To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Dietary indices are widely used in diet quality measurement, and the index-based dietary patterns are related to gastric cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship between different kinds of index-based dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk, we systematically searched four English-language databases and four Chinese-language databases. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between gastric cancer incidence and different types of index-based dietary patterns. The odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) of gastric cancer incidence were calculated by regression models in case-control studies and prospective cohort studies, respectively. The studies were pooled in the random-effects model to calculate the summarized risk estimate of the highest quantile interval of dietary indices, taking the lowest as the referent. The dietary indices included different versions of Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and dietary inflammatory index (DII), healthy eating index, Chinese food pagoda score, and food index score. The meta-analysis was carried out for studies on MDS and DII. The combined OR of gastric cancer for the highest MDS versus the referent was 0.42 (95% CI 0.2–0.86), and the combined HR was 0.89 (95% CI 0.68–1.17). The combined OR for DII was 2.11 (95% CI 1.41–3.15). Higher Mediterranean dietary pattern consumption might reduce gastric cancer risk, while higher inflammatory diet pattern consumption might increase gastric cancer risk.
Excessive intake of high-energy diets is an important cause of most obesity. The intervention of rats with high-fat diet can replicate the ideal animal model for studying the occurrence of human nutritional obesity. Proteomics and bioinformatics analyses can help us to systematically and comprehensively study the effect of high-fat diet on rat liver. In the present study, 4056 proteins were identified in rat liver by using tandem mass tag. A total of 198 proteins were significantly changed, of which 103 were significantly up-regulated and ninety-five were significantly down-regulated. These significant differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism processes. The intake of a high-fat diet forces the body to maintain physiological balance by regulating these key protein spots to inhibit fatty acid synthesis, promote fatty acid oxidation and accelerate fatty acid degradation. The present study enriches our understanding of metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diets at the protein level.
High-yielding short-duration cultivars are required due to the development of mechanized large-scale double-season rice (i.e. early- and late-season rice) production in China. The objective of this study was to identify whether existing early-season rice cultivars can be used as resources to select high-yielding, short-duration (less than 115 days) cultivars of machine-transplanted late-season rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan, Hunan Province, China in the early and late rice-growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Eight early-season rice cultivars (Liangyou 6, Lingliangyou 211, Lingliangyou 268, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 42, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with growth durations of less than 115 days were used in 2015, and four cultivars (Lingliangyou 268, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with good yield performance in the late season in 2015 were grown in 2016. All cultivars had a growth duration of less than 110 days when grown in the late season in both years. Zhongjiazao 17 produced the maximum grain yield of 9.61 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 108 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season in 2015. Averaged across both years, Lingliangyou 268 had the highest grain yield of 8.57 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 95 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season. The good yield performance of the early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season was mainly attributable to higher apparent radiation use efficiency. Growth duration and grain yield of early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season were not significantly related to those grown in the early season. Our study suggests that it is feasible to select high-yielding short-duration cultivars from existing early-season rice cultivars for machine-transplanted late-season rice production. Special tests by growing alternative early-season rice cultivars in the late season should be done to determine their growth duration and grain yield for such selection.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hypertension management and analyse the factors associated with blood pressure reduction within China’s primary healthcare system.
Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for global disease burden and is strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. In China, hypertension is a serious public health problem, but few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of hypertension management in China’s primary healthcare system.
The study sites were 24 primary healthcare institutions, selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. In each institution, hypertension patients aged at least 35 years who agreed to participate and had no disabilities or mental health problems were enrolled for hypertension management. Participants received comprehensive interventions in the primary healthcare system via a team. After a one-year intervention, data from 6575 hypertension patients were analysed to check the effectiveness of hypertension management and examined factors associated with hypertension control.
There was an overall mean reduction of 4.5 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 1.9 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The blood pressure reduction after one year was greater in rural patients than in urban patients, 6.6 mmHg versus 3.4 mmHg for SBP and 2.6 mmHg versus 1.6 mmHg for DBP, respectively. The hypertension control rate also increased more in rural areas (22.1%) than in urban areas (10.6%) after the one-year intervention. Age, body mass index, region and being in an urban area had a significant negative association with the reduction of SBP (P < 0.05). Education level and baseline SBP showed a significant positive association (P < 0.05).
Community-based hypertension management by general practitioners was feasible and effective. The effectiveness of hypertension management in rural areas was greater than in urban areas. Intervention strategies should pay more attention to patients in rural areas and western China.
The antibacterial hydrogels can be widely used in the biomedical area owing to their excellent properties. The main limitation of antibacterial hydrogels is their poor mechanical strength. In this study, the novel hydrogels were fabricated with a mixture of silk fibroin (SF), chitosan (CH), agarose (AG), and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) via facile reaction condition without inorganic substances. The mechanical property of these fabricated hydrogels can be modulated by the concentration of SF or AG. The rheological studies demonstrated enhanced elasticity of CH-doped hydrogels. Because of the presence of CH and Ag in hydrogels, the antimicrobial property against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was exhibited. Cytocompatibility test proved the very low toxic nature of the hydrogels. In addition, these composite hydrogels have a smaller porosity, higher swelling ratio, and good compatibility, indicating their great potential for biomedical application.
