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Georgia vegetable growers produce more than 27% of the nation’s fresh-market cucumbers. To maximize yields and profit, fields must be weed-free when planting. Limitations with current burndown herbicide options motivated academic, industry, and U.S. Department of Agriculture partners to search for new tools to assist growers. One possibility, glufosinate, controls many common and troublesome weeds, but its influence on cucumber development through residual activity when applied before or at planting is not understood. Thus, four different studies were each conducted two to four times from 2017 to 2020 to determine 1) transplant cucumber response to preplant glufosinate applications as influenced by rate, overhead irrigation, and interval between application and planting; and 2) seeded cucumber response to preemergence (PRE) glufosinate applications as influenced by rate, overhead irrigation, and planting depth. Glufosinate applied at 330, 660, 980, and 1,640 g ai ha−1 the day before transplanting caused 11% to 53% injury on sandy, low organic matter soils. Cucumber vine lengths and plant biomass were reduced up to 28% and 46%, respectively, with the three highest rates. Early-season yield (harvests 1 to 4) noted a 31% to 60% yield loss with glufosinate at 660 to 1,640 g ha−1 with similar trends observed with total yield (11 to 13 harvests). Irrigation (0.75 cm) after application and before transplanting reduced injury to less than 21%, eliminated vine length and biomass suppression except at the highest rate, and eliminated yield loss. Extending the interval between glufosinate application and transplanting from 1 to 4 d was not beneficial, and further extending the interval to 7 d significantly reduced injury half the time. When applied PRE to seeded cucumber and combining the data across locations, glufosinate caused less than 7% injury even at 1,640 g ha−1. Seeded plant vine lengths, biomass, and marketable yield were not influenced by the PRE application, and neither irrigation nor planting depth influenced seeded crop response to glufosinate.
Renewed interest in studying auxin herbicides (WSSA Group 4) is increasing as a result of the release of genetically engineered crop varieties that are tolerant to preemergence and postemergence applications of specific formulations of dicamba. Auxin-resistant crops were developed in response to the development of weed species resistant to glyphosate and other herbicides. Research was conducted at multiple field locations in Georgia in 2018 and 2019 to examine weed control when postemergence herbicides were applied to dicamba- and glyphosate-resistant cotton at eight different points in time over a 24-h period. Applications were made at 1 h prior to sunrise all the way up to midnight during the same day to examine the effect of herbicide application timing on broadleaf weed control. Glyphosate, dicamba, and glyphosate plus dicamba were applied at each timing. Visual ratings of weed control were scored at 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after treatment (DAT). Weed control was affected by herbicide application timing. Midnight applications resulted in the lowest levels of control. Sicklepod, pitted morningglory, and prickly sida control was 49%, 38%, and 41%, respectively. Greatest control of all three species (up to 99%) occurred from the noon to 1 h prior to sunset application timings. Orthogonal contrasts of timing of application indicated that weed control was improved with day > night and pre-dawn > midnight.
Glyphosate and paraquat are effective preplant burndown herbicide options for multicrop vegetable production that uses plastic mulch, but problematic weeds such as wild radish, cutleaf evening primrose, annual morningglory, or horseweed may not be adequately controlled with these herbicides alone. The herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba could help control these troublesome weeds prior to planting if they can be removed from plastic mulch and thus avoid crop damage. Treatments included 2,4-D (1,065 and 2,130 g ae ha−1) and dicamba (560 and 1,120 g ae ha−1) applied broadcast over plastic mulch a day before transplanting. Just before transplanting, treatments received either 0.76 cm of water via overhead irrigation or no irrigation. Plastic mulch samples were collected at application and planting to determine herbicide presence using analytical techniques, and cantaloupe and zucchini squash were subsequently transplanted on the plastic beds. Analytical ultra-high performance liquid chromatography revealed that 88% to 99% of the initial herbicide concentration was present at crop planting when irrigation was not implemented. At most, a 1/50 rate of dicamba and a 1/500 rate of 2,4-D was present at planting when overhead irrigation was applied prior to transplanting. Maximum cantaloupe and squash injury from 2,4-D with irrigation was 10% and did not influence plant growth, biomass, or yield. For dicamba with overhead irrigation, cantaloupe injury was 35%, vine lengths were reduced by 24%, and maturity was delayed, whereas squash injury ranged from 9% to 12%, with no influence on growth or yield. Without irrigation to wash herbicides from the mulch prior to planting, 60% to 100% injury of both crops occurred with both herbicides. Zucchini squash was more tolerant to dicamba than cantaloupe. Results demonstrated that 2,4-D can be adequately removed from the surface of plastic mulch with irrigation, whereas a single irrigation event was not sufficient to remove dicamba.
