To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Atomically sharpened tips have attracted much interest in the imaging and manufacturing fields due to their high spatial resolutions. Typically, tungsten (W) is mainly used as the material of such a tip, but when the W tip is used in an oxygen environment, a limit is revealed due to corrosiveness stemming from a reaction with the oxygen gas. To solve this problem, methods of depositing a metal on W that does not react with oxygen have been studied. In this study, we introduce a method of depositing iridium (Ir) directly onto an insulating layer without an additional pretreatment to remove the insulating layer remaining on the W surface, forming an Ir-nanopyramid structure at the apex of the W tip by field evaporation and faceting. Field ion microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to analyze the crystal structure and composition at the apex during the faceting process, and the overall tip shape change after faceting was compared and analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. The proposed method does not have a tip heating step when creating an atomically sharp tip such that it can be made easily with a simpler equipment configuration than in the existing method.
A prominent large negative δ13Corg excursion and a coeval notable spike in mercury (Hg)/total organic carbon ratio are observed in the middle–upper Permian Gohan Formation in central Korea, located in the eastern Sino-Korean block (SKB), which may represent the Capitanian mass extinction event. The SKB was separated from the South China block by the eastern Palaeo-Tethys Ocean. This finding from the SKB supports the widespread Hg loading to the environment emitted from the Emeishan volcanic eruptions in SW China. This study demonstrates that the Hg cycle was globally perturbed in association with global carbon cycle perturbation that occurred during the Capitanian Extinction.
We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion.
The upper Palaeozoic succession (Pyeongan Supergroup) in central eastern Korea is well correlated with the equivalent successions distributed in North China, suggestive of the Korean upper Palaeozoic being part of the Sino-Korean Block. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages and Sm–Nd isotope compositions of the Pyeongan Supergroup in the Samcheok coalfield of the Taebaeksan Basin were analysed. A single predominant zircon age peak at c. 1.9 Ga (> 70%) is marked in all sedimentary units, followed by varying amounts of minor late Palaeozoic grains (up to 30%). The rarity of Meso- to Neoproterozoic- and Silurian-aged zircons confirms that sediment influx from the South China and Qinling blocks was insignificant. The 2.0–1.8 Ga-dominated zircon age pattern and the Nd isotope composition (average εNd(0) = −15.5±4.0) of the Pyeongan Supergroup most closely reflect the signature of the Yeongnam Massif basements, which supports a previous hypothesis that the Pyeongan Supergroup was mostly derived from a palaeo-orogen located to the east–southeast. Relatively higher εNd(0) values (> −10.1) in the lowermost and the upper parts of the succession are closely matched by the increased occurrence of syn-depositional-aged zircons, which indicates considerable mixing of juvenile materials at c. 320 Ma and 260 Ma. Both arc-related magmatic events are interpreted to have been related to oceanic subduction, suggesting that the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean Block was an active continental margin during late Palaeozoic times.
Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module.
The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale.
A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered “I knew my duty” (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered “I clearly knew my duty” (4.5±0.5).
The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1–5)
During the summer, from 1996–2000, vertical profiles of conductivity, temperature and transmissivity were obtained near the tidewater glacier of Marian Cove, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The aims for the study were to determine the short-term variations of water structure due to hydrographic forcings and to understand sedimentation of suspended particulate matter in Antarctic fjord environments. Four distinct water layers were identified in the ice-proximal zone of the cove: i) a surface layer composed of cold and turbid meltwater, ii) a relatively warm Maxwell Bay inflow layer with characteristics of outer fjord water, iii) a turbid/cold mid-depth layer (40–70 m) originating from subglacial discharge, and iv) a deep layer comprised of the remnant winter water. The main factor influencing the characteristics of glacial meltwater layers and driving deposition of suspended particles in the cove is tidal forcing coupled with wind stress. The relatively small amount of meltwater discharge in Marian Cove yields low accumulation rates of non-biogenic sedimentary particles in the cove. The response to north-western and western winds, coupled with flood tide, may promote settling and sedimentation of suspended particles from turbid layers in the ice-proximal zone of the cove.