Uniform distribution of diamond grains is difficult to achieve using traditional fabrication of the micro grinding wheel. The design and performance of novel resinous diamond composites (RDCs) fabricated by hot pressing molding were studied to fabricate micro resinous diamond grinding wheels. The physical and mechanical properties of RDCs were analyzed by constructing and simulating five kinds of RDCs, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/dioctyl phthalate (DOP)/diamond materials with different mass ratios. Diamond grains presented good compatibility with the ABS–PVC–DOP copolymer, which resulted in improved mechanical properties of RDCs. RDC1–RDC5 samples were fabricated, and their hardness, surface roughness, and infrared spectra were analyzed. The optimal mass ratio of ABS/PVC/diamond/DOP for fabricating RDCs was 62.5/18.6/10.6/8.3. The results provide guidance in fabricating novel materials for resinous diamond grinding wheels with desirable performances for precision and ultraprecision machining.
We sought to examine the potential modifiers in the association between long-term low-dose folic acid supplementation and the reduction of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) among hypertensive patients, using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). This analysis included 16 867 participants who had complete data on tHcy measurements at both the baseline and exit visit. After a median treatment period of 4·5 years, folic acid treatment significantly reduced the tHcy levels by 1·6 μmol/l (95 % CI 1·4, 1·8). More importantly, after adjustment for baseline tHcy and other important covariates, a greater degree of tHcy reduction was observed in certain subgroups: males, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype, higher baseline tHcy levels (≥12·5 (median) v. <12·5 μmol/l), lower folate levels (<8·0 (median) v. ≥8·0 ng/ml), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2 (v. 60–<90 and ≥90 ml/min per 1·73 m2), ever smokers and concomitant use of diuretics (P for all interactions <0·05). The degree of tHcy reduction associated with long-term folic acid supplementation can be significantly affected by sex, MTHFR C677T genotypes, baseline folate, tHcy, eGFR levels and smoking status.
Maternal dietary patterns and macronutrients intake have been shown to affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to identify maternal dietary patterns and examine their associations with GDM risk, and to evaluate the contributions of macronutrients intake to these associations. We included 2755 Chinese pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ 2 weeks before the diagnosis of GDM. GDM (n 248) was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. We derived five different dietary patterns from a principal component analysis. The results showed that high fish–meat–eggs scores, which were positively related to protein intake and inversely related to carbohydrate intake, were associated with a higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 4 v. quartile 1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·79; Ptrend=0·007) and higher plasma glucose levels. In contrast, high rice–wheat–fruits scores, which were positively related to carbohydrate intake and inversely related to protein intake, were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 3 v. quartile 1: 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83; Ptrend=0·010) and lower plasma glucose levels. In addition, dietary protein and carbohydrate intake significantly contributed to the associations between dietary patterns and GDM risk or glucose levels. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterised by high protein and low carbohydrate intake in pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM, which may provide important clues for dietary guidance during pregnancy to prevent GDM.
The present study investigates the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) instead of (NH4)2SO4 as a lixiviant in the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) from clays. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of leaching conditions such as leaching time, lixiviant concentration and liquid:solid ratio on the leaching efficiency. The optimum leaching conditions, leading to 75.48% of total REE leaching efficiency, required a stirring speed of 500 rpm, a leaching time of 30 min, a lixiviant concentration of 3 wt.% and a liquid:solid ratio of 3:1. After extension of the leaching process by a second stage, the leaching efficiency may reach up to 96.19%, which is slightly higher than that obtained by (NH4)2SO4. Leaching varies from element to element, with Ce presenting the lowest leaching efficiency, and the partition in leaching solution is in agreement with that in raw ore other than for Ce. Based on these findings, MgSO4 lixiviant is an excellent alternative leaching agent for a sustainable REE industry because it reduces or eliminates NH4+–N pollution.
Grafting is a common technique used to impart desirable traits to a plant’s scion. Herbicide resistant rootstocks have the potential to confer non–genetically modified (non-GM) scions with herbicide tolerance while mitigating some societal concerns regarding GM crops and food. We examined the impacts of soybean cultivar and growth stage and environmental temperature on transference of glyphosate tolerance to conventional (CN) soybean scions when grafted to glyphosate-resistant (RR) rootstocks. Small CN/RR (scion/rootstock) plants (3-leaf stage) and medium-sized plants (6-leaf stage) were injured more than large plants (10-leaf stage) 34 d after treatment (DAT) with 0.84 and 1.68 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate. All CN/CN combinations died, and RR/RR were uninjured. The cultivar of the scion had a greater effect on glyphosate tolerance than the cultivar of the rootstock. CN scions 352 and 5418 were more tolerant than CN scion 5388 across all RR rootstocks 35 DAT when treated with 0.84 kg ha−1 glyphosate. CN/RR construct 5388/9392 was more sensitive to temperature compared with 352/9392. Less leaf regrowth of 5388/9392 was observed under the warmer temperature. Our experiments demonstrated that grafting imparted robust glyphosate tolerance across different plant sizes, environmental temperatures, and scion/rootstock cultivars.
Weed control in vegetable production is especially challenging, because few registered herbicides simultaneously offer excellent crop tolerance and broad-spectrum weed control. We report here the response of several vegetables and weeds to 37.5 and 50 g ai ha−1 of the new herbicide bicyclopyrone (BCP). Vegetable crops showed good tolerance to BCP PRE and post-directed (POST-DIR) in high organic matter content muck soil. POST BCP severely injured all crops. Soil type and the rate of BCP PRE significantly affected response of vegetable crops, and variety of onion was significant. POST BCP controlled hairy galinsoga and small common purslane plants (>80% injury). Hairy galinsoga was not controlled by BCP PRE application in muck soil but was controlled in a 2:3 (vol/vol) blend of Wooster silt loam and a commercial potting mix. Common purslane was slightly injured in the muck soil and was well controlled in the soil and potting mix blend by PRE BCP. The herbicide did not control prostrate pigweed in either soil type or at any growth stage.