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In the current research, a 60-day experiment was conducted with the purpose of exploring the impacts of methionine on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis as well as related signaling pathway. Six diets (iso-nitrogenous) differing in methionine concentrations (2.54, 4.85, 7.43, 10.12, 12.40 and 15.11 g kg-1 diets) were fed to 540 grass carp (178.47 ± 0.36 g). Results showed (P < 0.05) that, compared with methionine deficiency, optimal level of dietary methionine (1) increased feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR) and percentage weight gain (PWG); (2) increased fish muscle protein, lipid and free amino acid contents, and improved fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as increased protein content in part associated with TORC1/S6K1 signaling pathway; (3) increased the frequency distribution of muscle fibre with >50 µm of diameter; (4) increased type I collagen synthesis partly related to TGF-β1/Smads and CK2/TORC1 signaling pathways. In conclusion, dietary methionine improved muscle growth, which might be due to the regulation of muscle nutritive deposition, and muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis related signal molecules. Finally, according to PWG and muscle collagen content, the methionine requirements for on-growing grass carp (178-626 g) were estimated to be 9.56 g kg-1 diet (33.26 g kg-1 protein of diet) and 9.28 g kg-1 diet (32.29 g kg-1 of dietary protein), respectively.
Precise positioning with low-cost single-frequency global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers has great potential in a wide range of applications because of its low price and improved accuracy. However, challenges remain in achieving reliable and accurate solutions using low-cost receivers. For instance, the successful ambiguity fixing rate could be low for real-time kinematic (RTK) while large errors may occur in precise point positioning (PPP) in some scenarios (e.g., trees along the road). To solve the problems, this paper proposes a method with the aid of additional lane-level digital map information to improve the accuracy and reliability of RTK and PPP solutions. In the method, a digital camera will be applied for lane recognition and the positioning solution from a low-cost receiver will be projected to the digital map lane link. With the projected point position as a constraint, the RTK ambiguity fixing rate and PPP performance can be enhanced. A field kinematic test was conducted to verify the improvement of the RTK and PPP solutions with the aid of map matching. The results show that the RTK ambiguity fixing rate can be increased and the PPP positioning error can be reduced by map matching.
In 2017, the Onassis Cultural Center in New York hosted an exhibition called “A World of Emotions” (Levere, 2017). This exhibition was publicized as “Bringing to vivid life the emotions of the people of ancient Greece, and prompting questions about how we express, control, and manipulate feelings in our own society” (Onassis USA, 2017). The historical epoch covered was from 700 BC to AD 200, very roughly from a time near the end of the classical period to the middle of the Hellenistic period. One commentary on this exhibition suggested: “These objects provide a timely opportunity to think about the role of feelings in our personal, social and political lives and help advance the relatively new field of the history of emotions” (Levere, 2017).
Over the past few decades, researchers have made notable strides in understanding the processes underlying workplace affect. In particular, rigorous measures and new theoretical models for the study of workplace affect have been developed, validated, and updated with data gathered from employee samples across different industries, countries, and cultures (e.g. Bledow, Schmitt, Frese, & Kühnel, 2011; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Watson, 2000; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996; Yang, Simon, Wang, & Zheng, 2016). As shown in the array of chapters in this volume, exciting progress has been made on many fronts. Yet there are many separate streams of research that have been developed in a relatively independent fashion. This chapter will propose some directions for future research that could integrate different areas of research on emotional experiences at work. We propose and discuss the following ideas: integration of research on general and discrete emotions; research taking a broader view of emotional management; new research methods and new perspectives; and the implications of social changes for research on workplace affect and for the application of such research.