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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on lameness. In all, 80 dairy origin bulls were blocked according to live weight and breed into 20 groups, and randomly allocated within groups to one of four treatments. The floor types studied were fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and then moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and then moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). The total duration of the study was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. During the growing period, there was a tendency for bulls accommodated on CS to have a higher locomotion score compared with those accommodated on RS (P=0.059). However, floor type had no significant effect on locomotion score during the finishing period. There was also no significant effect of floor type on digital dermatitis during both the growing or finishing period. Floor type had no significant effect on swelling at the leg joints at the end of the finishing period. Bulls accommodated on RS had the least probability of bruised soles during both the growing and finishing period (P<0.01). Growing bulls accommodated on CS had significantly greater front heel height net growth compared with those accommodated on RS (P<0.05). However, bulls accommodated on RS had a tendency to have greater front toe net growth compared with those accommodated on CS (P=0.087). Finishing bulls accommodated on CS-RS had the greatest front toe net growth (P<0.001). Heel height net growth was greatest in bulls accommodated on CS-S (P<0.001). Floor type had no significant effect on mean maximum hoof temperature during the growing period. Finishing bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower mean maximum hoof temperature compared with those accommodated on any other floor type (P<0.001). The study concluded that rubber flooring is a suitable alternative to fully slatted flooring, reducing the prevalence of bruised soles. Despite greater toe net growth in bulls accommodated on rubber flooring, there was no effect of floor type on locomotion score, suggesting that increased toe net growth does not adversely affect walking ability. In addition, although mean maximum hoof temperature was lowest in bulls accommodated on straw bedding, there was no evidence to suggest this is indicative of improved hoof health.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. Cattle were randomly assigned within blocks to one of four floor type treatments, which included fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). Bulls were offered ad libitum grass silage supplemented with concentrates during the growing period. During the finishing period, bulls were offered concentrates supplemented with chopped barley straw. There was no significant effect of floor type on total dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio, daily live weight gain or back fat depth during the growing and finishing periods. Compared with bulls accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower straw DMI (P<0.01). Although bulls accommodated on CS and CS-S were significantly dirtier compared with those accommodated on RS and CS-RS on days 50 (P<0.05) and 151 (P<0.01), there was no effect of floor type on the cleanliness of bulls at the end of the growing and finishing periods. There was also no significant effect of floor type on carcass characteristics or meat quality. However, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a tendency for less channel, cod and kidney fat (P=0.084) compared with those accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS. Overall, floor type had no effect on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics or meat quality of growing or finishing beef cattle.
We present techniques for obtaining large (∼100 L STP) samples of ancient air for analysis of 14C of methane (14CH4)and other trace constituents. Paleoatmospheric 14CH4 measurements should constrain the fossil fraction of past methane budgets, as well as provide a definitive test of methane clathrate involvement in large and rapid methane concentration ([CH4]) increases that accompanied rapid warming events during the last deglaciation. Air dating to the Younger Dryas–Preboreal and Oldest Dryas–Bølling abrupt climatic transitions was obtained by melt extraction from old glacial ice outcropping at an ablation margin in West Greenland. The outcropping ice and occluded air were dated using a combination of δ15N of N2, δ18O of O2, δ18Oice and [CH4] measurements. The [CH4] blank of the melt extractions was <4 ppb. Measurements of δ18O and δ15N indicated no significant gas isotopic fractionation from handling. Measured Ar/N2, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the samples indicated no significant contamination from ambient air. Ar/N2, Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar ratios in the samples were used to quantify effects of gas dissolution during the melt extractions and correct the sample [CH4]. Corrected [CH4] is elevated over expected values by up to 132 ppb for most samples, suggesting some in situ CH4 production in ice at this site.