Numerous perennial horticultural crops are grown across the southeastern United States. Blueberry and blackberry (also known as caneberry) are commonly found in roadside stands, promote agritourism via pick-your-own markets, are important for fresh market commercial production in the region, and when processed, provide desirable value added products. Season-long weed control using residual herbicides is crucial for these perennial fruit crops to maximize berry quality and yield. Studies performed from 2012 to 2014 in Lanier and Clinch counties in Georgia evaluated the effects of repeated applications of indaziflam at 35, 75, or 145 g ai ha−1 applied biannually in March and September (five total applications) on growth of ‘Alapaha’ rabbiteye and ‘Palmetto’ highbush blueberry, and ‘Apache’ thornless blackberry. All indaziflam treatments were mixed with glufosinate, and a glufosinate-only treatment was included as a check. Minor leaf chlorosis (<10%) was noted within 30 d after application for all blueberries for all treatments, but this was always transient. Blueberry stem diameter was not different for any treatment, even when indaziflam was applied up to 725 g ai ha−1 over 3 yr as compared to glufosinate alone. There was no chlorosis or stem diameter differences for blackberry noted for any treatment. Indaziflam applied in blueberry and blackberry production provides season-long control of numerous troublesome weed species, without causing injury or negatively impacting crop growth.
Conservation tillage adoption continues to be threatened by glyphosate and acetolactate synthase–resistant Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weeds. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2010 through crop harvest in 2013 at two locations in Alabama to evaluate the effect of integrated management practices on weed control and seed cotton yield in glyphosate-resistant cotton. The effects of a cereal rye cover crop using high- or low-biomass residue, followed by wide or narrow within-row strip tillage and three PRE herbicide regimens were evaluated. The three PRE regimens were (1) pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1 applied broadcast, (2) pendimethalin plus fomesafen applied banded on the row, or (3) no PRE. Each PRE treatment was followed by (fb) glyphosate (1.12 kg ae ha−1) applied POST fb layby applications of diuron (1.12 kg ai ha−1) plus monosodium methanearsonate (2.24 kg ai ha−1). Low-residue plots ranged in biomass from 85 to 464 kg ha−1, and high-biomass residue plots ranged from 3,119 to 6,929 kg ha−1. In most comparisons, surface disturbance width, residue amount, and soil-applied herbicide placement did not influence within-row weed control; however, broadcast PRE resulted in increased carpetweed, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, tall morning-glory, and yellow nutsedge weed control in row middles compared with plots receiving banded PRE. In addition, high-residue plots had increased carpetweed, common purslane, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, sicklepod, and tall morning-glory weed control between rows. Use of banded PRE herbicides resulted in equivalent yield and revenue in four of six comparisons compared with those with broadcast PRE herbicide application; however, this would likely result in many between-row weed escapes. Thus, conservation tillage cotton would benefit from broadcast soil-applied herbicide applications regardless of residue amount and tillage width when infested with Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weed species.
