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Dietary Zn has significant impacts on the growth and development of breeding rams. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn source and concentration on serum Zn concentration, growth performance, wool traits and reproductive performance in rams. Forty-four Targhee rams (14 months; 68 ± 18 kg BW) were used in an 84-day completely randomized design and were fed one of three pelleted dietary treatments: (1) a control without fortified Zn (CON; n = 15; ~1 × NRC); (2) a diet fortified with a Zn amino acid complex (ZnAA; n = 14; ~2 × NRC) and (3) a diet fortified with ZnSO4 (ZnSO4; n = 15; ~2 × NRC). Growth and wool characteristics measured throughout the course of the study were BW, average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (G : F), longissimus dorsi muscle depth (LMD), back fat (BF), wool staple length (SL) and average fibre diameter (AFD). Blood was collected from each ram at four time periods to quantify serum Zn and testosterone concentrations. Semen was collected 1 to 2 days after the trial was completed. There were no differences in BW (P = 0.45), DMI (P = 0.18), LMD (P = 0.48), BF (P = 0.47) and AFD (P = 0.9) among treatment groups. ZnSO4 had greater (P ≤ 0.03) serum Zn concentrations compared with ZnAA and CON treatments. Rams consuming ZnAA had greater (P ≤ 0.03) ADG than ZnSO4 and CON. There tended to be differences among groups for G : F (P = 0.06), with ZnAA being numerically greater than ZnSO4 and CON. Wool staple length regrowth was greater (P < 0.001) in ZnSO4 and tended to be longer (P = 0.06) in ZnAA treatment group compared with CON. No differences were observed among treatments in scrotal circumference, testosterone, spermatozoa concentration within ram semen, % motility, % live sperm and % sperm abnormalities (P ≥ 0.23). Results indicated beneficial effects of feeding increased Zn concentrations to developing Targhee rams, although Zn source elicited differential responses in performance characteristics measured.
NeuroStar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective acute treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In order to further understand use of the NeuroStar in a clinical setting, Neuronetics has established a patient treatment and outcomes registry to collect and analyze utilization information on patients receiving treatment with the NeuroStar.
Individual NeuroStar providers are invited to participate in the registry and agree to provide their de-identified patient treatment data. The NeuroStar has an integrated electronic data management system (TrakStar) which allows for the data collection to be automated. The data collected for the registry include Demographic Elements (age, gender), Treatment Parameters, and Clinical Ratings. Clinical assessments are: Clinician Global Impression - Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and thePatient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9). De-identified patient data is uploaded to Registry server; an independent statistical service then creates final data reports.
Over 500 patients have entered the NeuroStar Outcomes Registry since Sept 2016. Mean patient age: 48.0 (SD±16.0); 64% Female. Baseline PHQ-9, mean 18.8 (SD±5.0.) Response/Remission Rate, PHQ-9: 61%/33% CGI-S: 78%/59%.
For the initial 500 patients in the Outcomes Registry, approximately 2/3 patients achieve respond and 1/3 patients achieve remission with an acute course of NeuroStar. These treatment outcomes consistent with NeuroStar open-label study data (Carpenter, 2012). The TrakStar data management system makes large scale data collection feasible. The NeuroStarOutcomes Registry is ongoing, and expected to reach 6000 outpatients from more than 47 clinical sites in 36 months.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
By reducing the number of dimensions that light can propagate in from three down to two, one may gain control over the characteristics of propagation. This control can allow for “Stopped Light” (SL), where wavepackets of light are slowed down to a zero group velocity. This is achieved by designing planar metal-dielectric structures that are stacked in one dimension allowing for waveguide modes in the other two, and engineering the dispersion relation of these structures. Stopped light structures can be further optimized to reduce their dispersion and increase the number of spatial frequencies supported, which allows for confinement of electromagnetic energy over volumes smaller than the diffraction limit over fixed regions in space. If this electromagnetic energy is confined over a region that provides gain, the question arises, can amplification of this light energy occur? and indeed can a regime of lasing be entered into? We show that stopped light lasing is indeed possible, despite there being no resonant cavity in 2d to confine the light, and explore the properties of this new type of laser.
