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We assessed the association between the Dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the development of metabolic syndrome in the elderly over 55 years in Northern China. The data of 1936 Chinese adults aged 55 and over from a community-based neurological disease cohort study from 2018 to 2019 were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression and restricted cubic splines regression were used for analysis, and social demographics, lifestyle, health-related factors were adjusted. In the fully adjusted model, the risk of metabolic syndrome increased by 1.28-fold in people with a pro-inflammatory diet. When we divide the metabolic syndrome by its components, high pro-inflammatory diet and hyperglycemia, triglycerides, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. We failed to observe a significant association between a high pro-inflammatory diet and HDL-C; However, these associations are moving in the expected direction. At the same time, the results of BMI subgroup analysis showed that with the increase of DII, obese people are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Also in overweight people, the increase in DII is accompanied by an increased risk of hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity. Higher inflammatory diet is related to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is needed to confirm the role of inflammation and diet in the development of metabolic syndrome; however, it is desirable to reduce the dietary components associated with inflammation.
As a neuroprogressive illness, depression is accompanied by brain structural abnormality that extends to many brain regions. However, the progressive structural alteration pattern remains unknown.
To elaborate the progressive structural alteration of depression according to illness duration, we recruited 195 never-treated first-episode patients with depression and 130 healthy controls (HCs) undergoing T1-weighted MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry method was adopted to measure gray matter volume (GMV) for each participant. Patients were first divided into three stages according to the length of illness duration, then we explored stage-specific GMV alterations and the causal effect relationship between them using causal structural covariance network (CaSCN) analysis.
Overall, patients with depression presented stage-specific GMV alterations compared with HCs. Regions including the hippocampus, the thalamus and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) presented GMV alteration at onset of illness. Then as the illness advanced, others regions began to present GMV alterations. These results suggested that GMV alteration originated from the hippocampus, the thalamus and vmPFC then expanded to other brain regions. The results of CaSCN analysis revealed that the hippocampus and the vmPFC corporately exerted causal effect on regions such as nucleus accumbens, the precuneus and the cerebellum. In addition, GMV alteration in the hippocampus was also potentially causally related to that in the dorsolateral frontal gyrus.
Consistent with the neuroprogressive hypothesis, our results reveal progressive morphological alteration originating from the vmPFC and the hippocampus and further elucidate possible details about disease progression of depression.
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Some prospective cohort studies suggested that fish and shellfish consumption may affect the incidence of preterm birth. However, conflicting evidence exists on the relationship between fish and shellfish consumption and preterm birth. This retrospective study was conducted in Lanzhou, China, between 2010 and 2012. A total of 10,179 women were interviewed after delivery to collect information on their past intake of fish and shellfish using food frequency questionnaire. Clinical data including birth outcomes and maternal complications were extracted from medical records of the participants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to examine the association between fish and shellfish consumption and preterm birth and its clinical subtypes. Fish and shellfish consumption was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (OR=0.65, 95%CI:0.56-0.77). Increasing frequency of fish and shellfish consumption, compared with no fish and shellfish consumption, were associated with decreasing odds of preterm birth: for ≤ 1 time/ week, OR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.63-0.89); for ≥2 times a week, OR = 0.57 (95% CI:0.48-0.68). The P for trend was 0.023. Besides, increasing weekly total amount of fish and shellfish consumption, compared with no fish and shellfish consumption, were also associated with decreasing odds of preterm birth: for <350 g/week, OR = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.57-0.78); for ≥350 g/week, OR = 0.57 (95% CI:0.43-0.74). The P for trend was 0.011. Significant trend effect was also seen between fish and shellfish consumption and very preterm birth (P for trend =0.001) and spontaneous preterm birth (P for trend =0.003). Interaction was observed between total fish and shellfish consumption with maternal age (P for interaction=0.041) and pre-pregnancy BMI underweight (P for interaction=0.012). Maternal fish and shellfish consumption was associated with lower incidence of preterm birth. The findings support for the protective role of fish and shellfish consumption in preventing preterm birth and recommend for the national guideline of ≥350 g/week of fish and shellfish consumption among pregnant women.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
Radiocarbon (14C) is an isotopic tracer used to address a wide range of scientific research questions. However, contamination by elevated levels of 14C is deleterious to natural-level laboratory workspaces and accelerator mass spectrometer facilities designed to precisely measure small amounts of 14C. The risk of contaminating materials and facilities intended for natural-level 14C with elevated-level 14C-labeled materials has dictated near complete separation of research groups practicing profoundly different measurements. Such separation can hinder transdisciplinary research initiatives, especially in remote and isolated field locations where both natural-level and elevated-level radiocarbon applications may be useful. This paper outlines the successful collaboration between researchers making natural-level 14C measurements and researchers using 14C-labeled materials during a subglacial drilling project in West Antarctica (SALSA 2018–2019). Our strict operating protocol allowed us to successfully carry out 14C labeling experiments within close quarters at our remote field camp without contaminating samples of sediment and water intended for natural level 14C measurements. Here we present our collaborative protocol for maintaining natural level 14C cleanliness as a framework for future transdisciplinary radiocarbon collaborations.
