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Anatase phase NOx/S6+–TiO2 (x= 0, 1) film with high solar-driven activity has been successfully prepared via electro-assisted oxidation processes. The morphological and structural properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, while the optical property was detected by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the NOx/S6+–TiO2 film was composed of “flower-like” microvoids structure and displayed broad and strong optical absorption at around 544 and 1500 nm. Transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the generation and separation of photogenerated charges were significantly enhanced under simulated solar irradiation. The NOx/S6+–TiO2 film exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), and the decoloration rate and TOC removal respectively reached 98.97 and 59.44% at 20 min under solar irradiation. The film still had good stability after reusing ten times. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis was suggested in MO degradation by using NOx/S6+–TiO2 film.
Addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to copper materials significantly enhances their properties. However, the performance of CNTs/Cu composites is often not as good as expected mainly because of difficulties in controlling growth and uniform dispersion of CNTs in the matrix. Our study provides an effective way to prepare CNTs/CuCr and CNTs/CuCrY composites using chemical vapor deposition. The morphology and structure of these composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to understand how Y incorporation affects properties of these composites. Our results showed that addition of 0.1 wt% Y enhances the catalytic properties of Cr and helps to obtain purer and pristine Cu substrate. We also studied tensile strength, electric conductivity, corrosion, and wear resistance of these composites. When Y was added, composite properties improved significantly. Tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased by 35.21 and 53.28%, respectively. Electric conductivity increased to 90.9% International Annealed Copper Standard and the coefficient of friction reduced to 0.3.
Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Genetic studies of MDD have focused on common variants and have been constrained by the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms.
We sequenced the exome of 77 cases and 245 controls of Han Chinese ancestry and scanned their brain. Burden tests of rare variants were performed first to explore the association between genes/pathways and MDD. Secondly, parallel Independent Component Analysis was conducted to investigate genetic underpinnings of gray matter volume (GMV) changes of MDD.
Two genes (CSMD1, p = 5.32×10−6; CNTNAP5, p = 1.32×10−6) and one pathway (Neuroactive Ligand Receptor Interactive, p = 1.29×10−5) achieved significance in burden test. In addition, we identified one pair of imaging-genetic components of significant correlation (r = 0.38, p = 9.92×10−6). The imaging component reflected decreased GMV in cases and correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ mediated the effects of GMV on MDD. The genetic component enriched in two gene sets, namely Singling by G-protein coupled receptors [false discovery rate (FDR) q = 3.23×10−4) and Alzheimer Disease Up (FDR q = 6.12×10−4).
Both rare variants analysis and imaging–genetic analysis found evidence corresponding with the neuroinflammation and synaptic plasticity hypotheses of MDD. The mediation of IQ indicates that genetic component may act on MDD through GMV alteration and cognitive impairment.
Previous studies have inferred a strong genetic component in schizophrenia. However, the genetic variants involved in the susceptibility to schizophrenia remain unclear.
To detect potential gene pathways and networks associated with schizophrenia, and to explore the relationship between common and rare variants in these pathways and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
The analysis included 100 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls. A network-based analysis was carried out on the data collected from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Phase I (PGC-I). Based on our genome-wide association study and whole-exome sequencing data-sets, we performed a gene-set analysis to detect associations between the combining effects of common and rare genetic variants and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
Patients had significantly reduced functional anisotropy in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, left and right precuneus and extra-nuclear (t = 4.61–5.10, PFDR < 0.01), compared with controls. Generated from co-expression network analysis of the PGC-1 summary statistics of schizophrenia, a subnetwork of 207 genes associated with schizophrenia was identified (P < 0.01), and 176 genes were co-expressed in four gene modules. Functional enrichment analysis for genes in each module revealed that the yellow module was enriched with highly co-expressed, innate immune response genes. Furthermore, rare variants of enriched genes in the yellow module were associated with reduced functional anisotropy in the left anterior cingulate cortex (P = 0.006; Padjusted = 0.024) in patients only.
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia may be substantially influenced by genes involved in the immune system, via both pathway and network.
