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Annual grass weeds reduce profits of wheat farmers in the Pacific Northwest. The very-long-chain fatty acid elongase (VLCFA)-inhibiting herbicides S-metolachlor and dimethenamid-P could expand options for control of annual grasses, but are not registered in wheat due to crop injury. Our studies evaluated a safener, fluxofenim, applied to wheat seed for protection of nineteen soft white winter wheat varieties from S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P and pyroxasulfone herbicides, investigated the response of six varieties (UI Sparrow, LWW 15-72223, UI Magic CL+, Brundage 96, UI Castle CL+ and UI Palouse CL+) to incremental doses of fluxofenim, established fluxofenim dose required to optimally protect the varieties from VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides, and assessed the impact of fluxofenim dose on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in three wheat varieties (UI Sparrow, Brundage 96 and UI Castle CL+). Fluxofenim increased the biomass of four varieties treated with S-metolachlor or dimethenamid-P herbicides and one variety treated with pyroxasulfone. Three varieties showed tolerance to the herbicides regardless of the fluxofenim treatment. Estimated fluxofenim doses resulting in 10% biomass reduction of wheat ranged from 0.55 g ai kg-1 seed to 1.23 g ai kg-1 seed. Fluxofenim doses resulting in 90% increased biomass to S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone ranged from 0.07 to 0.55, 0.09 to 0.73, and 0.30 to 1.03 g ai kg-1 seed, respectively. Fluxofenim at 0.36 g ai kg-1 seed increased GST activity in UI Castle CL+, UI Sparrow and Brundage 96 by 58%, 30% and 38%, respectively. These results suggest that fluxofenim would not damage wheat seedlings up to 3x the rate labeled for sorghum, and fluxofenim protects soft white winter wheat varieties from S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P or pyroxasulfone injury at the herbicide rates evaluated.
Tropical forest regions in equatorial Africa are threatened with degradation, deforestation and biodiversity loss as a result of land-cover change. We investigated historical land-cover dynamics in unprotected forested areas of the Littoral Region in south-western Cameroon during 1975–2017, to detect changes that may influence this important biodiversity and wildlife area. Processed Landsat imagery was used to map and monitor changes in land use and land cover. From 1975 to 2017 the area of high-value forest landscapes decreased by c. 420,000 ha, and increasing forest fragmentation caused a decline of c. 12% in the largest patch index. Conversely, disturbed vegetation, cleared areas and urban areas all expanded in extent, by 32% (c. 400,000 ha), 5.6% (c. 26,800 ha) and 6.6% (c. 78,631 ha), respectively. The greatest increase was in the area converted to oil palm plantations (c. 26,893 ha), followed by logging and land clearing (c. 34,838 ha), all of which were the major factors driving deforestation in the study area. Our findings highlight the increasing threats facing the wider Littoral Region, which includes Mount Nlonako and Ebo Forest, both of which are critical areas for regional conservation and the latter a proposed National Park and the only sizable area of intact forest in the region. Intact forest in the Littoral Region, and in particular at Ebo, merits urgent protection.
Background: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) aims to teach people skills to help them self-manage their depression. Trial evidence shows that CBT is an effective treatment for depression and individuals may experience benefits long-term. However, there is little research about individuals’ continued use of CBT skills once treatment has finished. Aims: To explore whether individuals who had attended at least 12 sessions of CBT continued to use and value the CBT skills they had learnt during therapy. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with participants from the CoBalT trial who had received CBT, approximately 4 years earlier. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Results: 20 participants were interviewed. Analysis of the interviews suggested that individuals who viewed CBT as a learning process, at the time of treatment, recalled and used specific skills to manage their depression once treatment had finished. In contrast, individuals who viewed CBT only as an opportunity to talk about their problems did not appear to utilize any of the CBT skills they had been taught and reported struggling to manage their depression once treatment had ended. Conclusions: Our findings suggest individuals may value and use CBT skills if they engage with CBT as a learning opportunity at the time of treatment. Our findings underline the importance of the educational model in CBT and the need to emphasize this to individuals receiving treatment.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Depression is expensive to treat, but providing ineffective treatment is more expensive. Such is the case for many patients who do not respond to antidepressant medication.
To assess the cost-effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) plus usual care for primary care patients with treatment-resistant depression compared with usual care alone.
