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To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
170 patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment Function (GAF), and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-weeks, 8-weeks and 3-monthsfollow-up.
At 4-weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5%vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36-0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8-weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4-weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32-0.48) . At 3-months follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.02-4.42, p=0.04); and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27-6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
The crystal plastic theory was used to examine the effect of film-cooling hole arrangements on mechanical properties of cooled turbine blade. The finite element method was used to analyze the maximum von Mises stress and resolved shear stress of an octahedral slip system considering the number of rows, diameter, spacing, and tangential-to-longitudinal hole spacing (h/l) ratio. The different arrangements were found to have a significant influence on the maximum von Mises stress and resolved shear stress. For the triangular arrangement, the von Mises stress and resolved shear stress were highest with double rows, followed by a single row and then triple rows. For the quadrilateral arrangement, the stresses were highest with double rows, followed by triple rows and then a single row. Increasing the spacing or decreasing the diameter reduced the maximum von Mises stress and weakened the multi-hole interference effect. Both the maximum von Mises stress and resolved shear stress decreased with the h/l ratio.
Numerous fabrication protocols are known to yield transition metal oxides with structures related to layered double hydroxides, but the effect of fabrication protocol on the uniformity of mixed-metal compositions remain largely unexplored. We have analysed the apparent solubility limits and the structural implications of iron ions in nickel hydroxide lattices for materials prepared by four different fabrication protocols. Opposing shifts in the (100) and (001) reflection in powder X-ray diffraction results revealed a contraction of the nickel lattice upon successful incorporation of iron, with Ni-M distances exhibiting an apparently linear decrease with respect to iron content. This feature revealed the amount of iron incorporated into nickel-based materials to be dependent on fabrication protocol, varying from apparently negligible concentrations to over fifty atomic percent. The dependency of structure on fabrication protocols provides a handle to improve fundamental understanding of catalytically relevant coordination environments.
The Weibel instability and the induced magnetic field are of great importance for both astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Because of the stochasticity of this magnetic field, its main wavelength and mean strength, which are key characteristics of the Weibel instability, are still unobtainable experimentally. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the autocorrelation tensor shows that in proton radiography of the Weibel-instability-induced magnetic field, the proton flux density on the detection plane can be related to the energy spectrum of the magnetic field. It allows us to extract the main wavelength and mean strength of the two-dimensionally isotropic and stochastic magnetic field directly from proton radiography for the first time. Numerical calculations are conducted to verify our theory and show good consistency between pre-set values and the results extracted from proton radiography.
Neural electrodes have been widely used to monitor neural signals and/or deliver electrical stimulation in the brain. Currently, biodegradable and biocompatible materials have been actively investigated to create temporary electrodes that could degrade after serving their functions for neural recording and stimulation from days to months. The new class of biodegradable electrodes eliminate the necessity of secondary surgery for electrode removal. In this study, we created biodegradable, biocompatible, and implantable magnesium (Mg)-based microelectrodes for in vivo neural recording for the first time. Specifically, conductive poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) was first deposited onto Mg microwire substrates by electrochemical deposition, and a biodegradable insulating polymer was subsequently sprayed onto the surface of electrodes. The tip of electrodes was designed to be conductive for neural recording and stimulation, while the rest of electrodes was insulated with a polymer that is biocompatible with neural tissue. The impedance of Mg-based microelectrodes and their performance during neural recording in the auditory cortex of a mouse were studied. The results first demonstrated the capability of Mg-based microelectrodes for in vivo recording of multi-unit stimulus-evoked activity in the brain.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
At heterojunctions between different oxide perovskite phases both lattice and electronic structure is modified by the junction. One interesting question that several groups have studied is just how far into the neighboring materials these perturbations extend. We have studied this for insulating phases as well as conducting phases. For insulating phases it appears that the lattice distortions are healed in a layer about one unit cell thick. By stacking different materials each of which is only a single unit cell thick we have obtained materials that exhibit new properties determined by the stacking architecture. For example, superlattices that lack inversion symmetry have a built-in polarization that is controlled by the direction of the strain asymmetry. For conducting phases, the electronic structure also seems to be modified mainly in a layer only a few unit cells thick. We have studied this in superlattices of SrTiO3 and LaMnO3 in which we vary the thickness of the layers. We use optical conductivity to probe the electronic structure in the near infrared to near ultraviolet spectral region. The conductivity is close to the average of the two constituents, but differs in certain spectral regions, especially for the films with the thinnest supercells.This work was supported by the Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences program at the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.