Creating and implementing effective tools for navigating the regulatory process is becoming increasingly important to the success of simple to complex projects, particularly those in urban settings. To guide a project through the planning and permitting processes, a skilled and coordinated team equipped with a practical and easily implementable toolkit is required. Tools must be integrated into the design development phase of a project and throughout the permitting phase to adequately meet complex regulatory requirements and begin the project’s construction in a timely and cost-effective manner. This article discusses the importance of defining a project, effective project communication, developing an Environmental Approvals Approach (EAA), and proper project scheduling to improve the environmental planning and permitting processes. The City of Seattle’s Elliott Bay Seawall Project is presented as a case study of these qualities.
Key pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia includes compensatory erythropoiesis, vascular injury and chronic inflammation, which divert amino acids from tissue deposition for growth/weight gain and muscle formation. We hypothesised that sickle mice maintained on an isoenergetic diet with a high percentage of energy derived from protein (35 %), as opposed to a standard diet with 20 % of energy derived from protein, would improve body composition, bone mass and grip strength. Male Berkeley transgenic sickle mice (S; n 8–12) were fed either 20 % (S20) or 35 % (S35) diets for 3 months. Grip strength (BIOSEB meter) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) were measured. After 3 months, control mice had the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) (P < 0·005). S35 mice had the largest increase in grip strength. A two-way ANOVA of change in grip strength (P = 0·043) attributed this difference to genotype (P = 0·025) and a trend in type of diet (P = 0·067). l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation of the 20 % diet was explored, as a possible mechanism for improvement obtained with the 35 % diet. Townes transgenic sickle mice (TS; n 6–9) received 0·8, 1·6, 3·2 or 6·4 % l-Arg based on the same protocol and outcome measures used for the S mice. TS mice fed 1·6 % l-Arg for 3 months (TS1.6) had the highest weight gain, BMD, BMC and lean body mass compared with other groups. TS3.2 mice showed significantly more improvement in grip strength than TS0·8 and TS1.6 mice (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the high-protein diet improved body composition and grip strength. Outcomes observed with TS1.6 and TS3.2 mice, respectively, confirm the hypothesis and reveal l-Arg as part of the mechanism.
Although what drives the abundance and habitat selection of ungulates is a long-standing question, coherent datasets investigating the influences of rainfall, competition and fire on ungulates are unusual. Over 4 y we carried out extensive monthly road transects in Ithala Game Reserve, South Africa, to determine the demographics and habitat occupancy of the region's prevalent grazer (wildebeest) and mixed-feeder (impala). Habitat occupancy was determined using a GIS-based approach. We obtained 8742 sighting records, encompassing 8400 wildebeest and 10071 impala. Annual rainfall did not significantly correlate with population sizes of either species. Fecundity of wildebeest, but not of impala, showed a significant positive relationship with rainfall specifically over the perinatal period (November–December), whilst no significant relationships were found for either species between fecundity and rainfall over the previous year, 2 y, rut (February–April) or height of the dry season (June–August). Impala unexpectedly favoured browse habitats to grassland year round, probably consequent on competition for grass with wildebeest. Dry-season grass flushes attracted both wildebeest and impala. The study emphasized how rainfall, competition and fire regimes may affect differently grazers compared with mixed-feeders.
Vertically aligned graphene was grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane feedstock. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to monitor the plasma species, and Raman spectroscopy was used for characterizing the properties of as-grown vertically aligned graphene. OES-derived information on plasma species, such as C, C2, CH, and H, are correlated with the properties of the vertically aligned graphene. Graphene grown at 250 W and 15 sccm exhibited the lowest amount of defects. Although OES peak intensities occurred at the highest power and lowest flow conditions, the OES peak ratios of plasma species had a greater dependence on flow rate and exhibited a saddle point in the atomic C/H ratio corresponding to optimal growth involving the lowest amount of overall defects. Plasma diagnostics provides a valuable approach to optimize growth characteristics and material properties.