Economic evaluation at 12 months alongside a randomised controlled trial. Cost-effectiveness assessed using a cost-consequences framework comparing cost to the health and social care provider, patients and society, with a range of outcomes. Cost-utility analysis comparing health and social care costs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).
The mean cost of CBT per participant was £910. The difference in QALY gain between the groups was 0.057, equivalent to 21 days a year of good health. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £14 911 (representing a 74% probability of the intervention being cost-effective at the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence threshold of £20 000 per QALY). Loss of earnings and productivity costs were substantial but there was no evidence of a difference between intervention and control groups.
The addition of CBT to usual care is cost-effective in patients who have not responded to antidepressants. Primary care physicians should therefore be encouraged to refer such individuals for CBT.
Detrital zircon U-Pb ages for 30 Late Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones from the Eastern Province of eastern New Zealand, combined with previously-published geochronological and palaeontological data, constrain the time of deposition in the Pahau and Waioeka terranes of the Cretaceous accretionary margin of Zealandia, and their adjacent cover strata. The zircon age patterns also constrain possible sediment source areas and mid-Cretaceous geodynamic models of the transition from basement accretionary wedge to passive-margin cover successions. Pahau Terrane deposition was mainly Barremian to Aptian but continued locally through to late Albian time, with major source areas in the adjacent Kaweka and Waipapa terranes and minor inputs from the inboard Median Batholith. Waioeka Terrane deposition was mainly Albian, with distinctive and exclusive sediment sources, principally from the Median Batholith but with minor inputs from the Western Province. Alternative tectonic models to deliver such exclusive Median Batholith and Western Province-derived sediment to the mid-Cretaceous Zealandia continental margin are: (1) the creation of a rift depression across Zealandia or (2) sinistral displacement of South Zealandia with respect to North Zealandia, to expose Western Province rocks directly at the Zealandia margin. Detrital zircon age patterns of Cretaceous cover successions of the Eastern Province of eastern New Zealand demonstrate purely local sources in the adjacent Kaweka and Waipapa terranes. Cretaceous zircon components show a decline in successions of late Early Cretaceous age and disappear by late Late Cretaceous time, suggesting the abandonment or loss of access to both the Median Batholith and Western Province as sediment sources.
How are relationships established between the world's languages? This is one of the most topical and most controversial questions in contemporary linguistics. The central aims of this book are to answer this question, to cut through the controversies, and to contribute to research in distant genetic relationships. In doing this the authors aim to: (1) show how the methods have been employed; (2) reveal which methods, techniques, and strategies have proven successful and which ones have proven ineffective; (3) determine how particular language families were established; (4) evaluate several of the most prominent and more controversial proposals of distant genetic relationship (such as Amerind, Nostratic, Eurasiatic, Proto-World, and others); and (5) make recommendations for practice in future research. This book will contribute significantly to understanding language classification in general.
De Laet  on Hugo Grotius: If you are willing to change letters, to transpose syllables, to add and subtract, you will nowhere find anything that cannot be forced into this or that similarity; but to consider this as evidence for the origin of peoples – this is truly not proved as far as I am concerned.
(Cited in Metcalf 1974:241)
Beyond the comparative method?
As we have seen in previous chapters, the criteria for establishing genetic relationships among languages were generally clear, and widely known and applied, with reliance on basic vocabulary, sound correspondences, and patterned grammatical evidence of particular sorts – where the comparative method played a central role. Nevertheless, a number of scholars have recently expressed dissatisfaction with what they perceive to be limitations of the traditional methods. “Since the tried-and-true Neogrammarian comparative method can only reach back a few thousand years before the evidence fades out, something else must be tried,” so declares Johanna Nichols (1996b:267), and recently she and others, recognizing the limitations of the comparative method, have proposed differing ways to see past them. While this goal is an appropriate one, none of the alternative approaches proposed to date has achieved success. In this chapter we assess several of these to show why they do not really reach beyond the limitations of the comparative method.
We began talking together and thinking about the subject matter of this book when we prepared a paper for the Spring Workshop in Reconstruction in 1991, held at the University of Pittsburgh. We later decided to write this book, but were not able to do that until now due to other obligations. With respect to the division of labor, William Poser is primarily responsible for the writing of Chapter 5, part of Chapter 3, and parts of Chapter 4 (especially sections 4.8 and 4011). Lyle Campbell is the principal author of the other chapters and sections of this book.