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Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LWM-GSs) play a crucial role in determining wheat flour processing quality. In this work, 35 novel LMW-GS genes (32 active and three pseudogenes) from three Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) accessions were amplified by allelic-specific PCR. We found that all LMW-GS genes had the same primary structure shared by other known LMW-GSs. Thirty-two active genes encode 31 typical LMW-m-type subunits. The MZ424050 possessed nine cysteine residues with an extra cysteine residue located in the last amino acid residue of the conserved C-terminal III, which could benefit the formation of larger glutenin polymers, and therefore may have positive effects on dough properties. We have found extensive variations which were mainly resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) among the LMW-GS genes in Ae. umbellulata. Our results demonstrated that Ae. umbellulata is an important source of LMW-GS variants and the potential value of the novel LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.
Subthreshold depression (sD) negatively impacts well-being and psychosocial function and is more prevalent compared with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, as adults with sD are less likely to seek face-to-face intervention, internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) may overcome barriers of accessibility to psychotherapy. Although several trials explored the efficacy of ICBT for sD, the results remain inconsistent. This study evaluated whether ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD.
A randomized controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly assigned to 5 weeks of ICBT, group-based face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a waiting list (WL). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measured depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to assess the effects of ICBT.
ICBT participants reported greater reductions on all the outcomes compared to the WL group at post-intervention. The ICBT group showed larger improvement on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at post-intervention (d = 0.12) and at follow-up (d = 0.10), and with CES-D at post-intervention (d = 0.06), compared to the CBT group.
ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD, and improvements in outcomes were sustained at a 6-month follow-up. Considering the low rates of face-to-face psychotherapy, our findings highlight the considerable potential and implications for the Chinese government to promote the use of ICBT for sD in China.
In this study, we investigated the elastic constants, moduli, hardness, and electronic structures of Ti–Al intermetallic compounds (TiAl, Ti3Al, and TiAl3) using first-principles calculations. The cohesive energy and formation enthalpy of these compounds are negative, which indicates that they are thermodynamically stable. We calculated the elastic constants and moduli using the stress–strain method and Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation, respectively. We evaluated the mechanical anisotropy of these compounds using the anisotropic index and found that the results are in good agreement with other experimental and theoretical data. We evaluated the chemical bonding of these compounds by calculating their density of states, the results of which revealed that the bonding behavior of all Ti–Al intermetallic compounds involved a mixture of metallic and covalent bonds. We also estimated the Debye temperature and sound velocities of these Ti–Al intermetallic compounds.
Four kinds of YBa2Cu2Ox (YBCO) superconducting powders with different particle sizes, shapes and different amounts of twins have been prepared in this work. The density, grain sizes, XRD of phase composition, configuration of twins of the ceramics have been investigated. The relation between the characteristics of YBCO powders and the microstructure, current density of the bulk materials are also discussed. In contrast to the YBCO powder prepared by solid state method, the YBCO powders through the improved coprecipitat ion approach have less impurities, smaller particle size and much more amounts of twins, as well as the sintered pellets show a higher density, an orthorhombic single phase, and moreover, the pellets have finer grain boundaries and well developed twins. As a result these samples exhibit current densities (about 1500 A/cm2) higher than those prepared by solid state method. Using BaOx instead of BaCO3 as the starting material, a more dense bulk YBCO ceramics with orthorhombic single phase and Jc (about 1,000 A/cm2) can have also been fabricated by solid state mat hod.
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