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The massive volume of data generated in modern applications can overwhelm our ability to conveniently transmit, store, and index it. For many scenarios, building a compact summary of a dataset that is vastly smaller enables flexibility and efficiency in a range of queries over the data, in exchange for some approximation. This comprehensive introduction to data summarization, aimed at practitioners and students, showcases the algorithms, their behavior, and the mathematical underpinnings of their operation. The coverage starts with simple sums and approximate counts, building to more advanced probabilistic structures such as the Bloom Filter, distinct value summaries, sketches, and quantile summaries. Summaries are described for specific types of data, such as geometric data, graphs, and vectors and matrices. The authors offer detailed descriptions of and pseudocode for key algorithms that have been incorporated in systems from companies such as Google, Apple, Microsoft, Netflix and Twitter.
This study aimed to investigate an interaction between energy intake, physical activity, and UCP2 gene variation on weight gain and adiposity changes in Indonesian adults. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in 323 healthy adults living in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Energy intake, physical activity, body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline and after two years while and UCP2 -866G/A gene variation was determined at baseline. We reported that after two years subjects had a significant increment in body weight, BMI, body fat and reduction in WHR (all p<0.05). In all subjects, total energy intake was significantly correlated with changes in body weight (B=0.128, p=0.023) and body fat (B=0.123, p=0.030). Among subjects with GG genotype, changes in energy intake was positively correlated with changes in body weight (B=0.232, p=0.016) and body fat (B=0.201, p=0.034). These correlations were insignificant among those with AA+GA genotypes (all p>0.05). In summary, we show that UCP2 gene variation might influence the adiposity response towards changes in energy intake. Subjects with GG genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene were more responsive to energy intake thus more prone to weight gain due to overeating.
Much detail regarding the early development of stone architecture in Egypt remains unclear. Prevailing studies tend to focus on the contribution of religious and socio-economic factors, but the role of environmental elements should not be understated. For much of the First Dynasty, innovation in stone architecture was driven by developments in the private realm, a result of favourable geology in Lower Egypt. Meanwhile, multiple strands of evidence suggest that Egypt experienced wetter climatic conditions during the Early Dynastic period and the Old Kingdom. This would have had major implications on both the production of mudbrick and the short-term durability of mudbrick structures. It is argued that these environmental factors played a key role in facilitating and accelerating the rise of stone architecture in Egypt.
Probiotics and plant extracts are considered to prevent the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study explores the effects of using both probiotics and plant extracts on NAFLD. This study evaluated the effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet accumulation and the growth of probiotics in vitro. A C57BL/6 mouse model was used to examine the effects of probiotics and plant extracts on NAFLD. The body weight and food intake were measured. The levels of serum lipids, oxidative stress, and the liver injury index were determined using commercial kits. HE staining, gas chromatography and Real-Time PCR were also used for analysis. The results revealed that administration of Lactobacillus casei YRL577 and Lactobacilli paracasei X11 with resveratrol (RES) or tea polyphenols (TP) significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased the level of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The groups of L. casei YRL577 with RES and TP also regulated the liver structure, oxidative stress, and injury. Furthermore, L. casei YRL577 with TP exhibited a more positive effect toward improving the NAFLD and increased the concentrations of the butyric acid than other three combined groups. L. casei YRL577 with TP up-regulated the mRNA levels of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and decreased the mRNA levels of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). These findings showed that L. casei YRL577 + TP modified genes in the intestinal bile acid pathway improved markers of NAFLD.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the main cause of end-stage liver disease. Probiotics have the potential effect of alleviating NAFLD. The aim of this study was to explore functional probiotics and their underlying mechanisms. The bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in 34 strains was determined in vitro. Then, C57BL/6 mice were used to explore the effects of probiotics on NAFLD. Body weight and food intake were measured, and serum lipid concentrations, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines levels were determined using commercial kits. The expressions of intestinal bile acid pathway genes were evaluated via real-time PCR. The results showed that Lactobacillus casei YRL577 and L. paracasei X11 had higher BSH activity. L. casei YRL577 significantly reduced liver weight and liver index and could regulate the levels of lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines as compared with L. paracasei X11. Furthermore, the results indicated that L. casei YRL577 upregulated the mRNA levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), whereas downregulated the mRNA level of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). These findings suggested that L. casei YRL577 modified genes in the intestinal bile acid pathway which might contribute to alleviation of NAFLD.
We observed bacterial or fungal co-infections in COVID-19 patients admitted between March 1 – April 18, 2020 (152/4267, 3.6%). Mortality was 57%; 74% were intubated; 51% with bacteremia had central venous catheters. Time to culture positivity was 6-7 days; 79% received preceding antibiotics. Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing E. cloacae co-infections occurred in 5 patients.