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In this paper, we propose to use the interior functions of an hierarchical basis for high order BDMp elements to enforce the divergence-free condition of a magnetic field B approximated by the H(div)BDMp basis. The resulting constrained finite element method can be used to solve magnetic induction equation in MHD equations. The proposed procedure is based on the fact that the scalar (p–1)-th order polynomial space on each element can be decomposed as an orthogonal sum of the subspace defined by the divergence of the interior functions of the p-th order BDMp basis and the constant function. Therefore, the interior functions can be used to remove element-wise all higher order terms except the constant in the divergence error of the finite element solution of the B-field. The constant terms from each element can be then easily corrected using a first order H(div) basis globally. Numerical results for a 3-D magnetic induction equation show the effectiveness of the proposed method in enforcing divergence-free condition of the magnetic field.
We present a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the time domain Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional heterogeneous media. New hierarchical orthonormal basis functions on unstructured tetrahedral meshes are used for spatial discretization while Runge-Kutta methods for time discretization. A uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) is employed to terminate the computational domain. Exponential convergence with respect to the order of the basis functions is observed and large parallel speedup is obtained for a plane-wave scattering model. The rapid decay of the out-going wave in the UPML is shown in a dipole radiation simulation. Moreover, the low frequency electromagnetic fields excited by a horizontal electric dipole (HED) and a vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) over a layered conductive half-space and a high frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) detection for an underground structure are investigated, showing the high accuracy and broadband simulation capability of the proposed method.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
This volume provides a state-of-the-art summary of biogeochemical dynamics at major river-coastal interfaces for advanced students and researchers. River systems play an important role (via the carbon cycle) in the natural self-regulation of Earth's surface conditions by serving as a major sink for anthropogenic CO2. Approximately 90 percent of global carbon burial occurs in ocean margins, with the majority of this thought to be buried in large delta-front estuaries (LDEs). This book provides information on how humans have altered carbon cycling, sediment dynamics, CO2 budgets, wetland dynamics, and nutrients and trace element cycling at the land-margin interface. Many of the globally important LDEs are discussed across a range of latitudes, elevation and climate in the drainage basin, coastal oceanographic setting, and nature and degree of human alteration. It is this breadth of examination that provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the overarching controls on major river biogeochemistry.
A study was performed to investigate the morphology of amorphous alloys which were formed on the surface of the samples by means of ion beam bombardment. The specimens of Fe deposited with Cr, Ti, Cr-Ni or Cr-Ni-Cr multilayers were bombarded by high doses of Ar+, N+ or Ti+ ion beams respectively. TEM and electron diffraction analysis were then used to study the kinetic transformation of amorphous to crystal during heating. The electro-chemical results hlvn showed after that the anodic current density Ic and Im were reduced remarkably.
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