To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Heading angle is a vital parameter in maintaining a vessel's track along a planned course and should be guaranteed in a stable and reliable way. An innovative method of heading determination based on a fisheye camera, which is almost totally unaffected by electromagnetism and geomagnetism, is proposed in this paper. In addition, unlike traditional astronomical methods, it also has a certain degree of adaptability to cloudy weather. Utilising the super wide Field Of View (FOV) of the camera, it is able to simultaneously image the Moon and the horizon. The Moon is treated as the observed celestial body and the horizon works as the horizontal datum. Two experiments were conducted at sea, successfully proving the feasibility of this method. The proposed heading determination system has the merits of automation, resistance to interference and could be miniaturised, making application viable.
As Satellite Clock Bias (SCB) prediction may be affected by various factors such as periodic items, sampling length, and stochastic items, a fusion-based prediction method is proposed by considering characteristics of SCB and fitted residue. On this basis, an instance algorithm is presented by fusing four typical prediction models. First, we use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to pre-process and decompose the SCB series into multiple components with various characteristics. Then, we analyse the fitting performance of each model for different components and prediction length, namely short-, mid- and long-term prediction, and select models with the best performance. Next, we analyse fitted residue of the reconstructed SCB, and select the model with the best fitting results. Finally, we fuse the multiple selected models for SCB prediction. The method is tested using Global Positioning System (GPS) precise clock products provided by the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS). Experimental results show that, compared with single prediction models and existing combination models, the proposed fusion-based prediction method improves accuracy and stability. In particular, the proposed method is more stable and has better performance for mid- and long-term prediction.
CVD remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with abnormal lipid metabolism as a major risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipids in Chinese adults. Data were extracted from the 2009 phase of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 6774 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18–65 years. The frequency of consumption and degree of pungency of spicy food were self-reported, and regular spicy food consumption was assessed using three consecutive 24-h recalls. Total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in fasting serum were measured. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipid profiles. The results showed that the frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake were both inversely associated with LDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (all Pfor trend<0·05) after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects. HDL-cholesterol in participants who usually consumed spicy food (≥5 times/week) and who consumed spicy food perceived as moderate in pungency were significantly higher than those who did not (both P<0·01). The frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake and the degree of pungency in spicy food were positively associated with TAG (all Pfor trend<0·05). Spicy food consumption was inversely associated with serum cholesterol and positively associated with serum TAG, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings as well as to elucidate the potential roles of spicy food consumption in lipid metabolism.
The prevalence of CHD has been well described worldwide except in Tibet. This study aimed to illustrate the prevalence and composition of CHD in Tibetan children according to altitude.
Methods and results
In the first part, we prospectively recruited 7088 unselected Tibetan children (4–17 years) from south-west Tibet. The total prevalence of CHD increased from 4.6/1000 below 4200 m to 13.4/1000 above 4700 m, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.3:3.1. The total prevalence and female prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus increased more than 10-fold. Females living above 4700 m had exceptionally high prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus (14.9/1000). The prevalence of atrial septal defect was comparable among different altitudes (3.3–3.8/1000). The prevalence of ventricular septal defect was 1.3/1000 below 4700 m, and no cases were found above this altitude. In the second part, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 383 CHD children in Tibet and 73 children at lower altitudes. The percentage of isolated ventricular septal defect decreased from 54.8 to 3.1%, and the percentage of isolated patent ductus arteriosus increased from 8.2 to 68.4% with elevation. Children living below 4200 m (10.4–13.7%) had a larger proportion of complex CHD than those above this altitude (2.0–3.1%). Of the 20 Tibetan children with complex CHD, 14 (70.0%) lived below 4200 m.
A wide variation in CHD prevalence and composition existed in Tibetan children among different altitudes.
Based on 15 diffusion couples located in face centered cubic single-phase region of ternary Ni–Al–Mo system, high-throughput determination of composition-dependent interdiffusivity matrices at 1273, 1373, and 1473 K was performed by using the recently developed numerical inverse method. The determined main interdiffusivities over the investigated composition and temperature ranges are all positive, and
is generally larger than
generally increases with concentration of Al, while
increases with concentrations of both Al and Mo. In contrast, the cross interdiffusivities can be either positive or negative. Average relative errors of
were evaluated to be 2.4, 5.1, 16.1, and 1.7% using error propagation. Furthermore, our prediction of composition profiles and interdiffusion fluxes based on evaluated interdiffusivity matrices agrees quite well with measured data. Traditional Matano–Kirkaldy method was also applied to further verify the reliability of obtained interdiffusivities. Besides, three-dimensional planes of activation energies of main interdiffusivities were also evaluated using the Arrhenius equation.
In this article, we report on the preparation of few-layered MoS2/graphene nanocomposite (MoS2/GNS-G) with enlarged interlayer distance as the lithium-ion battery anode via a facile hydrothermal method followed by glucose-assisted thermal annealing. During the synthesis, glucose serving as a small organic molecule can interlay into MoS2 nanosheets, which effectively hinder the aggregation and restacking of MoS2 during the process of heat treatment, retaining a sandwich structure of the composite. The enlarged interlayer distance (approximately 0.98 nm), along with the inserted amorphous carbon, could promote efficient lithium migration into active sites, buffer the volume change and stabilize the electrode structure effectively during the lithium insertion/extraction cycling. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the MoS2/GNS-G delivers a high discharge capacity of 1583.0 mA h/g in the initial cycle at current density of 100 mA/g. The specific capacity remained at the relative high value of 673.5 mA h/g even at a current density of 1000 mA/g.
Malaria remains one of the most devastating diseases. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection resulting in high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Analysis of precise mechanisms of CM in humans is difficult for ethical reasons and animal models of CM have been employed to study malaria pathogenesis. Here, we describe a new experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in KunMing (KM) mice. KM mice developed ECM after blood-stage or sporozoites infection, and the development of ECM in KM mice has a dose-dependent relationship with sporozoites inoculums. Histopathological findings revealed important features associated with ECM, including accumulation of mononuclear cells and red blood cells in brain microvascular, and brain parenchymal haemorrhages. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) examination showed that BBB disruption was present in infected KM mice when displaying clinical signs of CM. In vivo bioluminescent imaging experiment indicated that parasitized red blood cells accumulated in most vital organs including heart, lung, spleen, kidney, liver and brain. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-12, IL-6 and IL-10 were all remarkably increased in KM mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. This study indicates that P. berghei ANKA infection in KM mice can be used as ECM model to extend further research on genetic, pharmacological and vaccine studies of CM.
The effects of carbon equivalent on thermal and mechanical properties of compacted graphite cast irons were investigated at ambient temperature, 300 and 500 °C, respectively. The group implied the change of carbon content to control the carbon equivalent. The results indicated that with the increasing carbon equivalent from 4.43 to 4.74, the graphite count increase. The thermal conductivity was 48.64, 44.55, 49.04, and 50.36 W/mK for carbon equivalent about 4.43–4.74 of compacted graphite cast irons at ambient temperature, respectively. With an increase in temperature, the thermal conductivity decrease. Moreover, with the increasing carbon equivalent, the tensile strength and yield strength increase initially, and then decrease at ambient temperature, 300 and 500 °C, respectively. With an increase in temperature, the tensile strength and yield strength decrease. Characterization of fracture surface indicated that the mixed ductile-brittle fracture mode prevailed in the compacted graphite cast irons with different carbon equivalents.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.