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GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
We carried out a pivot experiment to select distant luminous late-type stars on the basis on their 2MASS and GLIMPSE photometry. Low-resolution infrared spectra enabled us to measure the equivalent widths (EWs) of their CO band-heads at 2.293 μm, and to confirm an extraordinarily high detection rate of red supergiants (RSGs), i.e. 61% (Messineo et al. (2016)).
We conducted infrared spectroscopic observations of bright stars in the direction of the molecular clouds W33 and GMC G23.3 − 0.3. We compared stellar spectro-photometric distances with parallactic distances to these regions, and we were able to assess the association of the detected massive stars with these molecular complexes. The spatial and temporal distributions of the detected stars enabled us to locate sources of ionizing radiation and to gather precise information on the star formation history of these clouds. The studied clouds present different distributions of massive stars.
This report summarizes epidemiological data on nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. NE cases identified in the period 1997–2013 were investigated in parallel with the hantavirus antigen prevalence in small rodents in the study area. A total of 13 930 NE cases were documented in all but one district of Tatarstan, with most cases located in the central and southeastern districts. The NE annual incidence rate exhibited a cyclical pattern, with the highest numbers of cases being registered once in every 3–5 years. The numbers of NE cases rose gradually from July to November, with the highest morbidity in adult males. The highest annual disease incidence rate, 64·4 cases/100 000 population, was observed in 1997, with a total of 2431 NE cases registered. NE cases were mostly associated with visiting forests and agricultural activities. The analysis revealed that the bank vole Myodes glareolus not only comprises the majority of the small rodent communities in the region, but also consistently displays the highest hantavirus prevalence compared to other small rodent species.
Our recent efforts using primarily nanodiamonds as lubricant additives are discussed. For traditional high performance engine oils, our results show a reduction in friction for steel surfaces for both laboratory experiments under controlled conditions and in a pilot study of passenger cars under typical driving conditions. Examination of the surfaces suggests that surface polishing at the sub-micron scale may be responsible for these results. A separate set of experiments using a quartz crystal microbalance to measure dissipation and drag due to friction has shown that when added to water the charge of the nanodiamond acquired from surface functionalization can have a large influence on uptake and friction at the water-metal interface. More importantly, these results suggest the possibility of creating nanodiamonds with controllable frictional drag at the solid-liquid interface through surface processing. Companion simulation results for nanodiamonds in water sliding between diamond surfaces are also presented. Future possibilities for further understanding and tuning the properties of nanodiamonds as lubricant additives through synergistic experiments and modeling are also discussed.
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.
The well-known recurrent nova T Pyx has brightened by 7 magnitudes, starting on 2011 April 14, its first eruption since 1966. T Pyx is unique amongst recurrent novæ in being surrounded by a nebula formed of material ejected during previous eruptions. The latest eruption therefore offers the rare opportunity to observe a light echo sweeping through the existing shell, and a new one forming. The sudden exposure of the existing shell to high-energy light is expected to result in a change of the dust morphology as well as in the part destruction of molecules. We observe this process in the near- and mid-IR during several epochs using ESO's VLT instruments Sinfoni, Visir and Isaac. Unfortunately, in the data analysed so far we only have a tentative detection in Brα from the shell, so might in the end have to be content with upper limits for the emission from the various molecular bands and ionised lines.
The paper presents experimental investigation of flow of dusty plasma medium formed by macroparticles in argon plasma. The dependences of the coefficient of shear viscosity of such liquid on the external force causing the flow of dusty plasma liquid and on the pressure of plasma-generating gas are studied. It is found that the viscosity of the dusty plasma medium decreases with increasing shear stress and increases with increasing pressure of buffer gas. An experimental investigation of the dynamics of macroparticles in an unperturbed liquid dusty plasma medium as a function of coupling parameter is performed; in so doing, formations of particles whose motion is correlated are observed in the region of high values of coupling parameter. It is assumed that the non-Newtonian pattern of dusty plasma liquid may be due to the emergence of crystal-like dusty plasma clusters in the ‘liquid’ phase. An experimental investigation of a crystalline dusty plasma structure under the effect of laser radiation is performed; in so doing, a macroscopic flow of the crystalline dusty plasma structure is observed under the effect of shear stress. The mechanism of formation and subsequent annihilation of edge misfit dislocations is observed and the threshold pattern of such flow is established; the threshold value of power of laser radiation is determined.
We present results of a project aimed at establishing a set of 12 spectro-photometric standards over a wide wavelength range from 320 to 2500 nm. Currently no such set of standard stars covering the near-IR is available. Our strategy is to extend the useful range of existing well-established optical flux standards (Oke 1990, Hamuy et al. 1992, 1994) into the near-IR by means of integral field spectroscopy with SINFONI at the VLT combined with state-of-the-art white dwarf stellar atmospheric models (TMAP, Holberg et al. 2008). As a solid reference, we use two primary HST standard white dwarfs GD71 and GD153 and one HST secondary standard BD+17 4708. The data were collected through an ESO “Observatory Programme” over ~40 nights between February 2007 and September 2008.