The loss of methyl bromide led vegetable growers to rely more heavily on herbicides to control weeds. Although herbicides can be effective, limited options in vegetable production challenge growers. Identifying new, effective tools to be applied over plastic mulch before planting, for improved weed control with minimal crop injury, would be beneficial. The objective of these experiments was to evaluate the persistence of preplant applications of glyphosate (1,125 or 2,250 g ae ha−1) plus 2,4-D (1,065 or 2,130 g ae ha−1) or dicamba (560 g ae ha−1) over plastic mulch, using analytical techniques and subsequent yellow squash and watermelon response. Glyphosate and 2,4-D were not analytically detected at damaging concentrations on plastic mulch when at least 3.5 cm of rainfall was received after application and before planting. In addition, bioassay results showing less than 10% visual injury for either squash and watermelon, with no growth or yield suppression observed, supported analytical results. In contrast, dicamba concentrations on plastic mulch, regardless of rainfall amount or time between application and planting, remained at damaging levels. Squash yields were reduced by dicamba applied 1 to 30 d before planting, whereas watermelon was more resilient. 2,4-D plus glyphosate applied preplant over plastic mulch can provide an additional herbicide option for vegetable growers. More research is needed to understand the impact of residual activity of 2,4-D when transplants land directly in holes in plastic mulch at the time of application. The relationship of dicamba with plastic mulch is complex, because the herbicide cannot be easily removed by rainfall. Thus, dicamba should not be included in a weed management system in plasticulture vegetable production.
Application timing and environmental factors reportedly influence the efficacy of auxinic herbicides. In resistance-prone weed species such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson), efficacy of auxinic herbicides recently adopted for use in resistant crops is of utmost importance to reduce selection pressure for herbicide-resistance traits. Growth chamber experiments were conducted comparing the interaction of different environmental effects with application time to determine the influence of these factors on visible phytotoxicity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in A. palmeri. Temperature displayed a high degree of influence on 2,4-D and dicamba efficacy in general, with applications at the low-temperature treatment (31/20 C day/night) resulting in an increase in phytotoxicity compared with high-temperature treatments (41/30 C day/night). Application time across temperature treatments significantly affected 2,4-D–induced phytotoxicity, resulting in a ≥30% increase across rates with treatments at 4:00 PM compared with 8:00 AM. Temperature differential had a significant influence on dicamba efficacy based on visible phytotoxicity data, with a ≥46% increase with a high (37/20 C day/night) compared with a low differential (41/30 C day/night). Concentration of H2O2 in herbicide-treated plants was 34% higher under a high temperature differential compared with the low differential. Humidity treatments and application time interactions displayed undetected or inconsistent effects on visible phytotoxicity and H2O2 production. Overall, temperature-related influences seem to have the largest environmental effect on auxinic herbicides within conditions evaluated in this study. Leaf concentration of H2O2 appears to be generally correlated with phytotoxicity, providing a potentially useful tool in determining efficacy of auxinic herbicides in field settings.
Bermudagrass is a major forage species throughout Georgia and the Southeast. An essential part of achieving high-yielding, top-quality forages is proper weed control. Indaziflam is a residual herbicide that controls many broadleaf and grass species by inhibiting cellulose biosynthesis. Research conducted in Tift and Colquitt counties in Georgia determined optimal PRE rates for indaziflam for bermudagrass forage production. Treatments applied at spring greenup of established ‘Alicia’ bermudagrass included indaziflam at 47, 77, 155, or 234 g ai ha−1 PRE, pendimethalin at 4,480 g ha−1 PRE, a split application of indaziflam at 47 g ha−1 PRE followed by the same rate applied POST after the first cutting, and a nontreated control (seven treatments in all). Forages were machine harvested three times each year for each location beginning at least 47 d after treatment (DAT), with final cuttings up to 168 DAT. For all treatments, fresh- and dry-weight yields at each harvest and totals for the season did not differ from the nontreated control. Indaziflam at 155 and 234 g ha−1 did cause minor stunting at 44 DAT, but this was transient and not observed at the second harvest. Indaziflam applied PRE has the potential to provide residual control of troublesome weeds in bermudagrass forage and hay production, with ephemeral stunting at the recommended application rates.