We present a new method developed for measuring radiocarbon of methane (14CH4) in ancient air samples extracted from glacial ice and dating 11,000–15,000 calendar years before present. The small size (∼20 μg CH4 carbon), low CH4 concentrations ([CH4], 400–800 parts per billion [ppb]), high carbon monoxide concentrations ([CO]), and low 14C activity of the samples created unusually high risks of contamination by extraneous carbon. Up to 2500 ppb CO in the air samples was quantitatively removed using the Sofnocat reagent. 14C procedural blanks were greatly reduced through the construction of a new CH4 conversion line utilizing platinized quartz wool for CH4 combustion and the use of an ultra-high-purity iron catalyst for graphitization. The amount and 14C activity of extraneous carbon added in the new CH4 conversion line were determined to be 0.23 ± 0.16 μg and 23.57 ± 16.22 pMC, respectively. The amount of modern (100 pMC) carbon added during the graphitization step has been reduced to 0.03 μg. The overall procedural blank for all stages of sample handling was 0.75 ± 0.38 pMC for ∼20-μg, 14C-free air samples with [CH4] of 500 ppb. Duration of the graphitization reactions for small (<25 μg C) samples was greatly reduced and reaction yields improved through more efficient water vapor trapping and the use of a new iron catalyst with higher surface area. 14C corrections for each step of sample handling have been determined. The resulting overall 14CH4 uncertainties for the ancient air samples are ∼1.0 pMC.
Background: The ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat severe childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathies, such as Infantile Spasms (IS). Unfortunately, limited resources for KD initiation result in treatment delays. We ask if earlier KD treatment of early-onset drug-resistant epilepsy results in better seizure outcomes. Methods: Children who started KD before age 4 years between 2000-present at SickKids Hospital were identified. Six-month seizure outcome was calculated as percent of pre-diet baseline seizure frequency (BSF). Results: 67 children were identified. 30 (44.8%) started KD <2 years old, 37 (55.2%) started KD 2-4 years old. Among <2 years old group, 83.3% achieved 50% reduction in BSF and 36.7% achieved 90% reduction. Among 2-4 year old group, 62.2% achieved 50% reduction in BSF and 24.3% achieved 90% reduction. 38 children had a history of IS; 17 with IS at diet initiation and 21 with past history of IS. 41.2% of the spasms cohort achieved 90% reduction in BSF, compared to 23.8% of the post-spasms cohort. Conclusions: KD was more effective when started before age 2 years than 2-4 years, and more effective in children with IS than in children with past history of IS. A rapid protocol for KD initiation in young infants and children may improve long-term outcomes
We present the first results from multi-site observations of the δ Scuti star XX Pyx (CD–24°7599). The observations were carried out as the 17th run of the Delta Scuti Network. We collected 583 hr of B, V time-series photometry, resulting in a detection level (4σ) in the amplitude spectrum of 0.5 mmag. We detect 6 new pulsation frequencies, bringing the total number of frequencies known in this star up 19.
The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3–BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease.
The excavations of the cemetery groups at Balneaves, Loanleven and Park of Tongland facilitate an examination of many aspects of Bronze Age burial practices in Scotland. They are notable as much for the differences in burial ritual they imply as for the very narrow chronological period in which they were used. The three sites produced a total of seventeen 14C dates, two of which are aberrant, with means of the remaining fifteen falling within a period of 250 years (3370–3610 bp in radiocarbon years). The excavations were sponsored by Historic Scotland (formerly Historic Buildings and Monuments, Scotland).
At Balneaves, a penannular ditch enclosed sixteen features, including a group of seven pits with cremation burials, four of which were associated with a distinctive assemblage of collared urns. The cremated bone was well preserved. At least one large standing stone had been erected on the site, and this was buried in the medieval period.
At Loanleven, only a segment of the enclosing ring-ditch survived, within which were four cists, two containing inhumations and two cremations, one of the latter (Cist 2) associated with a fragment of a food vessel. A decorated slab, in so-called ‘Passage Grave Style’, was recovered from Cist 1, and the same cist produced palynological evidence for grave furnishings in the form of a mat of plant material which probably underlay the body. 14C dates give a terminus ante quem of 3620±50 bp (GU–2543) for the re-use of the decorated slab, and a terminus post quem of 3410±50 bp (GU–2542) for the food vessel grave.