Magnesium oxide aerogels were made by sol-gel process using magnesium methoxide as precursor, methanol and deionized water as solvent with ethanol supercritical fluid drying. The influences of the different factors on the gel time and the specific surface area of magnesium oxide aerogels were studied, and the structure and morphology were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the Small Angle X-ray Scatter (SAXS) was utilized to determine the fractural structure of the magnesium oxide aerogels. The results show that MgO aerogels belong to the typical mesoporous materials with rich network and highly developed pore structure, and the specific surface area is 904.9 m2/g, the apparent density is 0.055 g/cm3, the average pore size is 19.6 nm. The results of SAXS analysis show that the fractal dimension of the MgO aerogels is 2.32 in high q area which proves the existence of rough surface and pore fractal structure.
In view that most Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users are still using single-frequency receivers due to the low costs, single-frequency Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been attracting increasing attention in the GNSS community. For a long period, single-frequency PPP technology has mainly relied on the Global Positioning System (GPS). With the recent revitalisation of the Russian GLONASS constellation and two newly emerging constellations, BeiDou and Galileo, it is now feasible to investigate the performance of Four-Constellation integrated Single-Frequency PPP (FCSF-PPP) with GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo measurements. In this study, a FCSF-PPP model is presented to simultaneously process observations from all four GNSS constellations. Datasets collected at 47 globally distributed four-system Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days and a kinematic experimental dataset are employed to fully assess the performance of FCSF-PPP. The FCSF-PPP solutions are compared to GPS-only and combined GPS/GLONASS single-frequency PPP solutions. The results indicate that the positioning performance is significantly improved by integrating multi-constellation signals.
The Palaeolithic sequence of East Asia differs from that of western Eurasia in that it is characterised by core-and-flake tools. Blade industries only appear late in the sequence, long after the first appearance of modern humans; bone tools and personal ornaments may therefore function as a better marker of modern human presence. Longquan Cave provides vital new evidence to this effect, with dated hearths indicating an initial occupation around 40 kya cal BP, followed by a second period of activity around 35–31 kya cal BP. They are associated with a polished bone awl and a structured division of settlement space, features typically associated with modern humans.
Tianma-Qucun is the biggest site of Western Zhou Dynasty discovered in Shanxi Province, China. It has been recognized as the early capital of Jin, a vassal state of Western Zhou. The territories were granted to the first Marquis of Jin with the title in the early days of Western Zhou. Bone sample series from the site were radiocarbon-dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and calibrated with the Oxford calibration program OxCal 3.5. Bayesian analysis of the calibrated ages shows that the earliest residents of the Western Zhou came to Tianma-Qucun area in 1020–940 BC and the lower boundary of the Western Zhou is 796–754 BC, which corresponds well to the historical record 770 BC.
The Fengxi site is near the Feng River in Shaanxi Province, China. Feng City was the capital of the vassal state of Zhou, and the Zhou people lived in this area until the end of the Western Zhou. Serial samples of charcoal, bone, and charred millet were collected from the site and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A sequence model with 6 phases of the Western Zhou dynasty was constructed and the 14C ages were calibrated with OxCal v 3.9. The results showed that the site was used from 1170–1070 BC until 825–755 BC, and the Conquest of Shang by King Wu most probably occurred during 1060–1000 BC.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
The S-doped BiOBr composite microspheres were successfully prepared through one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and phenol under visible light irradiation, attributed to the improvement of the photo-absorption property and the narrow band gap due to the dopants of S element. The higher efficiency for photodegradation of organic pollutant endows this material with a bright perspective in purification of waste water under visible-light irradiation.
Mn-doped bismuth oxide bromide microspheres have been prepared by the hydrothermal method. The resultant composite microspheres exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, attributing to the improvement of the photo-absorption property and the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes. The holes and O2•− are the main active species in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation, rather than •OH.
