the tensile yield strengths at various strain rates.
To investigate the impacts of depression screening, diagnosis and treatment on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Prospective cohort study including a nested 24-week randomised clinical trial for treating depression was performed with 5–12 years after the index ACS. A total of 1152 patients recently hospitalised with ACS were recruited from 2006 to 2012, and were divided by depression screening and diagnosis at baseline and 24-week treatment allocation into five groups: 651 screening negative (N), 55 screening positive but no depressive disorder (S), 149 depressive disorder randomised to escitalopram (E), 151 depressive disorder randomised to placebo (P) and 146 depressive disorder receiving medical treatment only (M).
Cumulative MACE incidences over a median 8.4-year follow-up period were 29.6% in N, 43.6% in S, 40.9% in E, 53.6% in P and 59.6% in M. Compared to N, screening positive was associated with higher incidence of MACE [adjusted hazards ratio 2.15 (95% confidence interval 1.63–2.83)]. No differences were found between screening positive with and without a formal depressive disorder diagnosis. Of those screening positive, E was associated with a lower incidence of MACE than P and M. M had the worst outcomes even compared to P, despite significantly milder depressive symptoms at baseline.
Routine depression screening in patients with recent ACS and subsequent appropriate treatment of depression could improve long-term cardiac outcomes.
The purpose of this article is to describe the process of developing and implementing a transdisciplinary community-based research center, the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER) Chicago, to offer a model for designing and implementing research centers that aim to address structural causes of health inequality.
Scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines formed a multidisciplinary team for the Center and adopted the structural violence framework as the organizing conceptual model. All Center activities were based on community partnership. The Center activities were organized within three cores: administrative, investigator development, and community engagement and dissemination cores. The key activities during the first year were to develop a pilot grant program for early-stage investigators (ESIs) and to establish community partnership mechanisms.
CHER provided more than 60 consultations for ESIs, which resulted in 31 pilot applications over the three application cycles. Over 200 academic and community partners attended the community symposium and discussed community priority. Some challenges encountered were to improve communication among investigators, to clarify roles and responsibilities of the three cores, and to build consensus on the definition and operationalization of the concept of structural violence.
There is an increasing need for local hubs to facilitate transdisciplinary collaboration and community engagement to effectively address health inequity. Building consensus around a shared vision among partners is a difficult and yet important step toward achieving equity.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a main pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. Since the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in the early 2000s in Japan, it has been increasingly reported worldwide as a growing problem in treatment for children. With increasing macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae and limited data regarding its characterization and molecular analysis, we investigated the dominant M. pneumoniae strains during the recent outbreak in South Korea, and evaluated if there was an association between a specific type and macrolide resistance. Between October 2014 and December 2016 in South Korea, 249 respiratory specimens obtained from patients with confirmed M. pneumoniae pneumonia were genotyped the P1 adhesin gene, and the mutations associated with resistance (A2063G and A2064G) were tested by sequencing the targeted domain V regions of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene. Results revealed that M. pneumoniae type 1 were predominant, which was strongly associated with macrolide-resistance during the whole study period. This is the first study assessing whether M. pneumoniae subtype is related to macrolide resistance during the outbreak of M. pneumoniae.
Tricuspid atresia with absent pulmonary valve and intact ventricular septum is an extremely rare cardiac malformation, historically associated with a poor prognosis. Only a few cases with successful surgical palliation have been reported in the literature. We present the case of an 8-month-old infant with this malformation who underwent successful bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis with complete exclusion of the right ventricle.
Fermented foods such as kimchi are traditional foods in Korea and could provide beneficial health effects. However, fermented foods also contribute to increased Na intake since salt is added during the fermentation process. The present research aimed to examine trends in the consumption of fermented foods and Na intake over time by Korean adults, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey; data from 1998 to 2016 were divided into seven groups from KNHANES I to VII.
Demographic information on sex, age, education and income were collected. Assessment of fermented food and Na consumption was conducted via analysis of 24 h dietary recall data. Multivariate linear regressions and logistic regressions were performed to calculate the P for trends by applying strata, cluster and sampling weights by SAS PROC SURVEY.
The target population was Korean adults, aged ≥19 years, who participated in a 24 h dietary recall. The total number was 76 199, with 32 324 men and 43 875 women.
A significant decline in fermented food consumption was observed from 1998 to 2016 in both men and women (P < 0·0001). Among fermented foods, kimchi consumption was greatly reduced while pickled vegetables consumption showed a marked increase. Similarly, Na intake from fermented foods declined significantly over time in both men and women (P < 0·0001).
The consumption of fermented foods and Na intake from fermented foods by Korean adults decreased significantly over time from 1998 to 2016.
Migraine with aura is one of the causes of stroke mimics. We retrospectively reviewed the 10-year medical records of patients who were treated with acute stroke management protocol. We analyzed the frequency and characteristics of patients with a final diagnosis of migraine with aura. Among the 1355 patients with stroke mimics, migraine with aura was the final diagnosis in 36 patients (2.7%). The most common auras included sensory and brainstem auras followed by motor, visual, and speech/language auras. One patient manifested transient atrial fibrillation during the migraine attack, which can be a link with acute stroke.