Park of Tongland, regarded as a Four-Poster stone circle, was excavated after the fall of a standing stone. It was shown to be of multi-period construction, consisting of a cairn which overlay seven pits containing fragmentary cremation burials, two associated with collared urns. The standing stones may not all have been erect at the same time. A series of 14C dates fell within the range of 1480–1530 bc.
An archaeological evaluation and excavation were carried out prior to a housing development in 1992, at Bramcote Green, in the London Borough of Southwark. Up to 3 m of organic rich, alluvial clay silts were deposited during the late Glacial period between about 12,000 BP and 9000 BP. A wide, shallow channel flowing south towards the Thames cut through the clay silts during the early Holocene and was filled with a series of clay and peat layers. Between 6000 BP and 4000 BP fast moving water channels formed on the marshy ground on the east side of the site and broader channels on the sand and gravel outcrop on the west side of the site. A subsequent rise in water levels, possibly seasonal, deposited inorganic muds across most of the site until c. 3500 BP. Over the filled-in channel were laid two phases of a wooden trackway which may have been laid across the marsh between high ground to the south and Bermondsey Island to the north. The earlier trackway consisted of two parallel lines of alder logs held in place by alder stakes. The second consisted of a single line of oak logs with alder stakes along one side. Radiocarbon dating of the second trackway places it in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The site was covered by a thick layer of peat dated to the Late Bronze Age.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Except for a single case report, musical ear syndrome in cochlear implantees has not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence and nature of musical ear syndrome among adult cochlear implant patients, as well as the effect on their emotional well-being.
Study design, patients and intervention:
A cross-sectional survey of patients aged 18 years and above who had received cochlear implants for profound hearing loss between 1997 and 2010.
Of the 82 patients studied, 18 (22 per cent) were found to have experienced musical ear syndrome. Seven and 11 patients had musical ear syndrome prior to and after cochlear implantation, respectively. The character of musical ear syndrome symptoms was described as instrumental music (n = 2), singing (6) or both (10). Fourteen patients reported an adverse emotional effect, with three expressing ‘intolerance’.
In this study, 22 per cent of cochlear implantees experienced musical ear syndrome. These symptoms affected patients' emotional state, but most coped well. Musical ear syndrome can occur prior to and after cochlear implantation.
The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey (HOPS) has observed 100 deg2 of the Galactic plane, using the Mopra radio telescope to search for emission from multiple spectral lines in the 12-mm band (19.5–27.5 GHz). Perhaps the most important of these spectral lines is the 22.2-GHz water-maser transition. We describe the methods used to identify water-maser candidates and subsequent confirmation of the sources. Our methods involve a simple determination of likely candidates by searching peak emission maps, utilising the intrinsic nature of water-maser emission, spatially unresolved and spectrally narrow-lined. We estimate completeness limits and compare our method with results from the duchamp source finder. We find that the two methods perform similarly. We conclude that the similarity in performance is due to the intrinsic limitation of the noise characteristics of the data. The advantages of our method are that it is slightly more efficient in eliminating spurious detections and is simple to implement. The disadvantage is that it is a manual method of finding sources and so is not practical on datasets much larger than HOPS, or for datasets with extended emission that needs to be characterised. We outline a two-stage method for the most efficient means of finding masers, using duchamp.
An analysis of a cluster of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-l-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (NDMl-Kp) and a retrospective case-cohort analysis of risk factors for acquisition in contacts of NDM1-Kp-positive patients.
A 1,100-bed Canadian academic tertiary care center.
Two index patients positive for NDMl-Kp as well as 45 contacts (roommates, ward mates, or environmental contacts) were investigated.