In this paper, human viscosity perception in haptic teleoperation systems is thoroughly analyzed. An accurate perception of viscoelastic environmental properties such as viscosity is a critical ability in several contexts, such as telesurgery, telerehabilitation, telemedicine, and soft-tissue interaction. We study and compare the ability to perceive viscosity from the standpoint of detection and discrimination using several relevant control methods for the teleoperator. The perception-based method, which was proposed by the authors to enhance the operator's kinesthetic perception, is compared with the conventional transparency-based control method for the teleoperation system. The fidelity-based method, which is a primary method among perception-centered control schemes in teleoperation, is also studied. We also examine the necessity and impact of the remote-site force information for each of the methods. The comparison is based on a series of psychophysical experiments measuring absolute threshold and just noticeable difference for all conditions. The results clearly show that the perception-based method enhances both detection and discrimination abilities compare with other control methods. The results further show that the fidelity-based method confers a better discrimination ability than the transparency-based method, although this is not true with respect to detection ability. In addition, we show that force information improves viscosity detection for all control methods, as predicted from previous theoretical analysis, but improves the discrimination threshold only for the perception-based method.
The hardness changes caused by formation of the metastable and stable phases were examined and correlated with the microstructural changes in grain interior and grain boundary during aging at 350 °C to clarify the age-hardening and softening mechanism of a low-gold Au-Cu-Ag-Pd dental alloy. Aging in this context refers to the time-delay that occurs wherein such alloys are kept at elevated temperatures for periods upto many hours to allow precipitation or ordering to take place. During the period of increasing hardness, the matrix was separated into the Ag-rich α1 and AuCu I phases through the metastable phases, forming block-like structure. The apparent hardening was attributed primarily to lattice strain due to the tetragonality of AuCu I′ [the primer (′) here indicates a metastable phase; likewise (I) and (I′) indicate stable AuCu I and metastable AuCu I′ phases, respectively] and AuCu I phases along the c-axis, secondarily to the coherency or semicoherency strain between the metastable α1′ and AuCu I′ phases and between the α0 and AuCu I phases along the a-axis. The apparent softening was caused primarily by growth and coarsening of the lamellar structure in the grain boundaries, secondarily by coarsening of the block-like structure in the grain interior.
Geochemical characteristics of marine sediment from the southern Drake Passage were analyzed to reconstruct variations in sediment provenance and transport paths during the late Quaternary. The 5.95 m gravity core used in this study records paleoenvironmental changes during the last approximately 600 ka. Down-core variations in trace element, rare earth element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions reveal that sediment provenance varied according to glacial cycles. During glacial periods, detrital sediments in the southern Drake Passage were mostly derived from the nearby South Shetland Islands and shelf sediments. In contrast, interglacial sediments are composed of mixed sediments, derived from both West Antarctica and East Antarctica. The East Antarctic provenance of the interglacial sediments was inferred to be the Weddell Sea region. Sediment input from the Weddell Sea was reduced during glacial periods by extensive ice sheets and weakened current from the Weddell Sea. Sediment supply from the Weddell Sea increased during interglacial periods, especially those with higher warmth such as MIS 5, 9, and 11. This suggests that the influence of deep water from the Weddell Sea increases during interglacial periods and decreases during glacial periods, with the degree of influence increasing as interglacial intensity increases.
Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.
Semiconductors or metal nanoparticles (NPs) using their monolayer bindings with self-assembly chemicals are an attractive topic for device researchers. Electrical performance of such structures can be investigated for a particular application, such as memory device. Currently, Au NPs has been reported to show a substantial potential in the memory applications. In this study, Au NP and gluing layer were fabricated through a new method of monolayer formation of a chemical bonding or gluing.
In this study, a new NPs memory system was fabricated by using organic semiconductor, i.e., pentacene as the active layer, evaporated Au as electrode, SiO2 as the gate insulator layer on silicon wafer. In addition, Au NPs coated with binding chemicals were used as charge storage elements on an APTES (3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane) as a gluing layer. In order to investigate chemical binding of Au NP to the gate insulator layer, GPTMS (3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane) were coated on the Au NPs. As a result of that, a layer of gold nanoparticles has been incorporated into a metal-pentacene-insulator-semiconductor (MPIS) structure. The MPIS device with the Au NP exhibited a hysteresis in its capacitance versus voltage analysis. Charge storage in the layer of nanoparticles is thought to be responsible for this effect.