Integer ambiguity resolution in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can shorten convergence time and improve accuracy significantly. Uncalibrated Fractional Offsets (UFOs) originating in the satellites destroy the integer nature of carrier phase ambiguities observed at a single station. Several methods have been developed to estimate UFO information from a reference network for PPP ambiguity resolution. In this paper, we present a new approach for estimating Zero-Differenced (ZD) UFOs via float ZD ambiguities from a reference network. In this new approach, UFOs for receivers and satellites are estimated in an integrated adjustment with integer ambiguities being resolved sequentially, so that UFOs of higher quality can be achieved. The float ZD ambiguities used in the estimation can be from network or PPP solutions. Using those from PPP solutions enables the time-consuming clock estimations and the UFO estimations to be carried out separately, so that UFOs can be estimated more reliably from a much denser network. In this paper, a data processing procedure, from the estimation of UFOs through to PPP ambiguity fixing, is designed and proposed. The approach is validated with several data sets in various scenarios. The results show that satellite UFOs can be estimated precisely and reliably by using the observations from a reference network, in which the station spacing could be up to thousands of kilometres. With 30 minutes of observations, a PPP solution with fixed integer ambiguities is achievable and the positioning accuracy can be improved significantly when compared with its float solution.
Nanocrystalline metal carbides (MC: M=Si, Ti) have been prepared using cellulose network mineralized with silica and titania by carbothermal reduction at high temperature in Ar. Hierarchical biological structures indigenous to the cellulose precursor were completely replicated after the reaction. Cubic phase MC composites show relative low oxygen content 0.24 wt% and a high lattice parameter of 4.327Å in TiC. The particle sizes of the MC composites are 200-700nm for SiC and 10-50nm for TiC, and high BET surface area, up to 150m2/g.
This study shows for the first time, the correlation between the microstructural properties (chemical composition and its homogeneity) and the thermoelectric properties for p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 electroplated films (10-15 μm thickness). High microstructural quality of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 electroplated films (a close to stoichiometry chemical composition with its high homogeneity elements distribution) was achieved by using an additive in the plating solution (sodium ligninsulfonate) as a surfactant agent. A fine-grained microstructure of 280 nm to 1μm has been observed for these materials, which half that of the plated films without a surfactant. The thermoelectric properties of electrodeposited Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films obtained without microstructural optimisation, show modest Seebeck coefficient values of 20-120 μm/K, electrodeposited film with an optimised microstructure exhibits very high values of Seebeck coefficient of 220-300 μm/K.
In this paper, preimage pressure, which is based on the preimage structure of the system, is defined and studied for random transformations. We obtain analogs of many known results of preimage entropy and preimage pressure for deterministic cases in Cheng and Newhouse [Pre-image entropy. Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys.25 (2005), 1091–1113] and Zeng et al [Pre-image pressure and invariant measures. Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys.27 (2007), 1037–1052]. In particular, a variational principle is given and some applications of preimage pressure, such as the investigation of the invariant measures and the equilibrium states, are obtained.
Twins could play a crucial role in our understanding of genetic contributions to numerous etiologically complex disorders. In China, although adult twins are relatively rare, twins will become increasingly available due to increasing twin birth rates. Thus, child twin data will be a valuable resource to contribute to the field of child and adolescent psychopathology. The first twin database of children aged from 6 to 16 was established in Chongqing, R.P., China. In this article, we will discuss our experiences in establishing the twin database, completed in three steps — the first step being to search and identify twins, the second being to keep contact with the twins and the final being to seek cooperation with the twin families, and its future prospects. Our twin database has proven to be an efficient method for the investigation and data collection of twin children in China. The results of our present study suggest that the inclusion of twin information in the residence registration of the public security bureaus in the future may ensure a smooth run of research based on the demographic resources. We propose that school networks may be adopted as the preferred method of collection of twin records for future studies.
Eu(DBM)3phen-doped poly(methyl methacryate) (PMMA) with different doping concentration were prepared. The highest doping concentration sample (10000 ppm) was examined by near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with a resolution of 50 nm; and the result showed that there were no aggregates larger than 50 nm in the doped polymer. This result was further confirmed by optical properties of the doping material. Concentration quenching was not detected by metastable-state lifetime measurements, indicating that no aggregates existed. According to the fluorescence spectra analysis, the relative intensity ratio (R) of 5D0→7F2 to 5D0→7F1 transition was not shown to be significantly changed with the increasing of Eu3+ content. The analysis reflected that the local structure and asymmetry in the vicinity of europium ions were not changed, and that the Eu3+ ions in PMMA were homogeneously dispersed.
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