Retrospective chart reviews of all patients colonized or infected with NDM1-Kp as well as contacts of these patients were performed in order to describe the epidemiology and impact of infection prevention and control measures. A case-cohort analysis was conducted investigating 45 contacts of NDM1-Kp-positive patients to determine risk factors for acquisition of NDM1-Kp. Rectal swabs were screened for NDMl-Kp using chromogenic agar. Presence of blaNDM-1 was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Clonality was assessed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction enzyme XbaI.
Two index cases carrying NDM1-Kp with different PFGE patterns were identified. Nosocomial transmission to 7 patients (4 roommates, 2 ward mates, and 1 environmental contact) was subsequenüy identified. Risk factors for acquisition of NDM1-Kp were a history of prior receipt of certain antibiotics (fluoroquinolones [odds ratio (OR), 16.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-58.8); P = .005], trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [OR, 11.3 (95% CI, 1.84-70.0); P = .01], and carbapenems [OR, 16.8 (95% CI, 1.79-157.3); P = .04]) and duration of exposure to NDM1-Kp-positive roommates (26.5 vs 6.7 days; P< .001).
Two distinct clones of NDM1-Kp were transmitted to 7 inpatient contacts over several months. Implementation of contact precautions, screening of contacts for NDM1-Kp carriage, and attention to environmental disinfection contributed to the interruption of subsequent spread of the organism. The appropriate duration and frequency of screening contacts of NDMl-Kp-positive patients require further study.
We study the relationship between the H2 and CO abundances in simulated molecular clouds using a fully dynamical model of magnetized turbulence coupled to a detailed chemical network. We find that the CO-to-H2 conversion factor for a given molecular cloud, the so-called X-factor, is determined primarily by the mean extinction of the cloud, rather than by its metallicity. Our results explain the discrepancy observed in low metallicity systems between cloud masses derived from CO observations and other techniques such as infrared emission, and predict that CO-bright clouds in low metallicity systems should be systematically larger and/or denser than Milky Way clouds.
Over the past 3 years, we have conducted a survey of 100 square degrees of the southern Galactic plane with the Mopra radiotelescope (HOPS). The survey includes observations of multiple spectral lines in the 12 mm band, with the most important being the water maser transition at 22.2 GHz and the non-metastable inversion transitions of ammonia. We report on initial results from HOPS, including the detection of 540 water masers, about two-thirds of which appear to be new detections. We also find widespread emission in the NH3 (1,1) line, as well as detec tions in the NH3 (2,2), (3,3), (6,6) and (9,9) lines.
The interaction of group III Metal clusters with the underlying III-V compound semiconductor substrate is examined. Specifically, both In and Ga on InP and GaAs (001) are discussed. Two Methods of obtaining an excess concentration of the group III Metal are treated: thermal decomposition in UHV where preferential group V dissociation and vaporization leaves a supersaturation of metal and Knudsen cell deposition in an MBE system. It is shown that the resulting morphologies for all cases are attributable to significant cluster/substrate interactions.
Current ramp tests are performed in a number of experiments to check their validity as an in-line monitoring tool for electromigration evaluation. We discuss our various findings from a series of experiments conducted to validate the usefulness of the current ramp test, using the standard NIST test structure. First, we check whether the current ramp test, using breakdown energy of metal (BEM test), shows the effect of a Ti/TiN underlayer on the reliability of A1–0.5wt%Cu unpassivated interconnects. The second experiment compares current ramp testing with fuse testing. Next we check if current ramp testing gives any indication of interconnect quality following different stages of our sputtering process, and in particular different degas temperatures. The last experiment tries to correlate the breakdown energy obtained from current ramp testing with the lifetime obtained from conventional long term electromigration testing of different combinations of line stack and line stack dimensions. From the results of the experiments, we conclude that current ramp testing using the breakdown energy of metals cannot be used quantitatively for electromigration evaluation using conventional NIST test structures.