In this paper we present a novel method of nonlinear macro model of a cantilever for mixed domain simulation only with SPICE. Based on lumped elements of equivalent circuits a model is developed, which realizes a coupled electro-thermal-mechanical simulation including crosstalk effects. The model is verified with measurement and helps to class and solve crosstalk. With SPICE as electrical circuit simulator the cantilever array could be simulate in conjunction with the excitations and analysis electronics more detailed like the system level models and faster like FEM-simulation.
We briefly describe our on-going investigation of the near-IR luminosity-metallicity relationship for dwarf irregular galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies. The motivations of the project and the observational databases are introduced, and a preliminary result is presented. The 12 + log(O/H) vs. H plane must be populated with more low-luminosity galaxies before a definite conclusion can be drawn.
A detailed neutron powder diffraction study of the atomic structure of α-Bi2O3 at high temperatures using the Rietveld method was performed to clarify the nature of the unusual magnetic behavior and the origin of the high temperature dielectric anomalies of α-Bi2O3 in the temperature interval 300–700 K. Analysis of obtained experimental data shows that there are no evidence of a structural phase transition in α-Bi2O3 between 295 and 660 K. The observed high temperature dielectric anomalies in α-Bi2O3 are evidently governed by changes in the electron subsystem of the bismuth oxide.
Heterogeneity of polyaniline and other conductive polymers in intermediate oxidation states is fundamental problem of physics and chemistry of these ones. Usually only advanced methods may be used for immediate detection of the heterogeneity in the molecular scale range. For the first time we have observed the process of the heterogeneous net-like structure formation in macroscopic scale under the oxidation of the evaporated polyaniline films by aqueous HNO3. and other oxidative agents. Formation of heterogeneous structure is explained in terms of nonequilibrium thermodynamic and chemical kinetics.
Methods of the structure analysis were used to determine the incommensurate structure modulation in a sample of hauyne from Laacher Lake, Germany. The modulation parameter n=0.145, determined using single-crystal patterns, was refined using powder data. An indexing technique for additional reflections (satellites) using a parameter subcell and Miller index main reflections was suggested. Crystallographic characteristics of the hauyne of Laacher Lake are compared with that of hauyne from Sacrafano (Italy) and with lazurtes from Baikal, Pamir, and Afghanistan. We found that the crystal structure modulation can serve as a source of paragenesis information on sulphate bearing sodalte group minerals.
The phase transformation and densification behavior under high power millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radiation of a 30 GHz gyrotron and during fast conventional sintering of nanocrystalline γ-A12O3 powder have been investigated and compared. The powder used for compacts was synthesized from aluminum metal by application of the exploding wire technique in an oxidizing atmosphere. The particle size distribution of this powder has a maximum at about 20 nm. Magnetic pulse technique was applied for the compression of samples up to 80% of the theoretical density (TD). Both mm-wave sintering and fast firing in a conventional electrical resistance furnace enable the densification and a complete phase transformation into α-A12O3 already at a temperature of approximately 1150 %C. The average grain size of the sintered ceramic is in the range of 50 to 100 nm. With mm-waves densification starts at about 50 °C lower temperatures compared to conventional techniques and higher final densities were obtained already at 150°C lower temperatures.
In the paper the development and usage of radiation detection systems based on room temperature semiconductors are described. The detection systems are intended for use by safeguards inspectors to verify nuclear material. Because of their high intrinsic efficiency, these detectors have advantages compared to classical germanium or Nal detectors. Several measurement tasks which cannot be handled in an optimum manner by using standard detectors have been solved. The main problem in the application of room temperature semiconductor detectors is the limitation in the availability of large detector volumes.
Using X-ray structural and transmission electron microscopy analyses, specific features of the phase and structure transformations in armco-iron and steel 45 affected by a high-current electron beam up to 1011 W/cm2 power density have been studied. It was revealed that hardening of steel with martensite structure has a quasi-periodic character that is caused by the action of a shock wave. The action of a shock wave results in formation of a thin layer on the rear side of the samples. The layer is composed of subgrains of ot-ferrite of a regular hexagonal shape with thin layers of graphite on their boundaries.
Using X-ray structural analysis and transmission electron microscopy of thin layers we have studied the mechanism of heat-affected zone formation in as-hardened steel irradiated by a low-energy microsecond high-current electron beam. It has been found that the above zone consists of three characteristic layers. We have analysed the conditions of formation of this layers using thermal calculations.
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