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern United States. Previous research identified ethofumesate PRE and phenmedipham + desmedipham POST as herbicides that controlled troublesome cool-season weeds in the region, specifically cutleaf evening-primrose. Research trials were conducted from 2014 through 2016 to evaluate an integrated system of sweep cultivation and reduced rates of ethofumesate PRE and/or phenmedipham+desmedipham POST for weed control in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. There were no interactions between the main effects of cultivation and herbicides for control of cutleaf evening-primrose and other cool-season species in two out of three years. Cultivation improved control of cool-season weeds, but the effect was largely independent of control provided by herbicides. Of the herbicide combinations evaluated, the best overall cool-season weed control was from systems that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Either rate of ethofumesate PRE was less effective than phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Despite improved cool-season weed control, sugarbeet yield was not affected by cultivation each year of the study. Sugarbeet yields were greater when treated with any herbicide combination that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST compared with either rate of ethofumesate PRE alone or the nontreated control. These results indicate that cultivation has a very limited role in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. The premise of effective weed control based on an integration of cultivation and reduced herbicide rates does not appear to be viable for sugarbeet grown for biofuel.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain. Typically, the crop would be seeded in the autumn, then grow through the winter and be harvested the following spring. Labels for herbicides registered for use on sugarbeet grown in the traditional sugarbeet production regions do not list any of the cool-season weeds common in the southeastern United States. Field trials were initiated near Ty Ty, GA, to evaluate all possible combinations of ethofumesate applied PRE, phenmedipham+desmedipham applied POST, clopyralid POST, and triflusulfuron POST for cool-season weed control in sugarbeet. Phenmedipham+desmedipham alone and in combination with clopyralid and/or triflusulfuron effectively controlled cutleaf eveningprimrose, lesser swinecress, henbit, and corn spurry when applied to seedling weeds. Ethofumesate PRE alone was not as effective in controlling cool-season weeds compared to treatments containing phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. However, ethofumesate PRE applied sequentially with phenmedipham+desmedipham POST improved weed control consistency. Clopyralid and/or triflusulfuron alone did not adequately control cutleaf eveningprimrose. Triflusulfuron alone effectively controlled wild radish. In the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 seasons, December-applied POST herbicides did not injure sugarbeet. However, in the 2015–2016 season POST herbicides were applied in late October. On the day of treatment, the maximum temperature was 25.4 C, which exceeded the established upper temperature limit of 22 C for safe application of phenmedipham+desmedipham, and sugarbeet plants were severely injured. In the southeastern United States, temperatures frequently exceed 22 C in early autumn, which may limit phenmedipham+desmedipham use for controlling troublesome cool-season weeds of sugarbeet in the region. Weed control options need to be expanded to compensate for this limitation.
In the southeastern United States, growers often double-crop soft red winter wheat with peanut. In some areas, tobacco is also grown as a rotational crop. Pyrasulfotole is a residual POST-applied herbicide used in winter wheat, but information about its effects on rotational crops is limited. Winter wheat planted in autumn 2014 was treated at Feekes stage 1 or 2 with pyrasulfotole at 300 or 600 g ai ha−1. Wheat was terminated by glyphosate at Feekes stage 3 to 4. Peanut was planted via strip tillage, while tobacco was transplanted into prepared beds after minimal soil disturbance. Peanut exhibited no differences in stand establishment, growth, or yield, and tobacco stand, growth, and biomass yields were not different from the nontreated control for any pyrasulfotole rate or treatment timing.
Vegetable injury and yield loss has occurred when applying halosulfuron to low-density polyethylene mulch (LDPE) prior to transplanting. Research determined vegetable crop response to halosulfuron applied over LDPE mulch from 1 to 28 d prior to transplanting using (1) temperature effects in aqueous solution in laboratory experiments, (2) analytical evaluation of degradation from LDPE under field conditions, and (3) a field bioassay. Halosulfuron stability was evaluated on a thermal gradient table for temperatures at 10 to 42 C for 15 d. Half-life was inversely related to temperatures ranging from 38.5 d at 20 C to 3.2 d at 42 C, with little to no degradation at temperatures of 11 and 15 C. Analytical data indicated that the field half-life of halosulfuron at 26 or 52 g ha−1 applied to LDPE mulch under dry conditions was 2.6 and 2.8 d, respectively. Given the changes in the microclimate effects at the mulch surface by absorption of solar radiation, daily thermal energy quantified halosulfuron degradation (at the same rates) to be 51 and 55 MJ m−2, respectively. At 21 d after treatment (DAT), 90% of halosulfuron had dissipated from the mulch, with none detectable 35 DAT under dry conditions. When watermelon or yellow crookneck squash was transplanted into mulch previously treated with halosulfuron at 79 g ha−1, plant growth and development were equal to nontreated controls as long as there was a 14 d prior to transplant (DPT) interval accompanied by 13.5 cm of rain, or a 17 DPT interval accompanied by 6.2 cm of rain. However, at 79 g ha−1 applied at 9 or 1 DPT in 2013, and 1 DPT in 2014, halosulfuron injured yellow squash and reduced yield and fruit number. Halosulfuron at 79 g ha−1 applied 1 DPT significantly reduced watermelon yield in 2013, which was confirmed by vine length and plant biomass reductions in 2014. Halosulfuron POST controls Cyperus spp. in mulch vegetable production, but time and rainfall are required for dissipation to occur in order to prevent injury and yield loss.