Resource depletion and associated increases in interspecific competition are likely to influence differential habitat usage amongst a guild. We tested some prominent theoretical concepts using observed differences in seasonal habitat use amongst the savanna browser guild (elephant, giraffe, impala, kudu and nyala) in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. Herbivore locations (n = 3108) were recorded over 2 y using repeated road transects and, for elephant, GPS collars (187 254 downloads). Densities were calculated using a novel GIS approach designed to be a cost-effective method for annual censuses, but also able to cope with abrupt changes in visibility. Selectivity for (Manly's α) vegetation types, and overlap (Schoener's index) in vegetation type usage were calculated. Resource depletion in the dry season resulted in all members of the guild increasing selectivity for vegetation types (sum of absolute values away from the neutral value for Manly's alpha for the guild: dry seasons 3.97, 5.16; corresponding wet seasons 3.12, 3.68), but decreasing interspecific overlap (80% of Schoener's indices lower in dry season versus wet season). These effects were more marked over the second, more severe, dry season. We found support for the niche overlap hypothesis and the niche compression hypothesis. The Jarman–Bell principle was generally supported, although unexpectedly during the severe dry season elephant showed the most selectivity for vegetation type. The greater the resource depletion, the more relevant interspecific differences in habitat usage become in relation to the differential impacts of guild members.
Research has increasingly established that mesoherbivores influence the regeneration of woody plants. However the relationship between mesoherbivore density and degree of impact, and the spatial component of this impact, has not been well established. Using a novel sampling design, we assessed in iMfolozi Park, South Africa, the impact of impala (Aepyceros melampus) across the full complement of woody species within the home range, evaluating its spatial component and relationship to impala density. We used four GPS collars, in separate breeding herds, and a GIS to detect zones of different density of impala in the landscape, thus defining a fine-grain browsing gradient. We assessed impact on woody recruits (≤ 0.5 m height) across this gradient by means of 1600 random 1 × 1-m quadrats. Densities of woody seedlings, and mean percentage of remaining canopy, were significantly less in areas of high impala density versus low-density areas. There was a significant correlation between increasing impala density and decreasing density of favoured woody recruits. We propose a hypothesis of impala-induced patch dynamics. It seems likely that the ubiquitous impala may create and sustain a shifting mosaic of patches, and thus function as a key determinant of landscape heterogeneity.
To clarify the potential influence of different browsers in the same guild on woody vegetation, dietary overlap and separation between elephant, giraffe, kudu, nyala and impala was assessed in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. Woody species browsed, browsing heights, plant-parts browsed and browsing versus grazing were recorded over 2 y by direct observation. We obtained 3068 browse records. Niche breadth (Levins' measure) and overlap (Schoener's index) in species browsed and browsing heights were calculated. Annual and seasonal differences in these measurements, plant-part use and browsing versus grazing were assessed. Elephant utilized the largest number (n = 78) of different woody plant species. Overlap in species browsed was lower between elephant and other browsers than amongst the latter. Seasonal rainfall influenced the range of woody plants utilized, niche breadth in terms of species browsed and browsing versus grazing. Marked resource depletion caused elephant, contrary to theoretical predictions, to narrow niche breadth in terms of species browsed. However, resource depletion rarely had a significant effect on interspecific overlap in species browsed or overlap in browsing heights, on actual browsing heights or plant-parts utilized. A small suite (n = 8) of woody species formed the core diet of all guild members, implying the potential for synergistic impacts by guild members on these species and for competition between populations of different guild members.
The American healthcare system has several types of providers, leading to plethora of minisystems. Working with each of these systems provides specific issues of definition, training and delivery of services. In spite of large proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP) being devoted to healthcare delivery, approximately one-sixth of the population is uninsured and has access only to emergency treatments. This chapter provides a historical account of development of the healthcare system in the United States and the role of various reports and organizations in defining medical professionalism. Changes in organized medicine in response to the demands of society and changing public expectations have led to revisit the components of medical professionalism. The chapter focuses on the broad aspect of medical professionalism. It reviews how medical professionalism has evolved to its present state in the United States and makes recommendations for its ongoing survival.