The present study analysed and compared the nutritional qualities of private brand (PB) and national brand (NB) ready meal (RM) products in South Korea.
Data on RM products were collected via a food information database (EatSight) between February and May of 2017. A total of ninety-one PB products from a leading discount store chain in South Korea and 415 NB products were selected and divided into four main categories of ‘refrigerated soups/stews’, ‘refrigerated noodles’, ‘frozen rice/noodles’ and ‘frozen dumplings’. Nutritional information was extracted for each product and analyses were performed to compare nutritional differences.
A total of 506 RM products.
PB products explained the highest percentage of refrigerated RM products while NB products occupied the highest percentage of frozen ones. Notably, main PB and NB products showed evident nutritional problems. Among PB products, refrigerated soups/stews were significantly higher in energy, fat, Na, saturated fat and trans-fat. Likewise, in the case of NB products, frozen rice/noodles were significantly higher in Na and saturated fat. Particularly, overall Na contents were high. When the Korean guidance on traffic-light labelling was applied, a mere 0·2 and 5·9 % of total RM products showed all four and three green lights, respectively. Meanwhile, those with no green lights accounted for 42·3 %.
Although it is difficult to draw a definitive conclusion on the comparative nutritional qualities due to the lack of consistency in the results, the study suggests that there is room to improve the nutritional qualities of overall RM products.
Body weight is a major risk determinant of frailty, but the effect of obesity on frailty is controversial. The present study aimed to confirm the hypothesis that the risk of frailty is positively associated with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), but the association is mediated by the waist:height ratio (WHtR) in older women and men. A total of 2862 community-dwelling older individuals aged 70–84 years were assessed for frailty using the Korean version of Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, and Loss of weight index. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was associated with a higher risk of frailty compared with BMI 18·5–<23 kg/m2 in all the older individuals (OR 1·88; 95 % CI 1·11, 3·17; P = 0·018) and in older women (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·42; P = 0·047) before adjusting for WHtR but was not associated with BMI after adjusting for WHtR. Additionally, obesity was not significantly associated with the risk of frailty before and after adjusting for WHtR in older men. Mediation analysis revealed that the association between BMI and frailty score was mediated by WHtR. Moreover, the mediating effect of WHtR on frailty score was positive in both women and men, but the frailty score was associated with BMI positively in women and negatively in men. The present study suggests that the risk of frailty is higher in obese women, which is mediated by WHtR, but not in obese men.
For decades, fructose intake has been recognised as an environmental risk for metabolic syndromes and diseases. Here we comprehensively examined the effects of fructose intake on mice liver transcriptomes. Fructose-supplemented water (34 %; w/v) was fed to both male and female C57BL/6N mice at their free will for 6 weeks, followed by hepatic transcriptomics analysis. Based on our criteria, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were selected and subjected to further computational analyses to predict key pathways and upstream regulator(s). Subsequently, predicted genes and pathways from the transcriptomics dataset were validated via quantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, we identified eighty-nine down-regulated and eighty-eight up-regulated mRNA in fructose-fed mice livers. These DEG were subjected to bioinformatics analysis tools in which DEG were mainly enriched in xenobiotic metabolic processes; further, in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, it was suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an upstream regulator governing overall changes, while fructose suppresses the AhR signalling pathway. In our quantitative RT-PCR validation, we confirmed that fructose suppressed AhR signalling through modulating expressions of transcription factor (AhR nuclear translocator; Arnt) and upstream regulators (Ncor2, and Rb1). Altogether, we demonstrated that ad libitum fructose intake suppresses the canonical AhR signalling pathway in C57BL/6N mice liver. Based on our current observations, further studies are warranted, especially with regard to the effects of co-exposure to fructose on (1) other types of carcinogens and (2) inflammation-inducing agents (or even diets such as a high-fat diet), to find implications of fructose-induced AhR suppression.
We introduce the notion of Lie invariant structure Jacobi operators for real hypersurfaces in the complex quadric
. The existence of invariant structure Jacobi operators implies that the unit normal vector field
-isotropic. Then, according to each case, we give a complete classification of real hypersurfaces in
with Lie invariant structure Jacobi operators.
Liquid films on wettable solid surfaces can be disturbed to dewet when low surface tension liquids or surfactants are added because the surface tension difference gives rise to stresses on the film interface. Here we consider an alcohol drop placed above a thin aqueous film, which punctures a hole in the film starting from underneath the alcohol drop. Such film dewetting is attributed to the Marangoni effects caused by the spatial gradient of alcohol vapour concentration. We measure the liquid–gas interfacial tension of aqueous liquids rapidly responding to the surrounding isopropyl alcohol vapour concentration, and observe evolution of the film morphology consisting of central hole, fringe film, thinning region and bulk. We construct scaling laws to predict the dewetting rates of the film by considering the Marangoni stress, viscous shear stress and evaporation. It is shown that our experiments are consistent with our theory.