Almost all hospitals are equipped with air-conditioning systems to provide a comfortable environment for patients and staff. However, the accumulation of dust and moisture within these systems increases the risk of transmission of microbes and have on occasion been associated with outbreaks of infection. Nevertheless, the impact of air-conditioning on the transmission of microorganisms leading to infection remains largely uncertain. We conducted a scoping review to screen systematically the evidence for such an association in the face of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were explored for relevant studies addressing microbial contamination of the air, their transmission and association with infectious diseases. The review process yielded 21 publications, 17 of which were cross-sectional studies, three were cohort studies and one case−control study. Our analysis showed that, compared with naturally ventilated areas, microbial loads were significantly lower in air-conditioned areas, but the incidence of infections increased if not properly managed. The use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration not only decreased transmission of airborne bioaerosols and various microorganisms, but also reduced the risk of infections. By contrast, contaminated air-conditioning systems in hospital rooms were associated with a higher risk of patient infection. Cleaning and maintenance of such systems to recommended standards should be performed regularly and where appropriate, the installation of HEPA filters can effectively mitigate microbial contamination in the public areas of hospitals.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Pneumatic launch systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), including mechanical and pneumatic systems, are complex and non-linear. They are subjected to system parameters during launch, which leads to difficulty in engineering research analysis. For example, the mismatch between the UAV parameters and the parameter design indices of the launch system as well as the unclear design indices of the launching speed and overload of UAVs have a great impact on launch safety. Considering this situation, some studies are presented in this paper. Taking the pneumatic launch system as a research object, a pneumatic launcher dynamic simulation model is built based on co-simulation considering the coupling characteristics of the mechanical structure and transmission system. Its accuracy was verified by laboratory test results. Based on this model, the paper shows the effects of the key parameters, including the mass of the UAV, cylinder volume, pressure and moment of inertia of the pulley block, on the performance of the dynamic characteristics of the launch process. Then, a method for matching the parameter characteristics between the UAV and launch system based on batch simulation is proposed. The set of matching parameter values of the UAV and launch system that satisfy the launch take-off safety criteria are calculated. Finally, the influence of the system parameters of the launch process on the launch performance was analysed in detail, and the design optimised. Meaningful conclusions were obtained. The analysis method and its results can provide a reference for engineering and theoretical research and development of pneumatic launch systems.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
Three-scalar subgrid-scale (SGS) mixing in turbulent coaxial jets is investigated experimentally. The flow consists of a centre jet, an annulus and a co-flow. The SGS mixing process and its dependence on the velocity and length scale ratios of the annulus flow to the centre jet are investigated. For small SGS scalar variance the scalars are well mixed and the initial three-scalar mixing configuration is lost. For large SGS variance, the scalars are highly segregated with a bimodal scalar filtered joint density function (f.j.d.f.) at a range of radial locations. Two competing factors, the SGS variance and the scalar length scale, play an important role for the bimodal f.j.d.f. For the higher velocity ratio cases, the peak value of the SGS variance is higher, thereby resulting in stronger bimodality. For the lower velocity ratio cases, the wider mean SGS variance profiles and the smaller scalar length scale cause bimodal f.j.d.f.s over a wider range of physical locations. The scalar dissipation rate structures have similarities to those of mixture fraction and temperature in turbulent non-premixed/partially premixed flames. The observed SGS mixing characteristics present a challenging test for SGS mixing models as well as provides an understanding of the physics for developing improved models. The results also provide a basis for investigating multiscalar SGS mixing in turbulent reactive flows.
The condition of partial anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the descending aorta could be found in several diseases and should be carefully differentiated. We report an unusual case of anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal basal segments of the left lower lung and another case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration. These two cases were treated successfully by transarterial embolisation using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug. We also set up a diagnostic algorithm to differentiate these diseases from anomalous systemic arterial supply to the pulmonary region. It is possible to make the correct diagnosis using the step-by-step diagnostic algorithm and careful interpretation of chest computed tomography angiography.
ITGB1 (Integrin β1, CD29) is a member of the integrin family and has a role as a major adhesion receptor. Gastric cancer (GC) is an important cause of mortality worldwide, especially in China. As a potential cancer enhancer, the role ITGB1 plays in GC progression remains unclear. In the current study, our assay on the databases of tumoassociated gene expression and interaction found that the high expression of ITGB1 was closely correlated with the poor prognosis of GC patients. To explore the roles, ITGB1 plays in GC progression, and an ITGB1-deleted cell line (ITGB1−/−SGC7901) was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 method. The tumor malignancy-associated cell behaviors and microstructures were detected, imaged, and analyzed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), wound healing, transwell, scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and others. The results indicated that ITGB1 deletion decreased the GC cell proliferation and motility, and inhibited motility-relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia and filopodia, markedly in ITGB1-deleted SGC7901 cells. The analysis of STRING database and western blots indicated that ITGB1 contributes to the malignancy of GC mediated by Src-mediated FAK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Taken together, the results showed that ITGB1 may be a potential targeting marker for GC diagnosis and therapy in the future.