The efficacy of WSSA Group 4 herbicides has been reported to vary with dependence on the time of day the application is made, which may affect the value of this mechanism of action as a control option and resistance management tool for Palmer amaranth. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of time of day for application on 2,4-D and dicamba translocation and whether or not altering translocation affected any existing variation in phytotoxicity seen across application time of day. Maximum translocation (Tmax) of [14C]2,4-D and [14C]dicamba out of the treated leaf was significantly increased 52% and 29% to 34% in one of two repeated experiments for each herbicide, respectively, with application at 7:00 AM compared with applications at 2:00 PM and/or 12:00 AM. Applications at 7:00 AM increased [14C]2,4-D distribution to roots and increased [14C]dicamba distribution above the treated leaf compared with other application timings. In phytotoxicity experiments, dicamba application at 8 h after exposure to darkness (HAED) resulted in significantly lower dry root biomass than dicamba application at 8 h after exposure to light (HAEL). Contrasts indicated that injury resulting from dicamba application at 8 HAEL, corresponding to midday, was significantly reduced with a root treatment of 5-[N-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)methylamino]-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-isopropylvaleronitrile hydrochloride (verapamil) compared with injury observed with dicamba application and a root treatment of verapamil at 8 HAED, which corresponded to dawn. Overall, time of application appears to potentially influence translocation of 2,4-D and dicamba. Furthermore, inhibition of translocation appears to somewhat influence variation in phytotoxicity across times of application. Therefore, translocation may be involved in the varying efficacy of WSSA Group 4 herbicides due to application time of day, which has implications for the use of this mechanism of action for effective control and resistance management of Palmer amaranth.
Sorption and mobility of 14C-bentazon were evaluated using soil solution and soil-thin-layer chromatography, respectively on three Coastal Plain soils. The proportion of bentazon adsorbed, was pH and concentration dependent and ranged between 28 to 47, 31 to 61, and 17 to 68% for the Dothan loamy sand, Greenville clay, and Troup loamy sand, respectively. Bentazon sorption decreased as soil pH increased from 5.4 to 5.8 on the Troup loamy sand, regardless of bentazon concentration. Sorption of 1 and 10 ppm bentazon decreased as soil pH increased from 5.0 to 5.7 on the Greenville clay and 6.1 to 6.4 on the Dothan loamy sand. Bentazon was least mobile on the Greenville clay and mobility increased as pH increased. Mobility of bentazon was greatest on the Troup loamy sand and was not pH dependent. Bentazon mobility decreased as soil pH increased for the Dothan loamy sand.
A series of greenhouse studies examined the effectiveness of PRE- and POST-applied sulfentrazone in controlling purple and yellow nutsedge as influenced by selective tissue exposure. In addition, 14C-sulfentrazone was utilized to contrast absorption and translocation resulting from these exposures. Consistent control with preemergence applications to germinating tubers was obtained with a combined root and shoot zone exposure. Yellow nutsedge was more susceptible than purple nutsedge. Performance of the separate root and shoot zone exposure was soil pH- and nutsedge-species dependent. POST-foliar applications to established nutsedge were more effective when sulfentrazone was allowed to contact the soil surface. 14C-sulfentrazone was readily absorbed by the roots and translocated to the foliage of both species in hydroponic culture.