Research has demonstrated that trusting belief in one's ability is critical to coproducer selection; however, the importance of trusting belief in dedication has been ignored. This study aims to explore how reputation (i.e., word-of-mouth, certification, and recommendation) affects trusting belief in a potential coproducer's ability and dedication and examines its mediating effects in coproducing with a potential partner.
Empirical results show significant mediating effects of trusting belief in a potential coproducer's ability from certification, word-of-mouth, and recommendation, which in turn motivate coproduction, whereas certification leads to the motivation for coproduction through trusting belief in a potential coproducer's dedication. The findings refer to a unitary acceptance of ability but a divergent recognition of dedication. The focal party may regard certification as factual without personal distortion, while the recommendation is an evaluation worth considering. In considering dedication, the focal party may be unable to assess the extent of distortion from second-hand information (e.g., word-of-mouth).
Working memory (WM) can be thought of as the limited memory capacity that allows us to hold a very small amount of information (e.g., the several digits of our telephone numbers) in our mind and to simultaneously manipulate this information for completing some cognitive tasks in our daily life (Baddeley, 1986; Cowan, 1988). Since the inception of the seminal WM model by the British psychologists Baddeley and Hitch (1974), the concept has received considerable enthusiasm from multiple subfields of cognitive sciences, spanning from such disciplines as psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, biology, and computer science, to anthropology and philosophy (Miller, 2003; Carruthers, 2013; 2015). Concerted efforts are being poured in continuously from diverse research camps, which subsequently give rise to the propagation of a dozen theoretical models of WM (Miyake & Shah, 1999), notwithstanding lingering debates and controversies over the nature and structure of this key construct of human cognition (e.g., Baddeley, 2012; 2017; Cowan, 2014; 2017).
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) shows a quite significant association with schizophrenia. Identifying the network of genes regulated by MIR137 could provide insights into the biological processes underlying schizophrenia. In addition, DLPFC functional connectivity, a robust correlate of MIR137, may provide plausible endophenotypes. However, the regulatory role of the MIR137 gene network in the disrupted functional connectivity remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of the MIR137 regulated genes on the risk for schizophrenia and DLPFC functional connectivity.
To evaluate the additive effects of the MIR137 regulated genes (N = 1274), we calculated a MIR137 polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia and tested its association with the risk for schizophrenia in the genomic data of a Han Chinese population that included schizophrenia patients (N = 589) and normal controls (N = 575). We then investigated the association between MIR137 PRS and DLPFC functional connectivity in two independent young healthy cohorts (N = 356 and N = 314).
We found that the MIR137 PRS successfully captured the differences in genetic structure between the patients and controls, but the single gene MIR137 did not. We then consistently found that a higher MIR137 PRS was correlated with lower functional connectivities between the DLPFC and both the superior parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex in two independent cohorts.
The findings suggested that these two functional connectivities of the DLPFC could be important endophenotypes linking the MIR137-regulated genetic structure to schizophrenia.
Prior research and theories established the link between care environments and apathy. Yet, empirical evidence on how environmental stimulation impacts apathy is lacking. This study examined the association between environmental stimulation and apathy in nursing home residents with dementia.
This repeated-measure study analyzed 104 video observations of staff caregiver–resident interactions.
12 nursing homes.
63 unique staff caregiver–resident dyads that involved 42 caregivers and 44 residents with moderate to severe dementia.
Second-by-second behavioral coding using Noldus Observer software was conducted to assess apathy and environmental stimulation, using the Person-Environment Apathy Rating scale. The environment subscale includes six items: stimulation clarity, stimulation strength, stimulation specificity, interaction involvement, physical accessibility, and environmental feedback. The apathy subscale includes six items: facial expression, eye contact, physical engagement, purposeful activity, verbal tone, and verbal expression. Multilevel linear models were used for analysis.
Results showed that apathy was not associated with the overall quality of environmental stimulation but was significantly associated with stimulation specificity (coefficient = −2.23, p = 0.049). However, the association was not significant after controlling for resident characteristics (p = 0.082). In addition, higher levels of environmental feedback were associated with lower apathy levels (coefficient = −2.14, p = 0.001). The association remained significant after controlling for resident characteristics (coefficient = −1.65, p = 0.014).
Findings reveal that when environmental stimulation is individually tailored and prompts engagement, residents are less apathetic. This study highlights the effect of environmental stimulation on apathy. Future research should explore interventions that modify environmental stimulation to reduce apathy and improve dementia care.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.