Field studies were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to compare Weed control, peanut tolerance, yield, and net return from imazethapyr applied alone or in combination with paraquat. Sicklepod and Florida beggarweed were controlled with paraquat early POST followed by a POST application of either paraquat with 2,4-DB or paraquat with 2,4-DB and bentazon. Imazethapyr-based early POST treatments offered no improvement. An early POST application of paraquat with bentazon or imazethapyr was required for maximum control of bristly starbur. Imazethapyr applied alone early POST, with no further treatment, provided optimum yellow nutsedge control. Maximum yield and net return were associated with any paraquat-containing early POST-applied treatment followed by one of the tank mixed POST options.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate soil adsorption and mobility of sulfentrazone. Sulfentrazone is a new phenyl triazolinone herbicide intended for use in soybean. Adsorption was evaluated through a soil solution technique, and mobility was evaluated with soil thin-layer chromatography. Experimental variables included soil, sulfentrazone concentration (adsorption study only), and pH. Adsorption was influenced by all experimental variables; however, pH had the greatest effect. Adsorption generally decreased in response to increasing pH. However, the greatest decrease occurred above the pKa of sulfentrazone (i.e., 6.56). Mobility generally reflected adsorption.
Tank-mixed combinations of pyridate and 2,4-DB were synergistic with respect to sicklepod control and independent with respect to Florida beggarweed control and peanut tolerance in greenhouse studies. Leaf absorption of 14C-pyridate was generally enhanced by the addition of 2,4-DB. Translocation of 14C-pyridate out of the treated leaf did exceed 21% of the amount absorbed across all species, and 14C-pyridate was not affected by the addition of 2,4-DB. Sensitivity of peanut, Florida beggarweed, and sicklepod to pyridate was independent of both adsorption and translocation. Metabolic detoxification of pyridate into a benign metabolite was highest in the tolerant peanut, lowest in highly susceptible Florida beggarweed, and intermediate in slightly susceptible sicklepod. Absorption of 14C-2,4-DB by peanut was increased by approximately 10% with the addition of pyridate. No such increase was observed in either Florida beggarweed or sicklepod. Translocation of 14C-2,4-DB out of the treated leaf was not affected by the addition of pyridate in any of the three species evaluated.
Field trials were conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002 at Tifton, GA, and Plains, GA, to evaluate the effects of simulated imazapic residues on cotton growth and yield. Preemergence applications of imazapic at 1, 2, 5, 9, 18, and 36 g ai/ha were made to four different cotton varieties (two at each location) and included a nontreated control. There were no differences in cotton variety response to imazapic. Each cotton variety responded to imazapic in a similar manner. Analysis of cotton yield as a percentage relative to the nontreated control indicated no difference in variety for location, so data for varieties were combined. At Tifton, cotton injury was exponentially related to imazapic rate with a maximum injury of 44% for 35 g/ha. Seed cotton yields at this location were reduced 0, 6, 6, 14, 16, 34, and 61% at 1, 2, 5, 9, 18, and 36 g/ha, respectively. For Plains, cotton exhibited extreme sensitivity with injury exceeding 70% for imazapic at 5 g/ha and greater than 95% for 18 g/ha. Seed cotton yields at this location were reduced 60% or more from imazapic rates of 5 g/ha and greater. These results indicated that soil type is a key factor in the response of cotton to imazapic.
Sulfonylurea herbicides used in turfgrass—including chlorsulfuron, flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, halosulfuron, metsulfuron, rimsulfuron, sulfometuron, sulfosulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron—are all weak acids, with disassociation constants ranging from 3.3 to 5.2. Sulfonylureas are used at low rates ranging from 4 to 280 g ha−1. Although these use rates put their soil concentration in parts per billion, they still have residual activity with variable persistence. They have limited susceptibility to soil leaching with weak adsorption to soil clay minerals. Sulfonylurea herbicides used in turfgrass have variable soil organic matter adsorption, which is soil dependent. The persistence and activity of these sulfonylureas are affected by soil pH. At soil pH of 7.0 and greater, some of these sulfonylurea herbicides tend to persist for longer periods with half-lives extending into years rather than days. In normal use patterns with soil pH of 7.0 and less, dissipation occurs via chemical hydrolysis and microbial degradation with half-lives ranging from days to months. Overall, sulfonylurea herbicide adsorption is negatively correlated to increasing pH (increased persistence) and positively correlated to increased organic matter (decreased activity).